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BL 2020.S5A23 1677 

The iimiiiiriiiffli r l th il or :The hol y scriptures 

3 1924 023 913 217 

Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 














N. TEUBNEE & CO., 57 and 59, LUDGATE HILL, E.C. 




In offering this volume to the learned public, I think it right to premise 
a few words on the way and the peculiar circumstances under which the 
translation of the Sikh Granth has been made. 

The work was entrusted to me by the India Office authorities towards 
the end of the year 1869, in the expectation that the translation could 
be made at home. But after I had fairly taken up the task, I soon per- 
ceived, that in spite of my knowledge of the modern North-Indian vernaculars, 
which I had formerly acquired in the country itself, and of Sanskrit and 
Prakrit, it was next to impossible to make a trustworthy translation of such 
a difficult, book, as the Sikh Granth proved to be, without native assistance. 
There existed neither a grammar of the old Hindu! dialects nor a dictionary, 
and though I was able to make out many obscure words by dint of careful 
comparison with the modern idioms and the Prakrit, yet there remained a 
considerable residuum of words and grammatical forms to which I could get 
no clue, being destitute of all literary means. 

When I reported this circumstance to the India Office, considerable 
difficulties arose, as the original- plan had to be changed; but it was finally 
arranged that I should go myself to the Panjab, in order to work first 
the. Granth through with the aid of some Sikh Granthis. I started there- 
fore for India towards the close of the year 1870, in the expectation, 
that . all difficulties would be easily surmounted there. But after I had 
succeeded in engaging two Sikh Granthis at Lahore, I was not a little 
surprised, when they declared to me, that the Granth could not be translated 
in the literal grammatical way I desired. I soon convinced myself, that 




though they professed to understand the Granth, they had no knowledge 
either of the old grammatical forms or of the obsolete words; they could 
only give me some traditional explanations, which frequently proved wrong, 
as I found them contradicted by other passages, and now and then they 
could give me no explanation whatever; they had not even a clear insight 
into the real doctrines of the Granth. Other persons, who were recommended 
to me for their learning, I found equally ignorant. I went even to lay a 
number of difficult passages before some Granthis at Amritsar, but was like- 
wise sorely disappointed. Finally I gave up all hope of finding what I 
wanted, as I clearly saw, that the Sikhs, in consequence of their former 
warlike manner of life and the troublous times, had lost all learning; whereas 
the Brahmans, who alone would have had the necessary erudition to lend 
me a helping hand, never had deigned to pay any attention to the Granth, 
owing to the animosity which formerly existed between the Sikhs and the 
Hindu community. 

Thus I was again thrown upon my own resources, and had to find out 
the way through this labyrinth for myself. But though the explanations of 
the Sikh Granthis were in so many cases insufficient or futile, they were 
still of great use to me, as they indirectly helped me to find out the 
right track. 

I was sure in my own mind that, as the language of the Granth had, 
become already obsolete to a great extent, some attempts at some sort of 
lexicography must have been made in the preceding times, and I inquired 
therefore carefully after commentaries on the Granth. At first I was positively 
told that there was no such thing in existence; but in progress of time I 
succeeded in detecting three commentaries, two of which explained in a 
rough way a number of obsolete Hindu! and deshJ (provincial) words, and 
the other a number of Arabic and Persian words, which were received into 
the Granth in a very mutilated form. These commentaries, though very 
deficient, proved very useful to me, and I therefore got them copied, as 
their owners would not part with them. 

I first attempted to write down the translation as I read on with the 
Granthis; but I soon found that this would not do, as I frequently per- 



ceived that I had been misled by them. Nothing therefore remained to me, 
but to read first the whole Granth through, in order to make myself 
conversant with its contend and its style. As I went on, I noted down 
all grammatical forms and obsolete words I met with, and thus I gradually 
drew up a grammar and a dictionary, so that I could refer to every passage 
again, whenever I found it necessary for the sake of comparison. 

After I had gone through the Granth in this wearisome way and pre- 
pared my tools, I returned to Europe in the spring of the year 1872, and 
began to write down the translation for the press. I had thus to do the 
work twice, but I saw, under the disadvantages under which I had been 
labouring, no other way open, if I wished to lay down a solid foundation 
and to give a translation which should be of any scientific value. 

That in many passages, even after all the trouble I have taken, my 
translation may partly prove deficient, I fully allow, and in a first attempt 
on such a vast field, which has hitherto hardly been touched, this will 
appear natural enough to any man, who is conversant with the peculiar 
difficulties of such an undertaking. 

The Sikh Granth is a very big volume, but as I have noted on p. exxi 3 
1. 3, and on p. cxxii, 1. 4, incoherent and shallow in the extreme, and 
couched at the same time in dark and perplexing language, in order to cover 
these defects. It is for us Occidentals a most painful and almost stupefying 
task, to read only a single Bag, and I doubt if any ordinary reader will 
have the patience to proceed to the second Bag, after he shall have perused 
the first. It would therefore be a mere waste of paper to add also the 
minor Bags, which only repeat, in endless variations, what has been already 
said in the great Bags over and over again, without adding the least to 
our knowledge. 

A number of introductory essays has been added to this translation, 
which, I trust, will not be unwelcome to the learned public, as they will 
serve to clear up all those points which may be of interest to science 
regarding the Sikh reformatory movement. 

I have spent seven years on the elaboration of this volume, the task 
proving infinitely more arduous than I had ever imagined, and though I can 



hardly expect that the Granth will attract many readers, the less so, as 
Sikhism is a waning religion, that will soon belong to history,^ yet I venture 
to hope, that my labours will not be in vain. The Sikh Granth, which 
will always keep its place in the history of religion, lies now open before 
us, and we know authentically what their Gurus taught. 

But the chief importance of the Sikh Granth lies in the linguistic line, 
as being the treasury of the old Hindu! dialects, and I hope that the day 
will not be far distant when these hitherto hidden treasures will be made 
available for the furtherance of modern Indian philology by being embodied 
in a grammar of the mediaeval Hindu! dialects. 

As hitherto nothing of the Sikh Granth has been published, I have 
added in the Appendix the original text of the Japj!, which may serve as 
a specimen of the language, and at the same time as a criterion for the 

For this translation of the Granth, as well as for its publication, the 
public is indebted to Her Majesty's Government for India, which, in due 
consideration of the importance of the work, planned its execution and de- 
frayed its expenses. 

The English reader will no doubt detect in this volume many an ex- 
pression that will appear to him more or less unidiomatic. For all such 
shortcomings I must beg his pardon, which he will surely grant, when he 
hears that English is not my mother-tongue, and that I was therefore often 
at a loss how to translate such abstruse philosophical matters clearly and 
correctly into an idiom which, since I no longer hear it spoken, is gradually 
receding from my memory. 


Munich, 23rJ January , 1877. 






Jaitam-SakhT of BIbI Nanak (A.) vii-xlv 

Jastam-Saxhi of Baba NInak (B.) ..... xlvi-lxxvi 


2. Guru Angad . . . . ' lxxvii-lxxviii 

3. Guru A mar-das lxxviii-lxxix 

4. Guru Eam-Das ........ lxxix-lxxx 

5. Guru Arjun Ixxx-lxxxii 

6. Guru Har-Goviwd lxxxii-lxxxy 

7. Guru Har-Bai lxxxy 

8. Guru Hah-Kisast lxxxv-lxxxvi 

9. Guru Teg-Bahadur lxxxyi-lxxxix 

10. Guru Govietd Singh lxxxix-xcvi 



GEANTH cxxii-cxxxviii 




Japji ...... 1-13 

So Daetj 14-16 

So Pukkhct . . . . 16-18 

SoHTLA 18-21 


flanak, I.-XXXIII. . . . 21-40 

Amar-das, XXXIY.-LXIV. . 40-57 

Eam-das, LXY.-LXX. . 57-60 

Arj v un, LXXI.-C. . . . 60-74 


Mnak, I.-XYII. . . . 74-89 

Amar-das, XYIII.-XXY. . . 89-96 

Arjun, XXYI.-XXYII. . . 96-98 

Nanak, Jog! andare . . . 99-101 

Arjun, Pai pae .... 101-102 

Mnak, Pahare .... 103-105 

Eam-das, Pahare . . . 105-106 

Arjun, Pahare . . . . 106 



EFanak, 1 107-108 

Arjun, II.-III 108-111 

Eam-das, Yanjjara . . . 111-112 

Yaks, I -XXI 113-125 

Speech oe the Bhagats. 

1. Kabir, I.-III. ... 126 

2. Trilocan, I.-Y. . . . 126-127 

3. Kabir, I.-IY. . . . 127-128 

4. Bern, I.-Y 128-130 

5. Eavidas, I.-III. ... 130 



Eam-das, I.-YII. . . . 131-134 

Arjun, YIII.-L. . . . 134-152 


Nanak, 1 152-153 

Amar-das, IL-XXXIII. . . 153-180 

Eam-das, XXXIY. . . . 180-181 

Arjun, XXXY.-XXXIX. . . 181-185 

Arjun, Barah maha . . . 185-188 


Arjfun, Din raini . . . . 189 
Yass, I.-XXYII 190-211 


Nanak, I.-XX 212-221 

Amar-das, XXI.-XXXYIII. . . 222-230 

Eam-das, XXXIX.-LXX. . . 231-246 

Arjun, LXXI.-CCXLII. . . 246-314 

Teg-bahadur, CCXLIII.-CCLI. . 314-316 


JNTanak, I.-XYIII. . . . 317-331 

Amar-das, XIX.-XXYII. . . 331-337 

Eam-das, XXYIII.-XXIX. . . 337-338 

Arjun, XXX.-XLIY. . . . 339-349 

STanak, I.-II 349-350 

Amar-das, III.-YII. . . . 350-354 

Arjun, YIII.-XI 355-358 

Bavanakhri, by Arjun, I.-LY. • 358-377 

SukhmanI, by Arjun, I.-XXIY. . 378-424 

Thitis, by Arjun, I.-XYII. . . 424-430 

Eam-das, I.-XXXIIL . . . 430-450 

Arjun, XXXIY.-LIY. . . . 450-458 

Speech oe the Bhagats. 

1. Kabir, I.-LXXIY. . . . 458-481 
Bavanakhri, by Kabir, 1-45 . 481-485 
Thitis, by Kabir, 1-16 . . 486-487 
Yars of Kabir, 1-8 . . . 488 

2. ftamdev 489 

3. Eayidas 489-491 


So dar, by Namak .... 492-493 

Nanak, I.-XXXIX. . . . 493-509 

Amar-das, XL.-LII. . . . 509-516 

Eam-das, LIIL-LXYII. . . 616-521 

Arjun, LXYIII.-CCXXX. . . 521-576 
Teg-bahadur, CCXXXI. . . 575 


Kanak, I. -XXII. .... 577.591 

Amar-das, XXIII.-XXXYII. . 592-600 




Arjfun, XXXVHL-XLIL . . 600-602 

The Pati, by Nanak . . . 602-604 

The Pati, by Amar-das . • . 604-605 



Nanak, I.-V 606-609 

Amar-das, YI.-YII. . . . 610-612 

Eam-das, YIII.-XXI. . . 612-623 

Axjun, XXIL-XXXV. . . 623-634 


Nanak, I.-XX 635-650 

Angad, XXI.-XXIV. . . 650-652 

Speech of the Bhagats. 

1. Kabir, I.-XXXVII. . . 652-665 

2. Namdev, I.-V. . . . 665-666 

3. Eavidas, I.-VL . . . 666-668 

4. Dhanna, I.-JIL . . . 668-669 

5. Shekh Farid, I.-II. . . 669-670 


SLOKS OF KABIE, 1-243 . . 671-685 

SLOKS OF SHEKH FAEID, 1-130 685-694 


Sayaie on Nanak, by the Bhatt 

Kalasu, I.-X. . • . 694-696 

Savale on Angad, by the Bhatt 
Kalasahar, I.-V., by the Bhatt 

Xalu, VI.-X. , . . 697-699 

Savaie on Amar-das, by the Bhatt 
Kalhu, I.-IX., by the Bhatt 
Jalap, X.-XIV., hy the Bhatt 
Xiratu, XV. -XVIII., hy the 
Bhatt Bhika, XIX. XX., by 
the Bhatt Salh, XXI., by the 

_ Bhatt Bhalhau, XXII. . . 700-705 

SLOKSOF TEG-BAHADUB, 1-56 706-708 



Oeiginal Text oe the JapjT * 709-715 




xlviii, n. 5, Devanagari, read: Devanagari. 
lxxx, n. 1, add at the end: Cf. p. cxvi, note 3. 
xciv, n. 1, 1. 2, fsj^, read: f^7>, 
xcv, I. 5 from below, add after IHT^f : 3^- 
xcv, I. 4 from below, JK753J", read: 
xcv, 1. 2 from below, ?f, razrf; 5f. 
civ, n. 1, 1. 4, <4|^<M<, read: ?*i<*\\. 
cxxii, I. 11 from below, 753^, rearf; 75 3^J. 
cxxiii, 1. 5 from below, ^vH-Sl, read: 
cxxxiii, 1. 2 from below, ccxxi, read: cxxi. 
37, u. 4, I. 1, Iffe, rearf.* vfft. 
70, n. 1, 1. 2, *^tN|{^, read: 
93, n. 1, 1. 4, Magar, rearf." Magahar or Mag-har 
(Cf.p.463,n. 1). 

98, n. 3, 1. 1, Alokh, read: Alakh. 

99, n. 2, 1. 1, fif%, read: fi^. 

159, n. 5, 1. 1, fij^lQ, read: fi{<J6|Q. 

175, n. 1, 1. 1, read: 5)fe. 

210, n. 2, 1. 1, Brahman, read: Brahman. 

210, n. 5, 1. 1, Bhagavad-Gita, read: Bhagavad-Gita. 

225, n. 2, 1. 1, TO, read: TO- 


264, n. 3, 1. 1, read: UTR*. 

305, ii. 2, I. 1, *ffcft> read: Iftit- 
311, n. 1, 1. 1, rearf.- nrre. 

319, n. 3, 1. 1, g&TT? , rearf; £<$Wld* 
323, text, L 24, Harichand, rearf.* Haricand. 
323, n. 5, 1. 1, Harichand, read: Haricand. 

323, n. 5, 1. 2, Vishvamitra, read: Visvamitra. 

324, n. 1, 1. 1, Hiranyakashipu, read: Hiranyakasipu. 
335, n. 1, 1. 1, read: 

338, ii. 1, 1. 1, Wrf&> read: ^cUfe 

442, n. 1, 1. 2, SfecST, read: M<£<$[. 

460, n. 2, 1. 1, *Jc)^d> read: M6<£6- 

631, n. 2, 1. 1, JTIpfl , rearf.* HUff. 

* \» • \» 

657, n. 3, 1. 1, Tlf^rf5, read: ufafe. 

663, n. 1, 1. I, insert "which all MSS. exhibit" 

after 1^75 . 
663, n. 4, 1. 1, *§t, mztf ; 
668, n. 4, 1. 1, ^f*rra, ^a^." W^- 
677, n. 1, I. 1, JfS\ 9 reatf; 
691, n. 3, 1. 2, ^F, mztf; sgftr. 





"When I was working my way through the Grranth at Lahore, I felt naturally desirous to obtain some 
details of the life of Nanak, the founder of the religious system of the Sikhs, whose words, as 
preserved in the Sikh Grranth, were so often dark and unintelligible to me, in order to get thereby 
a clearer insight into his maxims and his way of thinking. I found that different accounts of 
the life of Nanak were current among the Sikhs, called Janam-patris or Janam-sdhhis. 1 I com- 
pared different copies, and found that they agreed on the whole, but deviated in minor points, one 
or other story being either added or left out. During my stay at Lahore (1870-72) a Janam-sakhi 
was lithographed with not unfair and in some cases very bold woodcuts. Ey comparing this copy 
with the current manuscripts I found that everything, which appeared to throw a dubious or un- 
favourable light on Nanak, had been left out, whereas other things, which spoke of his deification, 
had been interpolated. More close research soon convinced me that the usual Sikh tradition con- 
cerning- Nanak could by no means be trusted ; I had reason enough to assume that the formation of 
myths about their first Guru had already progressed very far, notwithstanding that his life falls 
altogether within the period of historical light, as among the rubbish of miraculous and often 
absurd stories I could detect very few historical facts which deserved credit. The man, as I 
had him before me in his own words and sayings, as contained in the Grranth, would by no means 
agree with what the miraculous stories had made of him. 

Without mentioning my suspicions to the Sikh Grranthis, who would have considered every 
such doubt on the deity of Nanak as a heinous crime, to be atoned for only by endless trans- 
migrations, I made diligent inquiries as to the existence of older and more trustworthy traditions 

1 ■HAJJlfcfl'j literally a leaf of paper, on which the birth of a child, the year, the lunar date, and the 
configuration of the planets at the moment of birth, are set down. Usually a horoscope, founded on those 
circumstances, is added. The Janam-patri is drawn up by the family Brahman, and serves in India as a 
birth-certificate. *HA4TOTtft evidence or story of the birth (or life) of a person. The words are 
frequently interchanged, though Janam-sakhi usually implies episode or story of the life of a person. 




regarding the life of Nanak. I applied to different persons, who, I had heard, were in possession 
of old GnrmnkhT manuscripts, in order to get Janam-sakhis of Nanak, but all my efforts proved in 
vain, none bnt the usual compilations being forthcoming. 

After my return to Europe in 1872, some manuscripts of the Granth were forwarded to me 
from the India Office Library, for the prosecution of my labours, and to these some other Gurmukhl 
manuscripts were added, in the expectation that the one or the other might prove useful in my 
researches. In looking them over, I found an old manuscript, partly destroyed by wbite ants, the 
early characters of which, resembling those of the old copy of the Granth, preserved at Kartarpur, 
and signed by Guru Arjun himself, at once caught my eye. On the first leaf it contained 
in Sanskrit letters the short title, *TPT3i 11*% fcH^^HslY 3TT» booh of Nanak, referring 
to his birth (or life). The copy had been presented to the Library of the East India House, 
according to the entry on the first leaf, by the famous H. T. Colebrooke, without his being aware, 
as it appears, of the contents of the hook. As soon as I commenced to read the book, I observed 
with great pleasure, that this was a description of the life of iNanak quite different from all the 
others I had hitherto seen. As the characters, so also was the idiom, in which it was composed, 
old and in many words and expressions agreeing with the diction of Guru Arjun. 

After a lengthened examination and comparison of this manuscript with the later Janam- 
sakhis, I am satisfied that this is the fountain, from which all the others have drawn largely : 
for the stories, as far as they are common to both relations, very frequently agree verbally, 
with the only difference, that the later Janam-sakhis have substituted more modern forms for old 
words, which with the progress of time had become unintelligible. This old Janam-sakhl, as 
hinted already, belongs, according to all external and internal marks, to the latter end of the time 
of Guru Axjnn or to that of his immediate successor. The Granth, which Guru Ajjun compiled 
of the writings of his four predecessors and the old famous Bhagats, as well as of his own numerous 
poetical effusions, is cited throughout, without any paraphrase, whereas the later Janam-sakhis 
have deemed it already necessary to add to every quotation from the Granth a paraphrase 
in the modern idiom. 

We are enabled now, by the discovery of this old Janam-sakhl, which is now-a-days, as it 
appears, quite unknown to the Sikhs themselves, to distinguish the older tradition regarding Nanak 
from the later one, and to fix, with some degree of verisimility, the real facts of his life. There 
is no lack, even in this old relation, of many wonderful stories, as indeed might be expected from 
Indiaus, owing to their wild, uncurbed phantasy and the low standard of education among the masses 
of the population; but compared with the later Janam-sakhis, which enter into the minutest details, 
in order to satisfy curiosity, and which have no sense but for the miraculous, however absurd, it 
is relatively sober. 

We subjoin here a brief summary of the life of Nanak according to this oldest authority, in 
order to contrast it with the narrations of the later compilers. 

Nanak was born in the Samvat year 1526, in the month of Vaisakh (= a.d. 1469, April-Hay), 
in a village, caUed Talvandi on the banks of the Ravi (the Hydraotes of the Greeks), not far above 
Lahore. 1 His father's name was Kalu, by caste a Khatri, of the Vedi family or clan, a plain 

1 Talvandi, the birthplace of Nanak, is situated io the Zila (Jj, in Panjabi pronounced f^) of 
Lahore (P anjabi SgK T?), in the Collectorate (3^5=^^) of Sarakpur. The place is now called 
Nanakana (aia«mch); it bas a Gur-dvar and is a place of pilgrimage for the Sikhs. Malcolm (Sketch of 
the Sikhs, p. 7, note 7) is mistaken, in placing the village on the banks of the Bias (Panjabi flpHTOT)* 
called now Raipur. There is in the Jalandhar Duab a place called Tilvandl, near Sultanpur, not far from 
the confluence of the Bias and Satluj (thus this river is pronounced in Panjabi), but it is not the birthplace 
of Nanak. 



farmer, who held also the office of VZ^lJl patvari (a valuer of the produce of the fields) in the 
service of the feudal Lord of the village. 1 

At his birth the whole Hinda pantheoa appeared and announced that a great Bhagat (saint) 
was horn to save the world. 

Of his childhood nothing particular is mentioned, except that he did not play like other boys 
of his age, hut was always occupied in his meditations on the Supreme Lord. 

At the age of seven his father took him to a Hindu school to learn to read and write. 
He is said to have surprised the Hindu schoolmaster by his superior knowledge, the pupil com- 
mencing at once to instruct the master, when the latter gave him a wooden slate, on which the 
letters of the alphabet were written. In proof of this, thirty-four verses from the Granth are 
quoted, inscribed the "wooden slate" (VZt* patti), which Kanak is supposed to have uttered on 
that occasion, but, no doubt, the story was invented in order to account for the verses, as is 
evident from other cases of the kind. 

The further development of Nanak's character is not touched upon, apparently because at 
that time nothing was known about it. One story only is inserted, which tells how Nanak, whilst 
grazing his father's buffaloes, allowed them to break into a cultivated field and destroy the crop. 
When the owner of the field sued Nanak's father for damages, Nanak denied his guilt, and when 
the field was inspected, it was found uninjured. 

The marriage of Nanak, as well as that of his sister Nanakl with Jairam, which to the later 
compilers have offered such an exuberant field, is totally omitted here. It is only briefly re- 
marked that by the order of God two sons were born in the house of Kanak, Lakhmi-das and 
SirT-cand, but that Nanak continued to lead a recluse life. 

Then follows a miraculous story that one day Nanak laid himself down under a tree and fell 
asleep. By chance Rae Bular came there and saw that while the shadows of the other trees had 
travelled round, that of the tree under which Nanak slept remained stationary. This circumstance 
induced Eae Bular to impress on Ealu, who bore ill-will towards his son on account of his dreaming 
propensities, that !Nanak was a great man and that the father was exalted by him; but these 
words made no impression on Kalu's mind, who slightingly answered, that the things of God only 
God knew. The later Janam-sakhis have embellished and enlarged this story by adding another 
miracle, that a large black snake expanded its hood over Nanak in order to protect him from 
the glowing rays of the sun. 

Then it is stated expressly, that Nanak always kept company with Eaqtrs and was averse to 
any earnest labour or oalling, which greatly alarmed his family, who would not recognize his 
divine calling, and especially his worldly-minded father Kalii, whom the narrators seem to take 
a secret pleasure in describing as a miser. His family at last considered him a lunatic and began 
to mourn this calamity. 3 At the instigation of the relatives a physician was called, but he could 
do nothing, Nanak showing himself the cleverer of the two. 

It is very significant, that this whole circumstance is carefully passed over in the later Janam- 
sakhis, as every other point which throws an unfavourable or doubtful light on Nanak. 

At last his parents sent Nanak to Sultanpur, to his brother-in-law Jairam, who held an ap- 
pointment in the commissariat of Navab Daulat Khan. They probably despaired of bringing him 
into an orderly course of life at home; but according to the original text, he was sent by the 

1 Talvandl is mentioned as the property of Rae Bhoe ; the Lord in Nanak's time was Rae Bular, a 
Musalman Rajput of the BhattI family, a descendant of Rae Bhoe. 

2 The original text (p. 26) runs thus: 3f$ *TT<JT If^TH %^fafT STT SFRTT "=f3fe 



order of God. By the good services of his brother-in-law, Nanak also was appointed to the com- 
missariat, and he conducted himself to general satisfaction. His wife and two children he left 
behind at Talvandi, his domestic life being by no means happy, owing, it appears, to his own 
fault, as nothing is reported prejudicial to his wife. At Sultanpur he was joined by a certain 
Mardana, by profession a begging musician of the Musalman persuasion. After his daily work 
he spent his nights with Mardana in praising God, Mardana playing the rebeck, whilst he himself 
improvised verses to the tunes. 

One morning he went to the canal to bathe. Whilst bathing, angels seized him and carried 
him to the divine presence. Here he received the prophetic initiation, a cup of nectar being 
presented to him with the injunction to proclaim the name of Hari on earth. After this 
he was brought back again to the canal, whence he returned home. He was received with 
amazement : for his servant, to whom he had handed over his clothes when entering the water, 
had run home on ^ T anak's disappearance, and spread the news that he was drowned. On hearing 
this intelligence, even the Khan himself is said to have ridden to the spot and to have given 
orders to the fishermen to search with their nets for the corpse of Nanak, but they had been 
unable to find it. 

After this aceident, which somehow seems to be based on a historical fact, Nanak divided 
all he had among the poor, left his house, and turned Eaqlr, Mardana accompanying him. The 
Khan endeavoured to retain a faithful servant, but Nanak stood firm in his resolution. 

The later compilations have given to this story quite a different turn. According to them 
Nanak goes to Sultanpur by the advice of Eae Bular, who can bear no longer Kalu's disrespectful 
treatment of his wonderful son. At Sultanpur he is appointed to the commissariat. But he gives 
alms so abundantly, that Jairam considers it advisable to report it to Kalii, who, in consequence 
of this news, comes to Sultanpur, and sharply enjoins on his son a more parsimonious conduct. At 
Isanak's request his accounts are examined by Jairam, but a considerable surplus appears in his 
favour. In order to aceustom Isanak to economy, his marriage is planned by Jairam at Kalu's 
request, and this is described in full detail. But notwithstanding his married state Nanak 
continues his former habits of giving lavish alms, which leads to domestic quarrels and the 
interference of his parents-in-law. This is very graphically described, the later compilers here 
apparently feeling very sure of the ground under their feet. 

To the story of the bath in the canal, which could not quite be set aside, a different turn is 
given. Kanak's initiation into the Gurusbip is not mentioned (though this is the very turning- 
point of the whole story), as according to these later compilations Ndnok has entered the world 
as Avatar, as the Formless one himself. It is therefore related, that one of the Govind-faqlrs 
advised him to bathe in the river daily, in order to cure himself of a liver-complaint. One 
day Xanak, whilst taking a bath, was lost in the river. On this the rumour was spread that 
]S T anak had been guilty of embezzlement. When he reappeared after three days (it is not even 
hinted where he was during those three days), the Khan ordered an inquiry to be made into 
his accounts, but it turned out that 760 Eupccs were due to him, which Nanak would not 
accept, but taking his discharge retired into the wilderness, leaving his wife and children behind. 

As it appears, Xanak stayed at first in the vieinity of Sultanpur. His first saying, which 
made some noise amongst the people, was: " There u no ffindu and no Musalman" but this 
brought upon him again the charge of madness. At the instigation of the KazI the tfavab Daulat 
Khan summoned hira to his presence in order to interrogate him about this new doctrine. It was 
just the time of noonday-prayer and the Khan invited tfanak to accompany him to the mosque. 
The KazT said prayers, but Kanak, instead of listening devoutly, began to laugh. Prayers being 
over the KazI complained of the irreverent conduct of Nanak. Being called to account by the 
Khan he replied, that he laughed, because the prayers of the KazI were nugatory. Being asked for 


a nearer explanation he continued, that the KazI had left a foal in his courtyard, in which there 
was an open well; and that whilst saying prayers his thoughts were always wandering back to 
the foal, lest it should fall into t^e well. On this the Kazi fell down at Nanak's feet and con- 
fessed that it was true. Nanak rose at once in the estimation of all, and the Khan dismissed him 
graciously. He now commenced wandering about the country, accompanied by Mardana, the 

Up to this point both relations agree, at least in substance, though the later compilations, out 
of love for the miraculous, strive hard to exaggerate everything into the supernatural. But with 
the commencement of the wanderings of'Nanak nearly all points in common cease and the old 
and the later tradition diverge in such a manner that they cannot be reconciled. This proves 
sufficiently, either that very little was known about them or that very little could be said about 
them, as the old Janam-sakhl testifies. The later tradition, which pretends to have a knowledge 
of all the details of the life of Nanak, was therefore compelled to put forth as voucher for its 
sundry tales and stories Bhai Bala, who is said to have been the constant companion of Nanak 
from his youth up, whereas our old Janam-sakhl does not even once mention Bhai Bala, though at 
every new wandering of Nanak it gives the names of his companions. If Bhai Bala had been the 
constant companion of Nanak and a sort of mentor to him, as he appears now in the current 
Janam-sakhis, it would be quite incomprehensible, why never a single allusion should have been 
made to him in the old tradition. 

We will now briefly sum up here, what the old Janam-sakhl has to say about the further life 
of Nanak. 

His first wandering is said to have been to the east. There he came to a certain Shekh 
Sajan, who had built a temple for Hindus and a mosque for Muhammadans. He received all who 
came to him, with ostensible friendliness, but murdered them, whilst sleeping, and plundered their 
goods. Nanak got quickly at the bottom of his rascality and convinced him of his sinful life, which 
brought him to repentance. 

At Dill! he is said to have vivified a dead elephant. But when the then emperor, who had 
heard of this miracle, called on Nanak to kill the elephant and to vivify it in his presence, he 
prudently declined. 

Also Thags, with whom he fell in on his way, he brought to repentance by his firm and 
intrepid conduct. 

Other adventures, which he is narrated to have experienced, are so childish and nonsensical, 
that it is not worth while mentioning them. 

At the capture of Sayyidpur he is reported to have been taken prisoner by the troops of Babar, 
but by a miracle he attracted the attention of Babar, who released him with the other prisoners. 
As Babar conquered the Panjab in 1524, a personal meeting of Nanak with Babar is not impossible, 
but it is not very probable. For Nanak speaks in the Granth several times of the great calamities 
which at that time befell various cities of the Panjab ; Babar also is mentioned by him, but no 
allusion whatever is made to his having come into personal contact with Babar. 

The meetings and verbal contests with other Faqlrs and Shekhs, which are described at full 
length, are in themselves very probable, but in other respects of no importance, except that they 
give some hints to the mental development of Nanak. After some lengthened wanderings Nanak 
retraced his steps to his home at Talvandl. 

His unquiet spirit gave him no rest at home and he soon commenced his second wandering, 
which was directed to the south. The incidents of this period also are of little consequence. 
That on this excursion he should have come to Ceylon (Singhala dvlpa), as is reported, is in the 
highest degree unlikely. The whole story is so mixed up with the miraculous, that it bears the 
stamp of fable on its front. It is based -on altogether erroneous suppositions, the king and 



the inhabitants of Ceylon being represented as common Hindus, the Sikh author' being quite 
unaware of the fact that the popular religious belief there was Buddhism. That Nanak founded 
there a "Sarjgat" (congregation), the order of whose divine service even is detailed, contradicts 
all history, and is an invention of later ;times, when Sikhism had commenced to spread to the 
south. From this tour Nanak is said to have returned to TalvaudI and to have spent some 
time at home. 

His third wandering he directed to the north, where he is reported to have visited Kashmir, 
which is not improbable. 

On this tour he is said to have eaten the poisonous fruits and hlossoms of the Akk-tree 
in a dried state. Nothing remarkable is mentioned on this tour, except that he had a long con- 
versation with a Kashmiri Pandit, which ended in the Pandit's becoming a disciple of Nanak. 
His visit to mount Sumeru, where he is reported to have had a long discussion with Mahadev 
and the chief Jogis, belongs of course to the realm of fiction. 

His fourth wandering he is said to have directed to the west, going on a pilgrimage to 
Mekkah. On arriving at Mekkah, he laid himself down, and by chance stretched his feet 
towards the Ka'bah. The Kazi Buknu-ddln, on observing this, reproached Nanak with irreverence 
towards the house of God. Nanak replied: "Put my feet in that direction, where the house of 
God is not." The Kazi turned the feet of Nanak, but wherever he turned them, thither the 
Ka'bah also turned. On account of this miracle the Kazi kissed the feet of Nanak and had a long 
conversation with him, in which he was, of course, out-argued by Nanak. This hajj, of Nanak is a 
favourite theme with the Sikhs and a whole book has been written about it called zf^ 
The Conversation of Mekkah, which is eagerly read by them. Owing to their credulity and 
utter want of geographical and historical knowledge, no doubt of the reality of this hajj seems to 
have occurred to them, though it is as clear as daylight, that the whole story is an invention 
from beginning to end. 

His fifth wandering Nanak is said to have made to Goraklx-hatari, a place not yet discovered 
by geographers. Of this expedition nothing is reported except a conversation with the eighty-four 
Siddhs, 1 who belong likewise to the realm of phantasy. 

Nanak closed his life at Kartarpur in the Jalandhar Duab, in the bosom of his family, with 
whom he seems to have become reconciled towards the close of his earthly career, though all the 
Janam-sakhls observe a deep silence on this point and only mention the bare fact. When he felt 
his death approaching, he nominated, to the great disappointment of his two sons, his devoted 
servant and disciple Lahaua (or Angad) his successor in the Guruship. He died in the Samvat 
year 1595, on the tenth of the light half of the month of Asu (a.d. 1538, about the 10th of 
October). 2 

This is the sum of all that can be gathered from this oldest source as to the life of 
Nanak. It is a biography containing very little to attract our interest and, mutatis mutandis, 
applicable to nearly every Hindu Faqlr. If more could have been said of Nanak, we might be 
sure, that his devoted disciples, who revered in him the saviour of the world, would not have 
passed it over in silence. The writers of the later Janam-sakhls, to whom this picture of Nanak 
appeared too scanty and mean, did their best to embellish it with all sorts of wonderful tales 
and stories, but in comparison with this older tradition they cannot be held in any account. 

1 Siddha, i.e. a perfect Jogi, of whom generally eighty-four are enumerated, but their names are nowhere 
stated ; they are popularly considered as a kind of demi-gods. 

2 This is the date given by the old Janam-sakhi ; the later compilations give the year 1539; see the 

JANAM-SAKHI of baba nanak. a. vii 

We append here a literal translation of the old Janam-sakhl marked A. Of the current Janam- 
sakhis, which differ from each other merely in minor points, we give only those parts, which 
are of interest for the sake of comparison. This later compilation is marked B. 1 



By the favour of the true Guru ! 

The holy true Guru came to save the world; in the Kali-yug Baba Nanak was horn, the supreme 

Brahm's own devotee. 

By the favour of the true Guru ! 

In Sambat, 1526, Baba Nanak was born in the month of Vaisakh;* in a moonlight night at an 
early hour, while yet about a watch of the night was remaining, he was born. Unbeaten sounds 
were produced at the gate of the Lord. The thirty-three crores of gods paid homage (to the child 
Nanak). The sixty-four Joginis, the fifty-two heroes, the six ascetics, the eighty-four Siddhs, the 
nine Naths, paid homage, 3 "because a great devotee has come to save the world; to him homage 
should be paid ! " 

At that time Xalu, a Khatrl by caste, a Vedl (by clan), was living at TalvandT, a village of Eae 
Bhoe, the BhattT ; there (Nanak) was born. 

When he became big, he began to play with the boys, 4 but the views of the boys and his were 
different. In his spirit he was occupied with the Lord. 

When Baba (Kanak) was five years old, he began to talk of the Shastras and of the Vedas ; 
whatever he says, that he (also) understands; everybody received comfort from him. The Hindus 
say, that some form of a god has become incarnate and the Musalmans say, that some holy man of 
God has been born. 

1 I used for this purpose a Gurmukhi MS. belonging to myself, a MS. belonging to the India Office 
Library, marked *J| Bibliotheca Leydeniana, and a lithographed copy, published at Lahore (1871) with the 

title : Tf7?*r*mft Tnrzrfrft iwrfs* utstt ws^ *5ifo ^jvr?> qdd-H^T 

fivJ<&^ 0 \<ot\ *H-h)tI $ *HWT<J- This book, containing many bold woodcuts, is utterly spoiled in 

the latter half by the maliciousness of the scribe, the letters being purposely so disfigured, that they can no 
longer be read without the help of a manuscript. Large extracts are also contained in the fiftfT $ BTtT ^ 
fSjfEfJlfJj published at Ludihana by the American Mission Press, 1868. 

2 Both Janam-sakhis agree as to the year, but not as to the month ; for according to B (2), he was born 
in the month of Katak (middle of October — the middle of November). The month Vaisakh is middle of 
April — middle of May; his birth took therefore place either in May or November of 1469 a.d. 

3 Compare B (2). 4 See B (3). 



When the Baba was seven years old, Kalu said: "0 Nanak, read!" 1 Then he brought Guru 
Nanak to the schoolmaster. Kalu said: "0 schoolmaster, teach this one to read!" The school- 
master wrote a slate and gave it to him, containing the thirty-five letters (of the Gurmukhi alphabet) ; 
the slate (is contained) in the Bag Asa, Mahala I. 2 The first word he read was: "By the favour 
of the holy true Guru ! " 

[Now follows a quotation of thirty-four verses from the Bag Asa, hut without any translation 
or paraphrase being added to it. After some conversation between the schoolmaster and Nanak on the 
subject of these verses the story continues.] 

The Pandit became astonished and paid reverence (to him), "because this is a perfect one." 
"What comes into thy mind, that do!" Then the Guru Baba went home and sat down. It was 
the order of the Lord, that he did no work whatever. When he sits down, he remains seated ; 
when he goes to sleep, he remains asleep. He associates with Faqlrs. His father Kalu became 
astonished, what would become of him. 3 

(two leaves being lost). Nothing of the field of this one is spoiled. 4 Then the 

Bhatti said: "Sir, my field indeed is laid waste; I am robbed, my field is spoiled. Procure me 
justice, if not, I go to the Turks." Guru Nanak answered: "0 Divan, health (to (thee)! if one 
blade be spoiled or cut off, then answer must be made for it ; but send thou thy own man and 

look!" Then Bae Bular sent his own footmen (a lacuna in the MS.) Not one blade 

was destroyed. Then the Baba made a Sabd; 6 it is written in the Bag Suhi, Mahala I. 6 [four 
verses follow without a paraphrase]. Then Bae Bular called that Bhatti a liar. Nanak and 
Kalu both went home. 

Then came the order of the Lord, that in the house of Guru Nanak two sons should be born, 
Lakhml-das and Siri-cand. But Nanak' s retirement from the world was not given up; Guru 
Nanak going to trees remained (there) retired from the world (MS. p. 21J. 

Then one day the Baba Guru Nanak went and fell asleep in a garden. 7 The day went down 
again and he did not rise. At that time Bae Bular, the Bhatti chief, was occupied in this business 
(of his chieftainship, i.e. measuring land). Coming and coming when he entered the garden, some 
one had fallen asleep under a tree. But when he looked on, he saw, that the shade of the other 
trees had gone, and that the shade of this tree was remaining. Bae Bular said: "Awaken him!" 
When he was raised, it was found, that it was the son of Kalu. Then Bae Bular said: "Friends, 
we have seen a wonderful thing, and look also at this, it is not empty ! " 8 Then Bae Bular went 
home and sent for Kalu, and said to him : " Kalu, don't be saying to this thy son : 'Eie upon thee, 
die ! ' he is a great man, my town is a sacrifice to him. Kalu, thou hast become exalted and I also 
am exalted, in whose town this one has been born." Kalu said: "The things of God even God 
knows," and went home. 

Guru Nanak kept company with Eaqirs, with any one (else) he did not converse. The whole 
family was grieved thereby, and said : "He has become mad." Then came the mother of Guru Nanak 

1 .SeeB(3). 

3 Mahala I. designates the writings of Nanak, Mahala II. those of Angad, etc. Every piece is thus 
marked in the Granth. The patti (or wooden slate) is found in the Rag Asa (Lahore lithographed edition of 
the Granth), p. 477 sqq. 

3 Compare B (3), at the end. 

4 See B. (4), where the same story is related. 

5 The Caupada and Dupada are called by one common name ^fcj^ , Sabd. 
8 See Rag Suhi, Sabd, Mah. I. v. 7. 

7 See B (5). 8 That is : it forebodes something important 



and said to him : " Son, it does not behove thee, to sit with Eaqirs, thou hast a house and family, 
daughters 1 and sons, do some work ! leave off making continually good words ! the people laugh 
at us, that the son of Kalu has become mad." Such words his mother spake, but they made no 
impression whatever on the heart of Nanak. 

He went away again and fell down. As he had fallen, so he passed four days. When she 
had ceased rubbing him, 8 the wife of the Baba came to her mother-in-law and said: "0 mother- 
in-law, how canst thou sit down, whose son has fallen ? It is now the fourth day, he does neither 
eat nor drink." Then his mother came and said: " Son, it does not become thee to fall down; 
eat and drink something and look after thy fields and crops ! be a little attentive to thy work ! 
thy whole family is grieved. And, son, what does not please thee, that do not, we will not say 
anything to thee: why hast thou gone away again?" Then Kalu heard of it and came. He said: 
"Son, what are we commanding thee? but to do work is good. Though the sons of Khatris have 
money, yet they do (some) work. Son, our field out there stands ripe (for the sickle) and (that) 
it may not be wasted, how, if thou wouldst be standing in it? then the people will say: 'the son 
of Kalu has become a good son.' The field is with its owners, 0 son!" Then Guru Nanak said: 
" 0 father, a private field is ploughed by us, that we take care of. The plough is carried over 
it by us, seed is sown, a hedge made round it ; day and night we stand and protect it. 0 father, 
we do not take care of our own field, what knowledge have we of another's (field)?" Theu Kalu 
became astonished and said: "Look, people, what this one is saying!" Then Kalii said: "When 
hast thou cultivated a private field? Give up such foolish talk; but if it please thee, I will give 
thee at the next harvest a new field under cultivation, it will be seen, how thou wilt make it 
ripen and eat!" Guru Nanak answered: "Father, we have now cultivated a field and it has 
grown up well, it looks quite well." Kalu said : " Son, I have not seen any field of thine, what 
dost thou say?" Then Guru Nanak answered: "Father, this field has been cultivated by us, of 
which thou wilt hear." Then Baba Nanak recited one Sabd, in the Kag Sorathi it is contained, 
Mahala I. 3 [now follows the Sabd with one Eahau]. Then the Baba said again: "0 father: our field 
is sown, as thou hast heard. Our field is sown and stands and has grown up. We have so much 
reliance on this field, that the whole government tax will fall off, it will make no further demand. 
Sons and daughters will become happy, and the poor, brothers and relatives, all will be profited 
thereby. The Lord, for whom I have done farming work, gives me much assistance ; for that day, 
when there is union with him, I am much rejoicing. Whatever I ask, that he is giving me. 
Eather, such a great Lord I have sought and found. Traffic, service, shop, all has been entrusted 
by him (to me)." Then Kalu became astonished and said: "Such a Lord, 0 son, we have never 
seen nor heard of." Nanak answered: "0 father, by whom ray Lord has been seen, by them he 
is praised." Then Guru Nanak recited one Sabd in the Bag Asa, Mahala I. 4 [now follows one 
Sabd, consisting of four verses]. Then Kalii said: "Give up these things and walk after the manner 
of other people ; it is nothing to live without a calling." Then Baba Nanak remained silent. Kalii 
rose and went after his work. He said: "This work is beyond our strength, but may not the field 

1 It appears hence, that Nanak had also daughters, not only two sons, as stated by the later Janam- 

2 The original is: yfj lf§5 ^oft; W5tST> to rub (a person in a swoon). Had Nanak epileptic fits? 
In B. (6) this is more represented under the head of idleness, Nanak is called there a 3J^tf^, an idler. In 
the Lahore lithographed edition of the now current Janam-sakhi it is related (p. 387), that Nanak assumed 
the behaviour of a madman, in order to drive the people away (fV<cT^T ;jGd V^ft?*HT)- Something 
seems to have been the matter with him, as is now and then hinted at. 

3 See, Sorathi, Sabd II. (1), Mah. I. 4 See, Asa, Caupada I., Mah. I. 




outside be damaged!" Then came his mother and began to give him instruction: u O son, forget 
for four days the name ! stand up, put on clothes and go about in the lanes and streets, that the 
people may be reassured (of thy health) and that every one may say: £ The son of Kalu has become 
well (again)."' Then the Baba recited a Sabd [now follows a Sabd, consisting of four verses]. 1 

Then his mother rose and went away and gave information (as to his state) in the family. 
The whole family and clan of the Vedls began to grieve and to say, that a great calamity had 
happened, that the son of Kalu had become mad. 

Then Baba ffanak did neither eat nor drink for three months. The whole clan of the Yedis 
became dispirited. All began to say: "Kalu, how canst thou sit down quietly, whose son has 
fallen (sick) ? Call some physician and give him some medicine, thy son will become well, then 
what is the outlay of some Kupees?" Kalu rose and called a physician. When the physician had 
come, he took the arm of Nanak to feel his pulse. tfanak pulled away his arm and standing on 
his legs he rose and said: " 0 physician, what art thou doing?" The physician answered: " I look 
after the disease, that may be in thy spirit." The Baba laughed and uttered a Slok [now follow 
four verses]. 2 The Baba made also a Sabd on the subject of the physician in the Bag Malar 
[there follow four verses]. 3 

The physician being afraid stood in the shop and said: "Brother, don't be anxious, this is 
removing the pain." Then the Baba uttered a Sabd, in the Bag GaurT, Mahala I. [there follow 
six verses]. 4 

Then came the order of the Lord, that Guru Kanak went away (from home). The brother- 
in-law of Baba Nanak was Jairam, who was the steward of the Nabab Daulat Khan. 5 Jairam 
had heard that jNanak was distracted in his mind and did no work whatever. He wrote a letter 
that !Nanak should come to him. Guru Nanak read this letter and said: " AT ay it be so, I will 
join Jairam." The people of the house said, that it would he good, if he would go, perhaps his 
mind would become settled there. The Baba rose and went to Sultanpur. The wife of the Baba 
began to weep and said: "Thou wast never kissing me before, thou art now going abroad, how 
wilt thou come (again)?" The Baba said: "0 silly one, what were we doing here? and what 
shall we do there ? I am of no use to thee." She rose and addressed again this petition to him : 
"When thou wast sitting in the house, then I had, in my view, the sovereignty of the whole world. 
0 dear, this world is of no use to me whatever." Then the Guru became tender and said: " Do not 
be anxious: every day the sovereignty shall be thine." She said: "Sir, I shall not remain 
behind, take me with thee." The Baba answered: "It is (the order) of the Lord, that I am 
going. If I shall gain some livelihood there, I shall call thee there. Mind thou my order." 
Then she kept silence. Guru Nanak then took leave from his relatives and friends and went to 
Sultanpur. He arrived there and met with Jairam. Jairam was very happy and said: "Brother 
Nanak, it is very good." Then Jairam went to the court and made this petition to Daulat Khan: 
"iNabab, health! one brother-in-law of mine has come; he wishes to meet the Nabab." Daulat 
Khan said: "Go and bring him!" Jairam went and brought Guru Kanak; he put some present 
(before the Eabab) at meeting with him. The Khan was much pleased and said: "What is the 
name of this one?" Jairam said: "Sir, his name is Nanak." The Khan rejoined: "He seems 
to be a good and honest man, entrust my work to him! " ISTanak became happy and smiled. The 
Khan gave him a dress of honour, and Guru Nanak and Jairam then went home. They com- 

1 The place, where this Sabd is to be found, is not indicated. 

2 The place, where the Slok occurs, is not indicated. 

3 To be found in Malar, Sabd 7, Mah. I., but the verses are given there in a different order. 

4 See Gauri, Sabd 17, Mah. I. 

5 See this story enlarged iu B. (11). 



meneed their work; they did their work in such a way, that everybody was pleased with it. All 
the people said: ""Well, well, this is some good man; every one praised (him) before the Khan." 
The Khan was very much pleased. Whatever salary Guru Nanak got, of that he ate ( = spent) 
something, the rest he gave awaf* for God's sake. By night he sang always praise (to God). 
Afterwards Mardana, the Dum, 1 came from Talvandl and remained with the Baba. To others, who 
came afterwards, he procured an interview with the Khan and a stipend, all got their bread by the 
favour of Guru Nanak. All were pleased and when the Baba's food was prepared, they all came 
and sat down. By night continually praise was said (by Nanak), and when as yet a watch of the 
night 2 was remaining, the Baba went to the river to bathe. When it became dawn of day, ho put 
on his clothes, applied the Tilak (to his forehead), and having taken the account-book in the office 
he sat down to write. 

One day the order of the Lord was made, that the river was going continually. He went 
therefore there, taking one servant with him. Stripping off his clothes, he entrusted them to 
the servant and began to bathe. As he was doing so, according to the order of the Lord, servants 
( = angels) took him away to the threshold of the Lord. The servants said: "Sir, Nanak is present." 
Then he (Nanak) obtained a sight of the true court (of God); the Lord was kind (to him). 
Meanwhile that servant (of Nanak) was standing by bis clothes. Standing and standing he (finally) 
returned (home) and said, that Nanak had gone into the river, but had not come out again. He 
went to the Khan and said: "Khan, health! Nanak has gone into the river, but no more come 
out" The Khan mounted his horse and came out to the bank of the river. He called fisher- 
men and made them throw a net (into the river). The fishermen searching became tired, but 
did not find him. The Khan was very much grieved, he mounted again his horse and said : 
"Nanak was a good steward," and returned home. It was the order of the Lord, that Nanak, 
the devotee, was present (at the threshold). Then a cup of nectar was filled and given him 
by the order (of the Lord). The command was given: "Nanak, this nectar is a cup of my 
name, drink it ! " Then Guru Nanak made salutation and drank it. The Lord was kind and said : 
"Nanak, I am with thee, I have made thee exalted and who will take thy name, they will all be 
made exalted by me. Having gone mutter my name and make also other people mutter it ! 
Remain uncontaminated from the world! Remain in the name, (in giving) alms, in performing 
ablutions, in worship and remembering (me)! 3 I have given thee my own name, do this work 
(I -told thee)!" 

Then Guru Nanak made salutation and stood up. Then the order of the Lord came: "Nanak, 
of what kind is the greatness of my name?" The Baba answered, whilst a sound (of joausic) 
was made without instruments being beaten, as it is written in Sir! Rag, Mahala I. [there follow 
four verses]. 4 

Then again a voice came: "Nanak, my order has come into thy sight, praise thou my order! 
what is done by any one (but me) ? and at my gate what hast thou heard ? (what) are the musical 
instruments playing ? " The Baba answered : (and a sound arose), as written in the Ragu 
Asa, Japu, Mahala I. [there follows a Slok]. 6 Then came again the order: "Nanak, on whom 
thy (favourable) look is, on him is also mine ; on whom thy benevolence is, on him is also mine. 

1 a caste °f Musalmans, who are professional drummers and musicians. 

3 VvT<J> a watch, equal to three hours. 

8 The words are important as containing the duties inculcated to the Sikhs ; they are : ^T75 

4 See Sin Rag, Sabd 2, Mah. I. 

fi This Slok is now not found in the Rag Asa, but is the first line in the JapjJ ; it is the well-known 
IKTft *T^> etc. 



My name is : the Supreme Brahm, the Supreme Lord ; and thy name is : the Guru, the Supreme 
Lord." 1 Then Nanak fell on his feet. A dress of honour was given to him; .a sound and voice 
arose, it was the Bag Dhanasan, the Art! [there follow four verses]. 2 

Then order was given to those ministers, that they should bring ISanak back to that very 
ferry; so they brought him there on the third day and went off. He came out from the river. 
When the people saw him, they said: " Friends, this one had fallen into the river, whence has he 
come ? " Nanak entered his house ; giving away everything he removed his abode far off. Many 
people assembled, the Khan also came and said: "Nanak: what has happened to thee ? " The 
people said: " Sir, this one had fallen into the river, he has been hurt in the river." Then the 
Khan answered: " Friends, this is a great pity." He was much grieved, rose and went away. 

At that time there was on the body of Guru Nanak only a Langoti, 3 he kept no other piece 
(of clothing). He went and sat down with Faqirs. Mardana, the pum, also went and sat down 
with him. Guru Nanak continued in silence for one day. The following day he rose and said : 
" There is no Hindu and there is no Musalman." The people went and said to the Khan, that 
Nanak was saying: " There is no Hindu and no Musalman." The Khan said: " Don't think of 
it, he is a Eaqlr." One Kazi was sitting near; he said: "Khan, this is wonderful, that he is 
saying: there is no Hindu and no Musalman." The Khan said to a man, that he should call him, 
saying: "Nanak, the Khan is calling thee." Guru Nanak said (to that man): " What have I to 
do with thy Khan?" The people then said: "He has run mad and is a lunatic." Guru Nanak 
said to Mardana: "Play the rebeck!" Mardana played it, it was the Bag and the Baba 
uttered the Sabd, Mahala I. [there follow four verses]. 4 Then the Baba was silent. "When he 
said anything, then he said this very word, "that there was no Hindu and no Musalman." The 
Kazi said then: "0 Khan, is it good, that he says: * There is no Hindu and no Musalman'?" 
Then the Khan said: "Go and fetch him!" Then footmen (of the Khan) went and said: "Sir, 
the Khan is calling you. The Khan says : ' For God's sake, give me an interview ! I wish to 
see thee/" Then Guru Nanak rose and went, saying: "Now, my Lord has called me, I shall 
go." He went, having placed a club 0 on his neck. He came and met with the Khan. The Khan 
said: "Nanak, for God's sake, take off the club from thy neck! gird thy waist! thou art a good 
Faqir." Then Guru Nanak took off the club from hia neck and girded his waist. The Khan 
said: "Nanak, it is a misfortune to mc, that a steward like thou becomes a Faqir." Then he 
seated Nanak at his side and said: "Kazi, if thou wilt ask anything, ask now, otherwise this one 
will not utter again a word." The Kazi becoming friendly, smiled and said: "Nanak, thou, 
who art saying: ( there is no Hindu and no Musalman/ what dost thou mean by it?" Nanak 
uttered a Slok in the Bag Majfh [there follow four verses]. 6 

When Nanak had uttered this Slok, the Kazi became amazed. The Khan then said: "0 Kazi, 
it has proved a failure to question him ! " 

The time of the afternoon prayer had come. 7 All arose and went to say their prayers, and 
the Baba also went with them. The Kazi stood in front of them all and began to pray. Then 
the Baba looking towards the Kazi laughed. The Kazi saw that Nanak was laughing. After the 
prayer was finished, the Kazi said: "Khan, health! hast thou seen, that the Hindu, looking to- 

1 In the Granth the (human) Guru is frequently identified with the Supreme Lord, which this story tries 
to explain and to account for. The words of the original are : -fijQ gfg 

2 Granth, Lahore lithographed edition, p. 732. 

3 A piece of cloth, wrapt round the waist, passing between the legs and tucked behind, serving instead 
of trousers. 

4 Rag Marii, Sabd 7, Mah. I. * = S ansk. a club or large stick. 
6 See Majh, Var VIII., Slok I. 7 See B, Sakhi 17. " 



wards the Musalmans, was laughing? thou, who art saying, that Nanak is a good man." The Khan 
said: "Nanak, what does the Kazi say (against thee)?" The Baba answered: "0 Khan, what 
have I to care for the Kazi? The prayer of the Kazi however has not been accepted (by God), 
therefore have I laughed." The KSzi said: " He is making subterfuges, let him manifest my fault." 
The Baba rejoined: "Khan, when this one was standing praying, his mind was not fixed (on 
God). His mare had been delivered of a she-foal and he had come (to prayer) having loosened the 
foal. In the enclosure is a well and this one said (in his heart) : ' May it not be, that the foal 
will fall into the well ! ' his mind had wandered there." Then the Kazi came and fell down at his 
feet and said : " Wonderful, wonderful, on this one is the favour of God ! " Then the Kazi helieved. 
Nanak uttered a Slok : 

He is a Musalman, who clears away his own self, who is sincere, patient, of pure words. 

Who does not touch what is standing, who does not eat what is fallen down : 

That Musalman will go to paradise, (says) Nanak. 
When the Eaba had uttered this Slok, then the Sayyids, the sons of the Shekhs, the Kazi, 
the Mufti, the Khan, the chiefs and leaders were amazed. The Khan said : " Kazi, Nanak has 
arrived at the truth, to ask him more has proved a failure." Wherever the Baba looked, there all 
were saluting him. Then the Baba uttered a Sabd, in Sir! Rag, Mahala I. 1 [there follow four 
verses]. After the Baba had recited this Sabd, the Khan came and fell down at his feet. Then 
the people, Hindus and Musalmans, began to say to the Khan, that God was speaking in Nanak. 
The Khan said : " 0 Nanak, (my) dominion, property, authority and revenue, all is thine." Nanak 
answered: "God will reward thee. I cannot remain now here. Dominion, property and household- 
goods are thine, we forsake (all) and go." Having gone he sat down among the Eaqirs. Then 
the Eaqirs rose, joined their hands and stood before him ; they began to praise him and to say : 
"Nanak has become (our) true daily bread and is coloured in the dye of the True one." Nanak 
said then: "Mardana, play the rebeck!" Mardana played the rebeck, the Rag Tilang was made. 
The Baba uttered the Sabd, Mahala I. [there follow four verses]. 2 Then the Eaqirs came, kissed 
his foot and shook his hand. The Baba was much pleased with the Faqlrs and showed much kindness 
to them. The Khan also came ; Hindus and Musalmans, everybody stood before him saluting him. 
Then they took leave from the Guru. When the Khan came home, he saw that the rooms of his 
treasury were filled. (At this) the Baba was much pleased. 

Taking Mardana with him he wandered about; they did not enter any village, they did not 
stop in any jungle nor on any river. Now and then, when Mardana was hungry, the Baba said: 
"Mardana, thou art hungry?" Then Mardana answered: "Yes, thou knowest all." Nanak said: 
"Mardana, go straight on to the village, there in front is the KhatrT TJpal, go to his house and 
stand there silently; there they will give thee food. 0 Mardana, to thee, who art going with me, 
some Hindu, some Musalman, whoever will come and follow me, will fall down at thy feet, they 
will bring and put before thee exquisite food ; some will bring Rupees and Paisas (copper coins) ; 
some will bring fine calicos; no one will ask anything, whence thou hast come and whose servant 
thou art. Whoever will come and follow me, he will say: 'I will bring and lay down all my 
property.' They will say: 'We have become exalted, that this interview has been given (to us), 
that the Baba has been pleased.' " 

One day Mardana was sent to a town ; in (thus) sending him much worship was paid to him. 
When he went, the whole town came and fell down at his feet. He made up a bundle of copper 
coins and clothes and brought it. The Baba laughed. Mardana brought the clothes and the 
copper coins to the Baba. Then the Baha said: "Mardana, what hast thou brought?" Mardana 
answered: "Sir, true king, alms in thy name; the whole town rose to thy service. 0 King! I 

1 See Siri Rag, Sabd 27, Mah. I. 

2 See Ragu Tilang, Sabd 3, Mah. I. 



said that I would bring these things and clothes to the Baba," The Guru answered: "Mardana, 
thou hast done quite well, but these things are of no use whatever to me." Mardana said: " 0 
king, what shall I do?" The Baba answered : " Throw them away! " Then Mardana threw all the 
things away, the whole bundle he scattered about there. After that Mardana said : " 0 king, if 
one is willing to give alms in thy name and puts it into the mouth of a disciple, does his love in 
any way reach thee? And this thought is also in my heart, that thou art not touching anything 
nor putting into thy mouth, with what dost thou satiate thyself?'' The Guru Baba answered: 
"Mardana, play the rebeck!" Mardana played the rebeck and the Eagu Gauri Dipaki was made, 
Mahala I. The Baba uttered the Sabd [there follow four verses]. Then Mardana being moved 
(therehy) paid worship (to him). 

Then they departed thence. Wandering about they came to the house of Shekh Sajan. His 
house was on the road ; he had built there an idol-house and a mosque. If a Hindu came, he gave 
him a place (to stay in), and if a Musalman came, he paid attention to him. When the night came 
on, he used to say: "Go to sleep!" Taking them in, he threw them into a well and killed them. 
And when it became morning, he took a staff and rosary into his hands, spread out a carpet to pray 
on and sat down. 

When the Baba and Mardana came, he did much service to them and said to his people: "In 
this one's hem is much wealth, but it is concealed ; on whose face there is such a splendour, he 
is not empty. It is all a story that he is a FaqTr." When night had set in he said : " Eise 
and go to sleep!" Then the Baba said: "0 Sajan, having reeited one Sabd (song) to the service 
of God, we will go to sleep." Shekh Sajan replied: "Well, be it so, Sir! recite it, the night is 
fast passing." Then the Baba said: "Mardana, play the rebeck!" Mardana played the rebeck; 
the Eag Suhl was made. Nanak uttered the Sabd, Mahala I. [there follow six verses]. 1 (Then 
Shekh Sajan said): "I am a sacrifice to the interview (with thee)." His mind returned to him; 
when he reflected, he found that all his sins were discovered. He rose and fell down at the feet 
(of iNanak), he kissed them and said: "Sir, pardon my sins!" The Baba replied: "Shekh Sajan, 
at the threshold of God the sins are pardoned by two words." Shekh Sajan humbly said, " Sir, 
say those words by which sins are forgiven." Then Guru Nanak became compassionate and said : 
"Tell the truth, that murders have been perpetrated by thee!" Then Shekh Sajan began to tell 
the truth. He said, " Yes, many sins have been committed by me." Then said Guru Nanak : 
"Whatever remains of their- property, that bring! Shekh Sajan obeyed the order and brought it. 
It was given away in the name of God (as alms). He (Shekh Sajan) began to mutter: "0 Guru, 
Guru ! " and relied on the name. — Say : vah Guru ! 

Then he went on from thence on the road and came to Pauipath. In Panlpath was a Pir, 
named Shekh Saraf ; his disciple was Shekh Vatihar. He had come to fill the water-jug of that 
Pir with water. The Baba and Mardana were both seated further on. When he came, he saluted 
them and said: "Peace be to thee, 0 Darvesh ! " Guru Nanak replied: "To thee be peace, 0 
hand-servant of the Pir!" Shekh Vatihar hecame astonished and said: "Till this day no one 
has answered my salutation. But let it be so, I will go and inform my Pir of it." He came and 
said: "0 Pir, health! having heard the voice of a Darvesh I have become astonished." The Pir 
replied: "Tell, that I may see, what sort of a man he is." Then Shekh Vatihar said: "May the 
Pir live in health! I had gone to fill the jug: he was sitting in front (of me), in going I saluted 
him and said : < Peace be to thee, 0 Darvesh ! ' Then he replied : < To thee be peace, 0 hand-servant 
of the Plr!>" The Pir said: "Son, who said to thee, < to thee be peace/ his sight has been seen 
(by me). Show me, where that man was seen (by thee)." Then Shekh Saraf having taken his 

1 See Rag Suhl, Sabd 3, Mali. I. 

2 The property of the murdered persons. 



disciple Vatihar with him, came to Guru !Nanak and said [there follow a number of questions on 
the part of the Shekh, to which Nanak answers in long verses]. The Shekh kissed his hands 
and feet and went to his house. The Baba and Mardana continued their wanderings and they 
came thus to Dilll. 

At that time Sultan Ibrahim. Beg was King of Dill!. 1 Having come there he remained there 
during the night. Among the elephant-drivers much service was rendered to him (Nanak). At 
that time there had fallen down dead an elephant. The people were beating their breasts (in token 
of grief) and weeping. The Baba asked: "Why are you weeping?" They answered: "We are 
weeping for an elephant." The Baba said: "Whose was the elephant?" The elephant-driver 
replied: "It was the elephant of the King, it belonged to the one God." 2 The Baba said then: 
"Why do youthen weep?" They answered: "Sir, it was our livelihood." The Baba replied: 
"Take up another occupation!" They said: "Our work had been prosperous, our family was 
happy and had its sustenance (from it)." The Baba showed then compassion and said: "This 
elephant lives, don't be weeping!" They said: "Sir, how shall the dead one live?" The Baba 
said: "Go and move your hands upon its face, say: ' vah Guru!'" They obeyed his order and 
moved their hands (upon its face). Then the elephant rose and stood. This matter was reported 
to the King. Sultan Ibrahim Beg sent for the elephant. Having mounted he came to see it, 
having come he sat down and said: "0 Darvesh, hast thou vivified this elephant?" The Baba 
replied: "The destroyer and vivifier is God, and the prayer of the Faqlrs is for the mercy of 
God." The King said again: "Kill it and show it!" Then the Baba uttered this Slok: 

He kills and vivifies. 

0 Nanak, besides the One there is none other ! 

Then the elephant died. The King said again: "Make it alive!" The Baba answered: "Your 
majesty, the iron being heated in the fire becomes red, but it does not remain a moment on the 
hand, and (red-hot) coals remain but for a short time. So the Faqirs become red in God and take 
upon themselves a complete devotion to God, but their devotion gives way (again)." The King 
understood this and was much pleased. He said then: "Agree to something!" The Baba answered 
with the Slok : 

Eanak is hungry after God, for other things he does not care. 

Our search is for the sight (of God), for other things we do not search at all. 

The King understood this, rose and went. The Baba continued wandering about. 

First (Nanak) passed his retired life in the east. There in his retirement Mardana, the rebeck- 
player, was with him. At that time he practised wind-eating. The attire of the Baba was one 
mango-coloured raiment, and one white raiment; on his feet he had one pair of shoes and one pair 
of slippers. Over his neck a shirt, 3 on his head a Kalandar's hat, a necklace of bones, on his 
forehead a Tilak (mark) of saffron. 

Then he met on the road Shekh Bajld 4 Sayyid, who was going along being mounted on a 
palkT (a kind of sedan-chair) ; with his wooden-frame (on which he was riding) were six bearers. 
He alighted under a tree and they (the bearers) commenced to pull and to fan him. Then Mardana 

1 The MS. writes the name ^J^T ?faT> instead of Ibrahim Beg 1 . Ibrahim Lo4i was King of Dilli from 
1517—1526, and fell in battle against Babar. 

2 The original is: fgSJ tf^Tfe "37 > rather a curious expression. 

3 The tpoT?^ is a kind of woollen shirt without sleeves, worn by Faqirs. 

4 Very likely Jojjb. 



said: "Is God one?" The Baba replied: "0 Mardana, God is one." Then said Mardana: "0 
King, whose creation are those and whose creation is he, who has come mounted on a palki? Those 
are running on their feet and with naked bodies have brought him on their shoulders, and this one, 
who is seated, they fan." Nanak answered with the Slok : 

The ascetics, who in a former birth have borne the sting of cold, 
^Vere then worn out ; now, 0 Nanak, they adorn their body. 

The Baba went on saying: "0 Mardana, from austerity comes dominion and from dominion 
hell. Whoever is born from the womb of a mother, he comes naked (into the world). (There is) 
pleasure aud pain (in this world) and last the account, when he departs." Then Mardana fell down 
at his feet. 

Departing thence they came to Benares. Having arrived there they sat down in a square. 1 At 
that time there was at Benares a Pandit, called Catur-das, who had come to make his ablutions. 
He saluted him {i.e. Nanak) and having seen his (Faqlr's) garb he sat down and said: "0 devotee, 
thou hast no Saligram ! 2 thou hast no necklace of Tulsi (holy basil) ! thou hast no rosary I thou 
hast no mark (on the forehead) of white clay ! and thou callest thyself a devotee ! What devotion 
hast thou taken up?" The Baba said: "Mardana, play the rebeck!" Mardana played the rebeck 
and the Rag Basant was made. The Baba uttered the Sabd, Mahala I. [there follows one verse]. 3 
The Pandit rejoined: "This truly is collecting barren soil, 0 devotee, but what is that thing, by 
means of which the world is gained and the Lord is obtained (also) ? " The Baba uttered then 
the second Pauri [there follows one verse]. The Pandit asked again: "The earth indeed is dug 
up, but without watering it how shall it become green ? and how shall the gardener consider it 
his own?" Then the Baba uttered the third Pauri. Then the Pandit Catur-das said: "Sir, thou 
art a perfect devotee of the Lord, my understanding, being overcome by the senses, is dull like a 
white heron." Then the Baba uttered the fourth PaurT. The Pandit went on saying: "Sir, thou 
art a worshipper of the Lord, but make also this city holy ! Say something in its praise ! " Then 
Guru Nanak asked: "What is its excellency?" The Pandit answered: "Sir, its excellency is 
science, by reading which prosperity is accruing, and where thou sittest down, there the world will 
respect thee; by taking this advice thou wilt become great." Then the Baba uttered a Sabd in 
the Rag Basant, Mahala I. [there follow four verses and one Rahau]. 4 The Pandit Catur-das said 
again: "We, who are instructing the world, aud we, who are reading (ourselves), is the name 
of the Lord also necessary to us?" Then Guru Nanak asked: "Sir, what are you reading and 
what are you teaching the world, your disciples?" The Pandit answered: Sir, the words of the 
Supreme Brahin I make the world read with the first wooden slate." 5 Then the Baba said in the 
Rag RamkalT, Oakar, Mahala I. ^[there follows one verse and one Rahau]. After that the fifty- 
four Pauris (following were uttered) and the Oakar made (thus). Then the Pandit came and fell 
down at his feet and became a relier on the name; he began to mutter: "0 Guru, Guru!" 6 

The Baba departed thence and came to Nanak-mata. 7 That Banya-tree had become dry since 

1 xT@3T is a square court (in a temple, monastery, etc.) or an open square of tlie town, where markets 
are held. 

2 ^nf%^i*f ? an ammonite-stone, found in the river and worshipped as sacred to Vishnu. It is 
usually written ^frf^f M - 

3 See Rag Basant, Sabd 9, Mah. I. < See Rag Basant, Sabd 11, Mah. I. 

5 The sense is: with the first wooden slate, I write for them, I make them read, etc. 

6 Compare with this relation the story in the Sikha" de raj di vithia, p. 289, where it is nearly literally 
contained, only those words and phrases being left out, which were unintelligible to the later reviser. 

7 According to what follows, this appears to have been the name of a Banyi-tree. 



many years. A small smoking fire was kindled there (by Nanak) and it became green again. The 
Jogis saw this, came and sat down there. Then the Jogis asked: "0 young man, whose disciple 
art thou? from whom hast thou got thy initiation?" The Guru Baba replied with the Sabd in 
the Bag SuhT, Mahala I. [there fallow four verses]. 1 The Jogis then said: "0 young man, 
become a Jog! and take the garb of (our) denomination ! " The Baba, answered with a Sabd, Rag 
Suhi, Mahala I. [there follow four verses]. 2 Then the Jogis paid him reverence, (saying): "This 
is a great man, by whose sitting (under it) the Banya-tree, the Faqlrs* cooking-place, has be- 
come green ! " 

The Guru Baba started thence. They came to some goods-stores of grain-merchants and sat 
down at the door of the chief (of them). In his house a son had been born and the people were 
coming to congratulate him. Some one came and applied red lac-dye, 3 another gave a hundred 
thousand blessings. Mardana being seated looked at the spectacle. "When the day had declined, 
he rose and went ; in the house no notice was taken of him. Mardana, who had become 
excessively hungry, said:. "0 King, this one has taken no notice whatever of us; in his house 
1 a son has been born to-day, he has now risen and gone with his own pomp. But if thou wilt 
order me, I will go into his house, he is giving a present to the begging people on the occasion 
of the birth of a son, I may also bring away something." The Baba laughed and said : " 0 
Mardana, in this one's house no son has been born, into his house a debtor has come. Be silent, 
this night I shall remain, to-morrow I shall rise and go. But if it be thy~ mind, then go (to 
the house), but do not pronounce a blessing, stand there silently!" Mardana answered: "Well, 
Sir, I will go and see." He went and stood there silently; nobody took any notice of him. He 
rose and came back. Then the Baba said: "Mardana, play the rebeck!" Mardana played the 
rebeck, the Bag Sir! Bag was sung, and the Guru Baba uttered the Sabd, Mahala I. [there 
follow four verses]. 4 When it became morning, that baby died. Then weeping and beating their 
breasts they came out (from the house). Mardana said : " Sir, what has happened to this man ? 
Yesterday they were applying red lac-dye and laughing and sporting I" To this the Baba answered 
with this Slok : 

From which mouths congratulations and Lakhs of blessings are given : 
Those mouths are again beaten in grief, mind and body suffer agony. 
Some have died, some are buried, some are floated away in the river. 
The congratulation is gone, but thou, 0 Nanak, praise the True one ! 

Then the Baba and Mardana departed thence. On the road they fell in with an enclosed 
field of pulse. The watchman (of the field) began to parch half-ripe pulse-stalks (for them). It 
came into the mind of Mardana: "If the Baba would go, I would take two or three stalks." The 
Baba smiled and sat down. The watchman brought the parched pulse-stalks and put them down 
(before Nanak) and INanak gave them to Mardana. Then it came into the mind of that boy: "I 
should fetch something from the house to put into the mouth of the Eaqirs." He rose and went. 
The Baba asked (him, why he went). He said: "I will fetch something from the house to put 
into thy mouth." Then Nanak made this Slok : — 

Thy mattrass and coverlet is a bed of straw ; 

Love is thy sweetmeats. 

!Nanak is much satiated with thy virtues, 0 Sultan ! 
He got then a kingdom for offering as alms a handful of pulse. 

1 See Rag Suhi, Sabd 9, Mah. I. 2 Rag Suhi, Sabd 8, Mah. I. 

8 ^RTcTT (or ^fa'dT) a kind of cloth, half-cotton and half-silk (Sansk. ^Jt?HT). It signifies also 
red lac-dye, to stain the feet with (at festivities). The latter is meant here. 
4 Siri Rag, Pahire 1, Mah. I. (p. 84). 




The Baba departed thence and went on. Then said Mardana : " Sir, where shall the rainy 
season be spent ?" The Baba answered: "Well, if some village be met with, there a stay will be 
made." Having gone above one Kos from the city they sat down in a village. In that village one 
Khatrl was attached (to Kanak). He came one day to have an interview, and after having had 
the interview he came continually to do service. One day he made the vow, that without having 
had an interview he would not take any draught of water. One of his neighbouring shopkeepers 
asked: "Brother, why art thou continually going, to what rendezvous art thou going?" That 
disciple replied: " Brother, some pious man has come, I go to meet him." That one said: "Sir, 
let me also have an interview with him!" One day that one also came with him; (but) coming and 
coming he attached himself to a slave-girl. Thence they were always going together from home, 
but that one went to the whore's house, and the other, who had been coming before, went to do 
service to the Guru, the Lord. One day that one said: "0 brother, I go to do a bad work and 
thou art going to render service to the holy man. To-day let us make an agreement between 
ourselves, that we will see, what will accrue to me and what will happen to thee. If thou wilt 
come first, sit down here, and if I should come first, I will sit down here. To-day we will go to- 
gether away." When that one went, he found the slave-girl not at home. Being vexed he rose 
and came to the (appointed) place and sat down there. In his stray thoughts he began to dig up 
the ground; when he looked on, it was a gold coin. 1 Then having drawn out his knife he began 
to dig (more). When he looked, they were charcoals, a whole jar full. The other, after he had 
fallen down at the foot of the Guru, went away. Outside the door a thorn pierced his foot. 
Having bound up his foot with a cloth he came (to the appointed place), with one shoe drawn off 
and one being put on. That one asked: "0 brother, why hast thou drawn off one of thy shoes?" 
He replied: "0 brother, a thorn has pierced my foot." That one said: "0 brother, to-day I 
have found a gold muhar and thee a thorn has pierced; we must ask about this matter. For 
thou goest to do service to the Guru and I go to commit sin." Then both came and told the whole 
truth. The Guru said: " Be silent!" They replied: "Sir, may an explanation be given (to us) I" 
Then the Guru said: " The jar of charcoals were gold muhars; it is what he has sown in his former 
birth. He had given one muhar to a holy man, these his alms had become muhars. But in 
proportion as he ran after wickedness, the muhars became charcoals. And in thy destiny an im- 
paling-stake was written. In proportion as thou wast coming to do service (to me), the impaling- 
stake decreased, of the impaling-stake became a thorn, as the result of service rendered (to me)."' 
Then they rose and fell down at his feet and became devotees of the name; they began to mutter: 
"Guru, Guru!" Then the Baba recited a Sabd, in Rag iEaru, Mahala I. [there follow four 
verses]. 2 

Then they departed thence. On the road they fell in with Thags. 3 Having seen the 
(travellers) they said: "In whose face there is such a lustre, he is not empty, in his purse there 
is much money, but it is concealed. They surrounded the Baba and stood before him, but with 
seeing his sight they became weak (= discouraged) within. The Guru asked them: "Who are 
you?" They answered: "We are Thags, we have come for thy jewels." Then the Baba said: 
''Well! Having done one work you may kill (me). Where that smoke is coming into sight, 
thither come a little further on! There you may kill and brand me!" The Thags said: "Where 
is the fire, where? we will kill and remove him!" Then said some Thags: "We have killed 
many men, but laughing none has said: 'kill me!' where is he going in hope?" Then two Thags 

1 HvTRj s.f. a gold coin or muhar (= ^JtA) , worth about one £1 Us. 8d. 

2 Rag Maru, Sabd 3, Mah. I. 

3 a rohber, who inveigles his victim and kills him; literally: a cheat. 



ran towards the fire. When they came there, a funeral pile was hurning and the troops 1 of Rama 
and the troops of Yama were standing and quarrelling. The Thags asked: "Who are you and why 
are you quarrelling ? " Those answered: "We are the troops of Yama, having received the order 
of the Lord we are going to take this creature (here) to the pot-hell. 2 But after us these troops 
of Rama have come and have snatched him away from us. Ask them, why they have torn him 
away from us." The Thags asked then: "Why have you snatched him away from these?" The 
troops of Rama answered: "The Guru, the Lord, whom you have come to kill, hy his favourable 
look the smoking fire of this one's funeral pile has been applied, (having been) a sacrifice to him 
he has (now) reached paradise." The Thags hearing this ran back and said: "By whose favourable 
look one has become entirely emancipated, when the fire was applied (to his pyre), him we have 
come to kill." Then they came and fell down at his feet. The others asked and were told the 
matter ; then they also came and fell down at his feet. Joining their hands (in supplication) they 
stood before him and began to beseech (him) and said; "Sir, make us attached to the name! 
Destroy thou our sins ! we have perpetrated very horrible sins," Then Guru ISanak became moved 
with compassion and said: "Your sins will then be extinguished, when you abandon this occu- 
pation and take to agriculture ; and whatever (stolen) thing rests with you, that give away in the 
name of the Lord (as alms)! Seek the favour of ascetics and devotees!" They obeyed his order; 
whatever thing they had, they brought and put down before him. They began to mutter: "Guru, 
Guru ! " Their life was adjusted. 3 Then the Baba recited a Sabd, in the Sri Rag, Mahala I. 
[there follow four verses], 4 The Guru was much pleased and departed thence. Say: vah Guru! 

Then they came to the country of Kauru. 5 One day Mai'dana became hungry ; he rose and 
went. He came to the door of a woman and stood there. She called him and asked him if he 
wished to eat. Then she bound him with a thread, made him a ram and seated him. Having 
bound him she went for water. The Baba came then and having seen (him) he (Mardana) began 
to bleat (like a sheep). When she came back with her water-jar, Guru Nanak asked her and 
said: "My man has come here." She answered; " No one has come here, look (yourself)!" 
Then the Baba uttered (this) Slok : 

The female traffickers in barren soil ask musk from the bramble. 
Without (good) works, 0 Nanak, how will they meet with their Lord ? 

On this the jar on her head remained fixed, it did not go off, as a punishment for her false- 
hood; she went about with it. Then !Nur Shahi heard that such a (great) conjurer had come, 
that the jar did not go off. She gave the order that no female conjurer in the town should remain 
behind. Then, wherever there was a conjurer, they all came with their skill. One came mounted 
on a tree, another came mounted on a deer-skin, another on the moon, another on a wall, another 
brought with her a tiger, another came beating a drum. Having come they commenced to practise 
their jugglery, binding threads. Then the Baba saw Mardana bound ; Mardana began to mew. 
The Baba laughed and said: "Mardana, say: ( vah Guru!' bow thy head and bring the rebeck!" 
Then Mardana bowed bis head and the thread broke and fell off his neck. He brought the rebeck. 
Then the Guru said: "Play the rebeck, Q Mardana!" Mardana played it and the Sabd in the 
Ragu Yadhans, Mahala I. was sung [there follow four verses]. 6 Then no answer whatever was 

1 JItS* troops of inferior deities. 

2 ZT&\ <ScW > name of a hell, in which people are boiled as in a pot. 

8 tT?W T^rrfcPHT* their life was adjusted, i.e. they gained the object of their life, or : were emancipated. 

4 Siri Rag, Sabd 4, Mah. I. 

5 Cf. Sakhi 25 (Lahore edh\). There the name of the country is written 5T^5> Kavaru or 3T3> Karu. 
? Yadhans, Sabd 2 X Mah. h 



made. Intelligence reached !Nur Shahi that no mantra nor charm was availing. ISur Shahi was 
the head of all conjurers; she came with her best disciples mounted on an apparatus of paper, and 
hegan to apply her mantras and charms. Then Nanak recited the Sabd, in the Eag SuhT, Mahala I. 
[there follow four verses]. 1 The Baba having said: "Yah, van!" 2 rose. ISur Shahi also became 
tired of practising her mantras and spells, they took no effect whatever. She said: " I have 
done wrong/' and remained silent from shame. Drums also were standing near, they began to 
dance and to sing. Then the Baba, said: "Mardana, play the rebeck!" Mardana played the rebeck, 
the Eag Sri Eag was made, Mahala I., the Baba uttered the Sabd [there follow four verses and a 
SlGk]. 8 After the Guru had said this Slok, Nur Shahi said (within herself): "I will delude him 
with the Maya (= wealth)." She brought things of many kinds: pearls, jewels, gold, silver, coral, 
camphor, clothes; whatever good things there were, she brought and put them down before him. 
She began to beseech him, that he should desire something. The Guru replied: "Mardana, play 
the rebeck!" Mardaua did so and the Eag Tilang was made, Mahala I. [there follow four verses]. 4 

After this she fell down at the feet of the Guru. Having put a veil over her cheeks she stood 
before him and commenced, to say : " How shall our salvation be brought about and how will the 
water-jar go off from the head of this one?" The Guru answered: "Having said: 'vah Guru!' 
you will make the water-jar go off from her head and your salvation also will be effected; 
mutter: 'Guru, Guru!'" Then she came and fell down at his feet; she became a votary of 
the name. Say: vah Guru! 

Then the Baba departed thence. Going about he came to a desert and sat down. Then by 
the order of the Lord the Kali-yuga came to frighten him, 5 having assumed a visible form. A 
storm arose and the trees began to fly about. Mardana got very much afraid and said : " 0 King, 
thou hast brought me into the desert and killed me ; even grave and shroud I must forego." Guru 
iNanak said : " Mardana , don't become troubled!" Mardana answered: "Up to this day I have 
now lived, but such a calamity I have not seen, for what has happened here to us ! " Then a 
form of fire was shown ; 0 a smoke arose from the four sides and in the four quarters a fire was 
made. Then Mardana covering his face fell down and said: "Sir, I am waiting." Then a form 
of water was made (by the Kali-yuga); he came having gathered clouds. Water began to rain, 
but it fell at some distance from the Guru. Then the Guru said: "Mardana, disclose thy face, 
rise and sit down! play the rebeck!" "Mardana rose, sat down and played the rebeck/' The 
Eag Maru was made. The Baba uttered the Sabd, Mahala I. [there follow four verses]. 7 Then 
assuming the form of a Daitya he (the Kali-yuga) came near. The top of his head he had raised up 
to heaven. In proportion as he approached, he decreased in size. Joining his hands he stood and 
said: "Sir, take something from me ! walk in my word!" The Guru Baba asked him: "What 
hast thou?" Kali-yuga answered: "I have everything. If thou order me, I will build thee a 
palace of pearls and stud it with gems and rubies, I will besmear it with sandal-powder and aloe- 
wood." Then the Guru recited a Sabd (as written) in the Eag Sirl Eag, Mahala I. [there follow 
three verses]. 8 The Kali-yuga said: "Take something from me! thou mayest become a Sultan, 
thou mayest exercise sovereignty." Then the Guru recited the fourth Paurl [there follows the 
fourth verse]. Then the Kali-yuga walked round (Nanak) in adoration, came and fell down at 

1 Suhi, Kucaji 1 (p. 840). 2 Vah, vah = bravo ! bravo ! 

3 These lines are not found among the Sabds of Nanak. 4 Tilang, Sabd 4, Mah. I. 

6 Cf. Sakhi 26 (Lahore ed.). 8 by the Kali-yuga. 

7 The quotation is wrong; in the Granth these verses are ascribed to Guru Arjun; see Maru, Sabd 1, 
Mah. V. (p. 1108). 

8 Sir! Rag, Sabd 1, Mah. I. 



his feet and said: "Sir, how may my salvation be effected ?" Guru Nanak answered: "If among 
a crore some one will become my disciple, his sacrifice (= devotion to me) will become thy salvation." 
The Kali-yuga then fell down at his feet and was dismissed by the Baba. Say : vah Guru ! 

The Guru and Mardana contitftied their wanderings; they came to a city of ants. 1 When 
they looked about, trees and shrubs, all appeared black, the whole ground also. When Mardana 
saw this, he was much frightened and said : " Sir, let us depart hence ! such a great black thing 
I have never seen, go away from this black thing!" The Guru Baba replied: "Mardana: (here) 
is tbeir realm, though some one {i.e. ant) may go to a hundred jungles. If some young one of an 
animal is born, they eat it, and if eggs be laid by some snake, they eat them also, but none will 
come near thee." Then said Mardana: "Sir, has ever any one come here?" The Guru answered: 
"Mardana, one day one Eaja, had come up here. Having formed a host of fifty-two complete 
armies he had marohed out against some Eaja and come to this country. One ant went and met 
him and said : ' 0 Eaja, remain here and do not march on ! And if thou art marching, then march 
according to my will.' The Eaja asked: 'What is thy will?' The ant replied: '0 Eaja, 
my will is this, that having eaten my bread thou shouldst go.' The Eaja said : 'I am the Eaja 
of fifty-two complete armies, how should I eat thy bread ? ' The ant replied : e If not, thou wilt 
go after a battle.' The Eaja said: 'Well, let it be so ! ' 0 Mardana, the Eaja taking his fifty- 
two complete armies began to fight with the ants, The chief of the ants gave the order to the 
ants : ' Go and fetch poison ! ' Having filled their mouth with poison from the Piyal-tree they brought 
it; every one died, to whom they applied it. 0 Mardana, the whole host of fifty-two complete 
armies died with (=by) the order of the Lord; the Eaja alone remained alive. Then that ant went 
and said: '0 Eaja, hear my word, now thou wilt accept my bread.' The Eaja joining his hands 
stood (as a suppliant) and said : ' Well, may it be so ! ' Then that ant gave the order to the 
(other) ants : ' Go and bring nectar ! ' In the nether region there are seven pools of nectar and 
seven pools of poison. The ants went, filled their mouth with nectar and brought it. To whom 
they applied it, he rose and stood; so the host of fifty-two complete armies rose and stood with 
the order of the Lord. Then the Eaja having risen went to eat bread with his fifty-two complete 
armies. When the bread was given (them), it was cold, and when the grass was given to the 
horses, it was soaked, and when the corn was given, it was chopped. The Eaja asked: 'Why is 
such bread given and soaked grass and chopped corn?' The ant answered: '0 Eaja, some 
time ago a Eaja had come, for him I had prepared hread ; what was left by him, that I have 
served out to thy army, and the corn, and grass, that was left by his horses, was given to thy 
horses.' When the Eaja on going away looked about, full magazines stood there. The pride of 
the Eaja was humbled and he said: 'Such are the habits of the Bajas.' Then the Eaja returned 
to his house." The Eaba uttered this Slok: 

Lions, hawks, falcons and birds of prey he makes eat grass. 
Who eat grass, them he makes eat flesh, such is his habit. 
In rivers he shows heaps of sand and on dry land he makes bottomless pools. 
Having killed the creatures he vivifies them, (if) he bestows his look and favour on the 

He establishes an ant and gives it dominion and an army he reduces to ashes. 
Nanak (says) : as it pleases the True one, so he gives a morsel. 

Then Mardana fell down at his feet. Say : vah Guru ! 

They departed thenco and having come to a village they sat down there. In that village no 

1 Cf. Lahore edit, Sakhi 27. 


one gave them a place to stay in, they began to rail (at them). Then the Guru Baba uttered 
this Slok: 

^hen I keep silence, they say, in this man there is no understanding. 
When I speak, they say, he rattles much away. 

When I sit down, they say, he is seated on a bed of straw, he has laid down. 

When I rise and go, they say, he is gone having thrown ashes on his head. 

When I bow down, they say, he performs worship continually bowing down. 

There is no abuse and no taunt, by which I may cut off their false accusation. 

(But) here and there, (says) Nanak, the true Guru (=God) preserves (my) honour. 
He did not remain there twenty-four minutes. Mardana said then : « Sir, Tvhat order has been 
given (by God) regarding these people ?" The Baba answered: " Mardana, this town will be 
thriving." Then they went to another town. There much attention was paid to them, they re- 
mained there a night. Early in the morning they rose and started. Then the Guru said : "This 
town will be ruined, it will become a place where eight roads meet." 1 Mardana said: " I see a 
fine justice at thy gate; where thou dost not get a place to sit on, that (town) is made thriving 
(by thee), and by whom much attention and service is rendered to thee, their town is ruined." 
The Gum Baba replied : " 0 Mardana, when the people of that city will go to another town, then 
others also will be spoiled, and when the people of this town will go to another town, they will 
also save them and give them good advice." Mardana answered : " Sir, if it please thee, procure 
also salvation to that town!" Then the Baba recited a Sabd, in the Eag Malar, Mahala I. 
[there follow four verses]. 2 

Then they went again to the country of Asa. 3 There was Shekh Farid, who lived in a jungle, 
to which the Baba went. Shekh Farid said: " Allah, Allah, 0 Darvesh ! " The Guru Baba 
answered: "Allah, 0 Farid, is my aim. 4 Come, Shekh Farid, Allah, Allah is always my aim." 
Then taking his hand he sat down. Shekh Farid looking at the face of the Baba said, entering 
into a conversation with him : 

Desire either dominion or desire Allah! 

Do not put thy feet on two boats, lest thou drown thy goods ! 
The Guru Baba answered with the Slok : 

Put thy feet on two boats, ship thy goods in two : 

One boat may be sunk, one may pass across. 

(They require) neither water nor a boat, 

They are not sunk nor do they pass away : 

The goods, the true wealth, are naturally contained (in God). 

Then Shekh Farid recited this Slok : 

0 Farid, who art enamoured with (this) witch, the world is a false distinction. 
0 Nanak, whilst looking on with the eyes the field is wasted. 

1 The sense is: it will be totally trodden under foot. 2 Rag Malar, Sabd 1, Mah. I. 

3 Cf. Lahore ed., Sakhi 28. It is not known exactly, if Asa is a real or only a fancy name. Farid, a 
Muhammadan Par, lived not far from Lahore, lower down the Ravi. There are still many followers of 
Farid in the Panjab. A great portion of his poetical compositions has been incorporated in the Granth. 
Farid is not mentioned by Dc Tassy in his "Histoire de la literature Hindoui et Hindustani." 

* The original is: J>f5^J <SdV«£ tN^) literally: Allah is my effort, I am striving for him (•Hvi-^l = 
Arab. ^Jc^- or ^jXz^-). There is no doubt that Nanak picked up some little Arabic as well as Persian 
by his frequent intercourse with Muhammadan Faqirs. 



The Guru Baba answered with the Slok: 

Love to the witch comes, springing up by itself, by itself. 
0 Nanak, the field is not wasted, if its guardian be attentive. 

Then the Shekh recited this Slok: 

0 Farid, the body has lost its strength, the heart is broken, no strength whatever is left. 
The beloved has become (my) physician, he applies remedies and medicines (to me). 

The Guru Baba answered with the Slok : 

Verify in thy own person the true friend, to talk with the mouth is senseless. 
Perceive him in the heart, my friend is not far from thee. 

Then the Shekh uttered a Sabd (as written) in the Hag SuhT [there follow three verses]. 1 
The Guru Baba answered with the Sabd in the Rag Suhl, Mahala I. [there follow five verses]. 2 
Then Farid uttered a Sabd, in the Bag Asa [there follow three verses]. 3 
The Baba answered with a Sabd in the Bag SuhT, Mahala I. [there follows one verse]. 4 

The Baba and Shekh Farid remained together one night in the jungle. Then came one servant 
of God there. Having seen (them) he rose and went home, filled a bowl with milk and brought 
it towards the close of the night, after having thrown four Ashrafls into it. The Shekh took his 
portion (of the milk) and left the portion of the Guru. Then Shekh Farid uttered this Slok: 

Those who wake obtain gifts from the Lord. 

At the commencement of the night there is the blossom, at the end of the night also the fruit. 
The Baba answered with the Slok : 

The gifts are the Lord's, what can he be prevailed upon ? 

Some, though waking, do not obtain (them), some, who are asleep, he makes rise and meets 
(with them). 

Then the Baba said: "Shekh Farid, move thy hand in this milk and see what it is." When 
Shekh Farid looked, there were four Ashrafls; he dropped the bowl and went away. Then the Guru 
Baba recited a Sabd, in. the Bag Tukhari, Mahala I. [there follow five verses]. 5 Then the Laba 
and Shekh Farid started thence. Then that man came and saw that the bowl was lying on the 
ground. When he lifted it up, it was of gold, and filled with Ashrafls. He began to regret it 
and said: "Those were wealthy Faqlrs; if it had come into my mind, I would have put in re- 
ligion : so I have brought money and have got money." He took the bowl and went home. 

Then the Guru Baba and Shekh Farid came to the country of Asa. At that time the Baja 
of the country of Asa, whose name was Samundar, 6 had died. His skull did not burn (when his 
corpse was burnt), though they made different efforts. Thereupon the astrologers were asked, who 
said: "This one has once told a falsehood, therefore his soul has come into trouble." The people 
of the country of Asa were speaking the truth, by day they were sowing and by night they were 
cutting (the corn). The people of Asa began to lament. The astrologers said: "He will then 
become emancipated, when the feet of a saint touch (him)." The road to the country of Asa was 
therefore shut up, only one gate was left, that if by chance a Faqir should come, he would be 
carried along from that gate. At that time Baba Nanak and Shekh Farid arrived there. When 

1 Rag SuhT, Farid, 2. 2 Rag. Sum",. Sabd 4, Mah. I. 

3 Rag Asa, Shekh Farid, 1. 4 Apparently a misquotation, for the verse is not found there. 

5 Rag Tukhari, Chant, Barahamatra 2, Mah. I. (p. 1234). 

6 In the Lahore edition and in MS. (B.) the name is given as : Syam Samundar. 


they had come near, Guru Nanak said: " Shekh Farid, put thy foot (on it)." Shekh Fund re- 
plied: "What is my power, that I should put forth my foot?" Then the Baba put his foot (on 
it) and the skull burst; he was emancipated. Then all the people of the country of Asa came and 
fell down at (their) feet. The Baba recited a Sabd, in the Bag Maru, Mahala I. [there follow 
four verses]. 1 Then the people brought bread. Who offered bread to Shekh Farid, to him he said: 
"I have already eaten bread and also bound some up in the hem of my garment/' Then the 
people of the Asa country said: "0 servant of God, art thou some untruthful man of that country, 
in which Shekh Farid lives, who has a loaf of bread made of wood and if one offers him bread, 
says: 'I have eaten already and also bound some up in the hem of my garment.' " Then Farid 
threw down the bread of wood and said: "For telling once a lie the Raja has got such a great 
punishment (what will then be my state)?" 2 The Baba was pleased at this. When Shekh Farid 
took leave, the Baba said: "Shekh Farid, truly God is in thee, but take thou a Plr (spiritual 
leader)." Shekh Farid answered: "Well, it may be." When Shekh Farid departed, they em- 
braced each other. The Guru Baba recited then a Sabd, in the Bag Sri Bag, Mahala I. [there 
follow four verses]. 3 The Baba remained some days (longer) in the Asa country and the whole 
country began to mutter: "Guru, Guru!" and became devotees of the name. In the Asa country 
there is (still) a Manji. 4 The Baba was much pleased with the Asa country. Say: vah Guru! 

Then the Baba came to the country of Bisiar. There they gave him no place to sit on. 
Wherever they go and stand, there the people apply cow-dung, 5 seeing them gone. Then he came 
to Jhanda, the carpenter, who took him to his house. This one was drinking after he had washed 
his feet. Whilst he was drinking, the Guru came into sight. He became an TJdasi (Faqir) and 
began to wander about with (Nanak). 

By the favour of the holy true Guru ! The writing of the Jugavali 6 (comes now). At that 
time he {i.e. the Guru) was sitting on the sea-shore ; he practised wind-eating ; with him was 
Jhanda, the carpenter, of the Bisiar country. He got the Jugavali, with Jhanda it was finished. 

At that time it was read with astonishment. [There follows the Jugavali.] 7 

JNanak was pleased and discharged Jhanda, the carpenter, to the Bisiar country. Then the Baba 
and Mardana departed thence. Going along they came into a great desert, where they did not meet 
with anybody. Mardana, who had become very hungry, said: "Out of attachment to thee I became 
thy musician and was eating the morsels, I begged from the country; this also is now denied to me. 
We have fallen into a great jungle; if God ever will draw us out, we shall come out of it, Now* 
if some lion will roar and fall on (us), he will kill us." The Baba replied: "0 Mardana, none 
will come near thee, but be thou prudent!" He said: "Sir, how shall I be prudent? I have 
fallen into a desert." The Baba replied: "0 Mardana, we are not in a desert, we are in a village, 
wherever the name comes into our mind." There the Baba uttered the Sabd, in the Bag Asa, 
Mahala I. [there follow four verses]. 8 Then the Baba said: "0 Mardana, keep (this) Sabd in 
(thy) mind, except by thee (these) words are not understood." Then the Baba said: "Mardana, play 

1 Rag Marti, Sabd 2, Mah. I. 

2 This I have supplied from the Lahore edition, as it is missing in the original. 

3 Sir! Rag, Sabd 10, Mah. I. 

4 Hift, properly a small couch or stool, bedecked with silk clothes, on which the Granth is placed and 
adored by the people. 

5 As if the place had been polluted. ■ 6 tJJJT?^ the row of Yugas. 

7 All the other Janam-sakm's do not mention this. It is apparently an old interpolation, as it has 
nothing whatever to do with the narrative of Nanak's wanderings. 

6 Rag Asa, Sabd 33, Mah. I. 



the rebeck!" Mardana replied: "My body is pierced by hunger, I cannot play this rebeck." 
The Baba said: "Mardana, follow me, we will go to some village." Mardana replied: "I cannot 
go even to a village, my body is pierced by hunger; I am Mardana." The Baba said then: "0 
Mardana, I shall not let thee die, be*sensible ! " Mardana replied: "Sir, how shall I be sensible, I 
am Mardana, my life is done for." The Baba said then: "Mardana, eat the fruit of this tree till 
thou art satiated, but put none into the hem of thy garment!" Mardana answered: "Well, Sir!" 
and began to eat. He liked the flavour of the fruit and said: "If possible I will eat all, perhaps 
they may never come to hand." Some of them he also hound up in the hem of his garment, saying 
(to himself): "If I become hungry again, I will eat them." "When Mardana became hungry -again, 
he said: "I will eat some of the (fruits)." "When he put it into his mouth, he fell down at that 
very time. The Baba said: "What is the matter, Mardana?" He replied: "Thou hadst said, 

0 King, that I should eat to my satiety, hut I should bind none into the hem of my garment. 

1 said to myself that I would also bind some into the hem of my garment, perhaps they might 
not come to hand again. These I have put into my mouth; this is the matter that happened." 
The Baba said: "Thou hast done wrong, that thou didst put them into thy mouth, these are 
poisonous fruits, but having pronounced a word over them they were made nectar-fruits. Then 
the Baba put his foot on his head and he became quite well again, rose and sat down. Then 
Mardana said: "A fine thing is the attachment to thee and serving thee! I am a Dum and desire 
to eat by asking and begging; thou art a great man free from pleasure and pain, thou dost not eat 
nor drink anything nor dost thou enter any village, how shall I remain with thee ? give me leave 
to go!" The Baba said: "Mardana, I am much pleased with thee, why dost thou ask leave 
from me?" Mardana replied: "It is all very well, that thou art pleased with me, but discharge 
me, I will go home." The Baba replied: "Mardana, by all means remain!" Mardana said: 
"I will remain, if thou stillest my hunger; what thy food is, that should be mine, make it also my 
food! If thou do this, then I will remain with thee. If thou makest this promise, that thou wilt 
also think of my business, then I will remain with thee, if thou wilt not do it, then give me 
leave." The Guru Baba replied: "Go, Mardana! thou hast been exalted in^this and that world." 
Then Mardana sprang up and fell down at his feet. By the Guru Baba so many things were 
imparted (to him) ; with the raising up of his head he got the thorough knowledge of the Shastras 
and Yedas. Then Mardana commenced (again) to wander about with the Baba. 

Twelve 1 years, after he had become an Udasi, he (— Nanak) came to Talvandi and sat down 
outside, two Kos from it, in a desert. Stopping there for twenty-four minutes, Mardana begged 
and said: "If order be given to me, I will go home and inquire after my house (=wife), and see 
how my people are, if somehody is still alive or not." The Baba laughed and said: "Mardana, thy 
people will die, how wilt thou hold fast the world ? But if it be thy mind, then go ; having met 
with them come again, but come quickly! Go also to the house of Kalu, but do not take our name." 
Mardana having fallen down at his feet went and came to Talvandi and entered his house. Then 
many people assembled; every one who came, fell down at his feet and all people said: "It is 
Mardana, the Dum, but he is the shade of Nanak. He is no (more) that, he has become greater 
than the world." All who come fall down at his feet. Mardana having seen his family went to 
the yard in front of the house of Kalu and sat down. Then the mother of the Baba rose and fell 
on his neck and began to weep. Having wept she said: "Mardana, from whence? hast thou also 
information about Nanak?" Then all the people of the yard gathered together and began to ask. 
Mardana said : " My dear, when the Baba was at Sultanpur, I was with him as I)um ; since that 
time I know nothing of him." Having sat there for twenty-four minutes Mardana rose and 

1 Compare: Sikha de raj di vithia, p. 291. 



went. The mother of the Baha said then : " My dear, that this one has so quickly risen and 
departed from the yard, that has its reason." She stood up, took some clothes and some sweet- 
meats and went after Mardana, with whom she met and said: "Mardana, bring me to Nanak!" 
Mardana remained silent. They went on above two Kos to the place where the Baba was sitting. 
When the Baha saw that his mother and Mardana had come, he came and fell down at her feet. 
His mother began to weep and kissed his head and said: "I am a sacrifice, I am a sacrifice, my 
son, for thee I am a sacrifice. I am a sacrifice; for that place, where thou art wandering about. 
I have been made happy by thee, that thou hast shown me thy face." The Baba seeing the love 
of his mother became soft and began to weep. Having wept he laughed and said: "Mardana, 
play the rebeck!" Mardana played the rebeck and the Baba made the Sabd, in the Bag Vadhaus, 
Mahala I. [there follow four verses]. 1 Theu his mother put the clothes and sweetmeats before him 
and said, "Son, eat!" The Baba answered: "0 mother, I am satiated." His mother said: "Son, 
with what food art thou satiated?" The holy Guru Baba said: "Mardana, play the rebeck!" 
Mardana played it and the Baha made the Sabd, in the Sin Bag, Mahala I. [there follows one 
verse and one Eahau]. 2 His mother said again: "Take this patched quilt off thy neck and put on 
new clothes!" Then the Baba recited the second Pauri [there follows one verse with a Eahau]. 
His father Kalu also heard this news, he mounted a horse and came. When he had come, the Baba 
fell down at his feet and paid reverence to him. Then Kalu began to weep and said: "Mnak, 
mount the horse and come to our house." Then the Guru replied: "0 father, horses are of no use 
to me." He recited the third Pauri [there follows one verse with a Eahau]. Kalu said again: "Go 
once to (our) house, we have built a new house, see it, thou hast returned after a long time. There 
is thy family, meet with it, and if it shall please thee, thou mayst go again." Then the Baba 
uttered the fourth Pauri [^there follows one verse with a Eahau]. Kalu went on to say: "0 son, 
thy soul has become embittered by some matter, tell it me! if thou tell me, I will procure thee 
another marriage ; I will get up a good company for thee at the wedding-procession, with splendour 
I will get thy marriage solemnized." The Baba uttered a Sabd in the Bag Suhi, Chant, Mahala I. 
[there follow four verses]. 8 - Then the Baha said: "0 father and mother, that one is the all- 
arranging Supreme Being; the union, that is made by him, is good." His mother said then: "0 
son, rise and go ! give up this perverse talk, what union may be made again, by which we shall 
again meet?" The Baba made then the Sabd, in Eagu Maru, Mahala I. [there follow four verses]. 4 
After this the Baha said: "0 father and mother, we, who have come, shall come (again) at some 
fit opportunity. But mind now the order: I am an UdasT." His mother replied: "0 son, how 
shall this give contentment to my heart, as thou hast come after having led a retired life for many 
years?" The Baba said: " 0 mother, mind my word, thou wilt obtain contentment." Then his 
mother kept silence. The holy Guru Baba departed then from that place. 

Having seen the Eavl and the Canau (Chenah) he went into the wilderness and came to the 
country of Patan. 5 Three Kos from the country of Patan was a desert, thither he went and sat 
down, Mardana being with him. The Plr of Patan had b 2 en Shekh Parid- on his throne sat (now) 
Shekh Briham. One of his disciples had come early in the morning to collect wood, whose name 
was Shekh Kamal ; he had gone out to collect fuel for the kitchen of the Plr. He saw that near 
an Akk-tree both the Baba and Mardana were sitting. Mardana played then the rebeck and began 
to sing a Sabd; he gave a Slok in the Eag Asa. Shekh Briham had had a conversation with the 
Baba (before). 

1 Rag Vadhans, Sabd 1, Mah. I. 2 Sir! Rag, Sabd 7, Mali. I. 

3 Rag Suln, Chant 4, Mah. I. * Maru, Sabd 1, Mali. I. 

6 Compare the Lahore edition, Saklu 83. 




Thou thyself art the wooden tablet, thou thyself art the pen, thou, art also the writing upon it. 
Why should the One be calledtanother, 0 Nanak ? 

When Kamal heard this Sl5k, he left his wood and came near and said: "Sir, tell this Kababl 
(player of the rebeck), that he should repeat this verse." Mardana was told to do so and repeated 
it. Kamal learnt it; he took the wood he had collected, made his salam and returned to Patan. 
Having thrown down the wood he went to his Plr, made his salam and said : " Plr, health to 
thee! a beloved man of God has fallen in with me." The Plr said: "Kamal, where did he meet 
with thee?" Kamal answered: "0 Plr, health to thee! I had gone to gather fuel; a Bababi is 
with him and his name is Nanak; he recites his own Sloks." The Plr said: "Son, hast thou learnt 
some verse?" Kamal replied: "0 Plr, health to thee! One verse I also have committed to 
memory." He says: 'Thou thyself art the wooden tablet, thou thyself art the pen, thou art- also 
the writing upon it. Why should the One be called another, 0 !Nanak?'" The Plr said: "0 son, 
hast thou somewhat understood the meaning of this verse or not?" Kamal answered: "Plr, 
health to thee! to thee all is manifest." Then the Plr said: "0 son, by whom this verse has 
been spoken, his sight I have seen (already), he is a Eaqir of God, bring me also to him ! words 
of God are spoken by him." Then Shekh Briham ascended a sedan-chair and went taking Kamal 
with him ; he went along above three Kos ; when he looked, the Baba was sitting there. Shekh 
Biraham 1 went and standing said: "Nanak, peace be on thee!" The Guru Baba answered: 
"And on thee be peace! 0 Plr, health to thee, come! God has been merciful to us, that I have 
got a sight of thee." Then having kissed the hands mutually they sat down. The Plr asked then : 
"0 Nanak, having heard one verse of thine, I have become astonished. I said: 'By whom this 
verse has been spoken, his sight I have seen.' " Nanak replied : " Sir, a favour has been bestowed 
on me, that I have obtained a sight of you." The Pir said: "Nanak, give me an explanation of 
this verse. Thou sayst : ' There is one, 0 Nanak, why another ? ' But there is one Lord and 
two definitions. What shall I accept, and what shall I reject ? Thou sayst : £ There is only 
One,' but the Hindus say that, the truth is with them, and the Husalmans say that the truth is 
with them. Say, who is right and who is wrong?" Baba Nanak answered: "Sir, there is one 
Lord and one definition, accept the One and reject another (God)," 


Why should another be served, who is born and dies ? 

Kemember the One, 0 Nanak, who is contained in water and earth ! 

When the Baba had given this Slok, the Plr said: 

Tear the silk petticoat and make a flag of it, 2 put on a small blanket ! 
Put on those clothes, in which the bridegroom is obtained. 

The Guru Baba gave the answer: 

Tear any petticoat, put on any blanket — . 

Sitting in the house the bridegroom is obtained, if thou keep thy mind firm (on him). 
In the house is the woman, her beloved abroad, she grieves continually remembering him. 
He meets, with her without delay, if she make a sincere desire (for him). 

1 The name is written differently: Briham, Biraham, and Biraham, as here. Very likely it is corrupted 
from Ibrahim. 

2 The Faqirs are ia the habit of erecting a flag in front of their dwellings. 



When Nanak had given this answer, the Pir said : 


I have been young and he did not sport (with me). 
Having grown up I departed. 

The woman has sunk into the grave weeping; "I have not met with my Lord." 
The Baba answered : 


The woman is foolish, thin, black, of an impure heart. 

If she had virtues, she would constantly enjoy her beloved, 

0 Nanak, by her vices she is confounded. 

The Pir asked again : 


What is that word, what those virtues, what that gem and charm : 

What is that, I should get into my power, 0 sister, by which the beloved one may come into 
my power ? 
The Baba answered with the Slok : 

Bowing is the word, parting with the virtue, the tongue the gems and charm : 

These three, 0 sister, get into thy power, by which the beloved one will oome into thy power. 

Who serves the beloved one, his the beloved one becomes. 

Nanak (says) : who gives up all her companions, with her the beloved one will be. 
When Nanak had given this answer, the Pir said : " Nanak, I want one knife, give me 
that knife, by which man becomes slaughtered. With the common knife they slaughter animals, 
and when it passes over the neck of man, he will be slaughtered. Give me that l^nife, by 
which egotism becomes slaughtered." The Baba answered: "0 Pir, take it!" 


The knife of truth consider altogether as true ! 

Its working is inestimable. 

Apply it to the whetstone of truth and hide it ; 

Put it into a sheath of virtues ! 

Who is slaughtered by this becomes a Shekh. 

Behold, covetousness, the blood, has flowed out. 

If, being slaughtered, thou cling to truth: 

Thou wilt be absorbed in the sight (of God) at the gate, (says) Nanak. 
When the Baba had given him this knife, the head of the Pir turned round and he said: 
"Well, well done! thou art the beloved of God, God has bestowed a great favour (on thee)." 
Then the Pir said again: "0 Kanak, let me hear one Yar 1 of God! Our intention is this: a Yar 
cannot be made without two and thou art saying, he is only one. Let me see, whom thou wilt 
make the partner of God!" The Baba said: "Mardana, play the rebeck!" Mardana played it, and 
the Eag Asa was sung, the Guru gave the Slok in the Yar of Asa, Mahala I. [there follow three 
Sloks and one Pauri]. 2 Nine Paurls were made on this topic. Then the Pir rose and stood erect. 
He came and kissed his hands, saying: "ISTanak, thou hast obtained God, between thee and God 
there is no difference, hut be thou merciful, that God may also come and remain with me." The 

1 <£ld j a song of praise. 

2 Asa, Var I. (p. 511). The second Slok is noted down in the Granth as being of Angad, whereas 
it is here quoted as being made by Nanak, 



Baba answered: " Shekh Briham, God will accomplish thy trip." 1 The Plr said: "Sir, give 
me your word!" The Baba replied: "Go, you have my word." The Shekh rose then and 
stood, and the Baba took leave of him. 

The Baba also rose, and passing*lhrough Dipalpur, Ka&anpur, Kasur and Pati, he came to 
Goidawal and stopped there, but nobody allowed him to stay there. There was one Eaqlr there, 
to his hovel he went. That Eaqlr was leprous. The Baba having gone there stood and said : 
"0 Eaqlr, allow me to remain here during the night!" The Faqlr said: "Animals are de- 
stroyed, who come near me, but it is the favour of God that a human shape has come again into my 
sight." He remained there. The Eaqlr began to lament. The Baba uttered then a Sabd, in the 
Rag Dhanasarl, Mahala I. [there follow four verses]. 2 The Guru became compassionate and said : 
"Mardana, play the rebeck!" He did so, and the Rag Gauri was made, the Baba recited the 
Sabd, Mahala I. [there follow ten verses]. 3 Then in consequence of the interview (with the Guru) 
the leprosy was removed and his body was healed. He came and fell down at (Nanak's) feet 
and became a votary of the name ; he began to mutter : " Guru, Guru ! " 

Then the Baba started thence ; he came through Sultanpur, Vairowal, Jalalabad to Kiria, a 
Pathan town ; there he made Pathan people his disciples. Those Pathan people moving along 
began to sound drums and said: "Courage, Shah Nanak!" Then the order was given to Mar- 
dana: "Play the rebeck!" He did so and the Rag Tilang was made; the Baba uttered the 
Sabd, Mahala I. [there follow ten verses]. 4 Then the Pathan people becoming brave began to 
shout : " Courage, Shah Nanak ! " 

Then the Guru departed thence; he came again through Vatala and Saidpur to Sandeall. In 
the houses of the Pathans weddings were solemnized and with the Baba were also some Faqirs, 
who were hungry and empty. Having gone there the Baba sat down, but nobody took any notice 
of them, though the Faqirs were sorely depressed by hunger. The Baba rose and stood, he took 
the EaqTrs and Mardana with him, went and begged, 8 but no one responded to the demand. The 
Baba became very angry and said : " Mardana, play the rebeck ! " He did so, and the Rag Tilang 
was made, the Baba uttering in anger the Sabd, Mahala I. [there follow four verses]. 6 "When 
the Guru had recited this Sabd a Brahman came with a basket of fruits and met with them saying: 
"0 kind one, may the Sabd of wrath, that has been uttered, be revoked!" The Baba answered: 
" Sir, now it is too late to revoke it, it is spoken ; but thou, who hast come and met ns, art 
pardoned. Twelve Kos from here is a pond, thither bring thy family, do not remain here ; if 
thou shalt remain here, thou wilt be killed." The Brahman took his family and went away twelve 
Kos and sat down in a desert. "When by the power (of God) it had become morning, Mir Babar, 
the King, marched on and struck Saidpur 7 and all the villages round about, Hindus and Musalraans 
were promiscuously cut down, the houses sacked and pulled down. Such a slaughter came on the 
Pathans by the Sabd of the Baba. It was the wrath of a great man. God minds the words of 
EaqTrs, as he is minded by the Faqirs ; God being adored by the Eaqirs hears their word. What- 

1 The sense is : God will bring thee safely through (this life). 

2 Dhanasarl, Sabd 5, Mah. I. 

3 This is again a misquotation, for in the Granth these verses are ascribed to Guru Ram Das (fourth 
Guru) ; see : Gauri purbi, Karahale, I. (p. 258 ; Transl. p. 337), 

* Rag Tilang, Raisa, I. (p. 799). 

6 It is denied by the Sikhs, that Nanak ever begged, but the text here says plainly : ^ntH 
VTffiWT* It is also expressly stated, that he begged on his second tour; see p. xxxiv. 

6 Rag Tilang, Sabd 5, Mah. I. 

7 Cf. Transl. p. 509. 



ever comes into the mind of the Eaqlrs, that he does. But who are these Faqtrs ? Who are 
given to kindness and love, who ask little, who walk in sincerity and patience, who have subdued 
their body and soul and who do not make forethought; who are careful and tender-hearted and 
upright, they are Darveshes of God, they are Faqlrs. This also this married servant (of God) 
desires to be. Who among the four castes puts on the garb of Faqlrship, be he a Hindu or 
Musalman, a thief, fornicator, or highwayman, he ought to be served and his (former) works should 
not be taken into account. 

The Baba and Mardana were thrown into the prison of Saidpur (at the capture of the place) ; 
then they came into the hands of Mir Khan, the Mugal. Mir Khan, the Mugal, gave the order, 
that these slaves should be carried away. The Baba got a bundle on his head and for Mardana a 
horso was seized. The Baba uttered then a Sabd, in Eag Maru, Mahala I. [there follow four 
verses]. 1 Mardana said: " Sir, what is the matter regarding these (women), who are standing on 
their feet and go along weeping ?" The Baba replied: " Mardana, play the rebeck!" Mardana 
said: " Sir, in my hand is a horse." The Baba said; " Say : vah Guru! and let the horse go 
from thy hand." Mardana let the horse go and played the rebeck, the Eag Tilang was made, the 
Baba uttering the Sabd, Mahala I. [there follow twenty-two verses]. 2 When the Baba had recited 
these Sabds, Mir Khan, the Mugal, came. When he looked, he saw that the bundle on the head 
(of Nanak) was going on supported by a hand and that the horse was walking behind (Mardana). 
He reported this to Sultan Babar and said: "A FaqTr, who has been taken prisoner, on his head 
a bundle is going; with him is a Dura, behind whom a horse is walking; he is playing a rebeck 
aud worshipping God." The King replied: "A town, in which there are such Faqlrs, should not 
have been struck." Then the Mir said: "See to bestow favour on them!" Then having gone 
above two Kos the tents were pitched. There mills were put before them and they were told to 
grind the corn of the government. The Pathan, Khatri, and Brahman women were all seated 
together and mills put before them, before the Baba too a mill was put, but it turned by itself, 
the Baba sat and filled in a handful (when the corn was ground). Then the King oame there and 
the Baba recited a Sabd, in the Eag Asa, Mahala I. [there follow seven verses]. 3 The King began 
then to ask miracles; at that time the Sabd was made in the Eag Tilang, Mahala I. [there follow 
four verses].* When the- Baba had recited this Sabd, the King Babar came on and kissed 'his feet, 
saying: "In the face of this Faqlr God is coming into sight." 5 Then all the people, Hindus as 
well as Musalmans, began to make salam (to Nanak). The King said, "0 Darvesh, accept of 
something!" The Guru Baba replied: "I do not want anything, but release the prisoners of 
Saidpur and what has been taken from them restore to them ! " King Babar gave the order that 
they should release the prisoners and restore their property to them. All the prisoners of Saidpur 
were set at liberty, but they would not go without the Baba ; so the Baba returned with them on 
the third day to Saidpur. When he arrived there, he saw that a promiscuous slaughter had been 
made. The Baba said then: "0 Mardana, what has happened here!" Mardana replied: "0 King, 
what was thy will, that has happened." The Baba said: "Play the rebeck!" Mardana did so, 
and the Eag Asa was made, the Baba uttering the Sabd [there follow seven verses]. 6 When 

1 Maru, Sabd 6, Mah. I. 

2 This is a misquotation ; in the Granth these verses are ascribed to Guru Ram Das (Mah. IV.) ; see 
Tilang, Sabd I, Mah. IV. (p. 800). 

3 This is properly an AstpadI ; see Rag Asa, Asfpadl XL, Mah. I. (p. 460). 

4 These verses are not to be found in the Rag Tilang. 

5 Mulisin Fan! says in the Dabistan (II., 249), that there was a report that Nanak had called the Mugals 
into the country. This is by no means countenanced by the Sikh tradition. 

6 Asa, Astpndi XII., Mah. I. 



Babar marched away, the Baba recited the Sabd in the Bag Sorathi, Mahala I. [there follow four 
verses]. 1 When the Baba eame to Saidpur, the Hindus and the Musalmans commenced to bury and 
to burn the dead ones; in every house they began to weep and to beat their breasts and to lament. 
The Guru fell into a tranee; at that time the Sabd was made in Bag Asa [there follow ten verses]. 8 
One day Mardana said: " Sir, why has this (town) been alike destroyed and why have so many 
been killed?" The Guru Baba replied: " Mardana, go and sleep under that tree, when thou wilt 
rise, I will give thee an answer." Mardana went and slept there. One drop of grease had fallen 
on his breast when eating bread. As soon as he was (therefore) fallen asleep, ants eame and 
fell on him. "When one ant bit the sleeper, he bruised them all with his hand and threw them 
away. The Baba said: "What hast thou done, 0 Mardana?" Mardana answered: "For the 
sake of one, who has bitten me, all have been killed." The Baba laughed and said: "In this 
very wise they have been killed for the sake of one." Then Mardana eame and fell down at 
his feet. Many people of Saidpur became votaries of the name. 

At that time Jharu, the distiller, was in prison ; he wrote (to Nanak) ; he was a Kharar d of 
Khanpur, but by visiting the society (of the pious) he put his trust in God and became an TJdasi. 

The Baba started thence. Passing through Pasrur he eame to the small fort of Miya Mitha,* 
and at a distance of a little more than half a Kos he went into a garden and sat down there. Mia 
Mitha was informed of it and said amongst his disciples: "Nanak is an excellent Faqlr, but when 
he will meet with us, we will skim him off, as the eream is skimmed off the milk." The Baba 
said: "Mardana, what does Mia Mitha say?" Mardana answered: "Sir, he is thy musical 
instrument, as he is caused to sound, so he sounds." Then the Guru Baba said: "Mardana, when 
Mil Mitha will meet us, we will so squeeze him, as the juice is squeezed out of a lemon." Then 
Mi& Mitha rose and said: "Go on, friends, we will have an interview with Nanak." His disciples 
said: "Thou hadst before said, 'When iNanak will meet with us, we will so skim him off, as the 
eream is skimmed off the milk.'" Mia Mitha said: "Bise, an answer has eome (to me): 'as the 
juice is squeezed out of a lemon, so, when Mia Mitha will meet (with me), I will squeeze him out. 
The milk is nothing when the cream is taken off, and the lemon when squeezed out will be a 
refuse.'" Then Mia Mitha eame to the interview; haviug saluted he sat down. 

Mil Mitha said then : 


The first is the name of God, the second the prophet : 
0 Nanak, if thou read the Kalima, 5 thou wilt be accepted at the threshold. 
The Baba answered : 

The first is the name of God, the prophet is the cowkeeper at the gate. 

0 Shekh, if thou make a right aim, thou wilt be accepted at the threshold. 

The Baba added: "0 Shekh Mitha, at that gate there is no place for two; whoever remains 
there, he remains there having become one (with God)." Then Shekh Mitha said: "0 JNanak, 
how will the lamp burn without oil ? " 


Him, who cannot be deceived, fraud does not deceive, the dagger does not inflict one wound 
(on him). ■ 

The mind of this eovetous one palpitates ; how should the lamp burn without oil ? 

1 These verses are not to be found in the Rag Sorathi. 

2 Asa, Astpadi XII., Mali. I. (p. 461). 

3 Name of a savage tribe of the Rachna Duab. 

4 Compare : Sikhi de raj dl vithia, pp. 257> sqq. 5 The Moslem confession of faith. 



The Baba answered : 


(1) . The book of the Kur'an should be performed, the wick of fear should be applied to this body. 
Understanding of truth should be brought and kindled : 

Thus the lamp burns without oil ; make light, thus the Lord is met with. 

(2) , To this body adhere (different) tempers. 
Comfort is obtained by performing service (to God). 
All the world is coming and going. 

(3) . (If) in the world serviee (to God) be performed, 
Then at the threshold a seat is obtained. 

Nanak says: the arm will be leisurely swung (there). 1 

Then Shekh Mitha said: "Sir, what is that Kur'an, by reading which one may become ap- 
proved of? and what is that book, by acting up to whieh one may become accepted? and what is 
that Darvesh-ship, by which one may become worthy of the gate (of God)? and what is that 
fasting, by which the heart remains fixed and does not move? and what is that prayer, by the 
performing of which a favourable glance (of God) falls (on one) ? 

The Baba answered and said; "Mardana, play the rebeck!" Mardana did so, and the Baba 
made the Sabd in the Rag Marii, Mahala I. [there follow fifteen verses].' 2 Then Shekh Mitha said: 
"Thou hast praised the one name, what is this one name?" The Baba answered: "0 Shekh 
Mitha, has any one attained to an estimate of the one name?" Shekh Mitha said: "For kind- 
ness' sake show it to me!" The Baba seized the arm of Shekh Mitha, led hica to a corner and 
said: "Shekh Mitha, the one name of God was void." Then the Baba said: "Allah!" and 
with saying this the other became ashes. Seeing this Shekh Mitha became astonished; when he 
looked on, there was a handful of ashes there. Then came again a voice: "Allah!" and with 
this he rose and stood erect. Thereupon Shekh Mitha came on and kissed his feet. Then the 
Baba said in a state of ecstasy: "On those, who are present, favour is bestowed, to those, who 
are not present, he is incompassionate. Eaith is a friend, the faithless one is an infidel ; arrogance 
is wrath, wrath is unlawful. Sensuality is the devil ; conceit is infidelity ; the mouth of him, 
who slanders one behind one's baek, is black ; he, who is without faith, is impure ; the tender- 
hearted one is pure. "Wisdom is mildness ; who is without greediness, is a saint ; the dishonest 
one is not honourable ; the ungrateful one is shameless. Truth is paradise, falsehood is hell ; 
clemency is au oath; force is oppression; justiee is the Kur'an; praise (of God) ablution; the 
cry (to prayer) discrimination; 3 theft is covetousness ; adultery is impurity; leading the life of a 
Faqir is patience; impatience is deceit. The way is the Fir; 'who has no Plr, is going astray. 
Honesty is a friend, the dishonest one is worthless. The sword becomes men, justice the kings. 
Who knows and makes known so many things, he is called wise, (says) Nanak." Then the 
Baba took leave of Mia Mitha and departed thenee. Say: yah Guru! 

Going along the bank of the river Ravi he came to Lahaur. In the Lahaur Pargana (district) 
was a man, who owned a Crore (of Rupees), named Dun! Cand, a Dhupur Khatri, the Sradh of 
whose father was then performed. When he heard, that Nanak, the ascetic, had come, he went 
and paid reverenee to the Baba and took him with him. The Guru went and sat down (in his 
house). Then the performance of that matter (i.e. the Sradh) was taken up. He (Duni Cand) 

1 An idiomatic expression for a comfortable life without cares. 

2 This is a misquotation, the verses being ascribed in the Granth to Guru Arjun (fifth Guru). See Marii, 
Solahe, V. Mah., 12. 

3 The original is TTRT TT%7 5; is in itself senseless ; it is very likely a slip of the pen instead 



gave orders: milk, coagulated milk, fuel, grain was kept ready and the Biuhmans ate; he went 
also to call the Baba. The Baba asked: " What has happened in thy house?" He answered: 
"It is the Sradh of my father, in his name the Brahmans eat." The Baba said: "To-day it 
is the third day to thy father (sincere has died) and he has eaten nothing 1 and thou art saying, 
that thou art feeding one hundred men." Duni Cand humbly replied and said: " Sir, where is 
he?" The Baba said: "He has fallen into a wood near a village, five Kos from here the birth 
of a wolf takes place. But go thou and bring (him) food and don't be afraid ! With thy going 
his human intellect will return (to him) ; he will eat the food and will speak too." Duni Caud 
brought the food there and put it before (the wolf, in which his father's ghost was). Then he 
asked: "0 father, how hast thou come into this birth?" He replied: "Without the perfect 
Guru I have come into this birth. I was the disciple of a religious man, 3 who had allowed me 
to eat the flesh of fish. With me were profligate companions (and thus) the lust also seized 
me, my desire went also that way. When the time of my death came, I became distressed ; in 
punishment thereof I have come into this birth." Then that one rose and went away and this 
one ran off. Duni Cand came back and fell down at the feet (of Nanak), and took the Guru 
Baba to his house. Upon its door seven flags were fastened, of which every one was worth one 


Lakh (of Bupees). The Baba asked: "Whose flags are these?" Duni Cand answered: "Sir, 
these flags are mine." Then the Baba gave him a needle and said: "Keep it as a deposit of 


mine, we shall demand it again in the other world." Duni Cand brought the needle to his wife 
and said: "Keep this needle, which the Guru gave (me) and said: 'We shall demand it in the 
other world.'" His wife replied: "Will this needle go on with thee to the Lord?" Duni 
Cand said: "What is to be done?" His wife replied: "Go, give it back to him." Duni Cand 
brought the needle back to the Baba and said: "This needle cannot go with me to the other 
world, take it back 1 " The Guru Baba replied : " How wilt thou bring these flags there, as thou 
art not able to bring a needle there?" Dun! Cand rose and bowed his head and said: "Sir, tell 
me that word, by which they may arrive there." The Guru replied: "Give in the name of the 
Lord ! put (food) into the mouth of ascetics and uninvited guests, thus (the flags) will arrive 
there with thee." Then Dun! Cand gave away (as alms) the flags of seven Lakhs (of Bupees) 
and removed them. He obeyed the order. The order of the Guru is this, whoever will obey it, 
will be saved. Then Duni Cand became a votary of the name and began to mutter: "Guru, 
Guru!" The Baba said then: "Mardana, play the rebeck!" Mardana did so, and the Var of 
Bag Asa was made, fifteen Pauris on the subject of Dun! Cand. 

After that the Baba went to his house and remained some days in TalvandT. One day a 
Brahman came, who was strict in the observance of the prescribed religious duties ; he was hungry 
and having come in he pronounced a blessing. The Baba was just sitting at his meal and said : 
"Come, 0 Misr, the meal is ready 1" The Pandit replied: "I shall not eat this food, I shall 
eat that which I have prepared myself. When I shall dig up the ground a cubit long and make 
a Cauka 3 and when I shall dig up the ground a span long, I will make a hearth, and having 
washed the fuel, I will lay it upon it; — of what kind is the ground of this cooking-place? — I 
will not eat." The Baba said: "Give to* this Pandit a new cooking-place." A new cooking- 
place was given him. The Pandit went out and began to make .a Cauka and to dig up the 
ground; wherever he dug, there bones came forth. He went about digging for four watches 
( = twelve hours). When he had become quite exhausted by hunger,* he said (within himself): 

1 The sense is : Thou hast made no offering to his manes. 

2 tt4 l\JI'cft> properly: strict in observing the prescribed religious duties. 

3 The ^GqH (*».) is a small place, defined by lines and smeared with cow-dung, in which Hindus cook 
their food. 




"I will go to the Baba." He came, fell down at his feet and said: "May that food be given 
to me, I am dead of hunger." The Guru said: "That time of meal is passed, but go and say: 
'Yah Guru!' dig up the ground, make a cooking-place and eat!" Then the Baba uttered a 
Sabd in the Rag Basant, Mahala I. [there follow four verses]. 1 

One day the Guru gave the order, that in the last watch of the night the praises (of God) 
should be sung. One boy of seven years rose from his house and came (too), and stood behind 
the Guru. When the recital of the Art! 2 was made, he rose and went. One day the Baba said: 
"Keep to-day the boy back." When he went away, after having bowed his head, the society 
held him back and placed him before the Guru. The Guru asked him saying: "Why art thou 
coming here and rising at this time? Till now it is for thee the time of eating, playing and 
sleeping," That boy replied: "Sir, one day my mother said to me : '0 my son, kindle a fire!' 
T set to kindle it. When I had put on the wood, the fire first seized the small pieces and 
afterwards the larger ones. At this I became afraid, lest I might (also) depart (this world) whilst 
little ; in growing big we may meet or not meet (with God), like the pieces of wood. Therefore 
I said: 'I will mutter the Guru!'" The assembly hearing this became astonished, and the Baba 
also was much pleased. The boy fell down at his feet. At that time the Baba uttered the Sabd 
in the Bag Sin Rag, Mahala I. [there follow four verses]. 3 

By the favour of the true Guru ! 

Then the Baba started from his house and passed the second time a retired life in the Dakhan 
(south). He got his livelihood by filling his begging vessel with morsels; 4 on his feet he had sandals 
of wood, in his hand a staff, on his head rolls of rope ; on his forehead as Tilak the paint of a 
point. With him were Saido and Slho of the Gheho Jat tribe. The Baba went to the country 
of Dhanasarl and remained some days there. At night-time Saido and Siho of the Gheho tribe 
both went to the river to perform worship. They went when yet one watch of the night was 
remaining, and thought in their heart that what the Guru had got from the Khavajah, 8 he had 
got in that very place. One night they went and saw a man coming towards them, in whose 
hand was a fish. That man asked: "Who are you?" Saido and Siho said: "We are the 
disciples of Guru Nanak." That man asked (further): "What for are you come here?" Saido 
replied; "We are always going here in the last watch of the night to worship the Khavajahj 
because our Guru has obtained (something) 6 from the Khavajah." Then Saido asked: "Sir, who 
are you and where will you go?" That man answered: "I am the Khavajah and am continually- 
going to the Guru ; I go at this time to pay worship . to him. To-day I bring him a fish as an 
offering." Then Saido and Siho came and fell down at his feet and said: "We are saying that 
the Guru has got it from you, and you are saying that you are always going to perform service 
(to the Guru), and that you bring to-day an offering to the Guru." Then Khavajah Khidir said ; 
"0 ye men of the Lord, I am the water and that Guru is the wind. I have many times been 
produced from him and many times I have been absorbed in him." Both disciples, Saido and Siho 
of the Gheho tribe, went then and fell down at the feet of the Guru. The Guru asked: "Why 

1 Rag Basant, Sabd 3, Mab. I. 

2 The ^{133^ is nere tne P iece of poetry sung at the oblation of the Arti. 

3 It is a misquotation, the verses being ascribed in the Granth to Guru Arjun ; see Shi Rag, Sabd 4, 
Man. V. 

4 The begging of Baba Nanak is here most plainly asserted. Cf. p. xxix. note 5. 

5 "M"*>rnTT or ^*HTtTT IVfefcT ( j^.^ teAy>~ ), according to Muslim tradition the prophet Elias. In 
Sindh and the lower Panjab Khavajah Khidir is worshipped also by the Hindus as the river god Indus, under 
the more common name of Jinda Fir. 

5 It is not mentioned, what the Guru had or was supposed to have obtained. 



have you come to-day at this (early) time ? you have come before the day has risen." Saido the Gheho 
told him, how they had met with the Khavajah. Then the Baba uttered the Slok in the Jap [there 
follows one verse]. 1 The Guru Baba remained after that some days in the country of Dhanasarl; 
many people there became votaries of the name and began to mutter: "Guru, Guru!" 

There was a cloister of Jainas there, the people of which performed much worship. When 
they heard that the Guru was come, they collected their disciples and came with them; they 
spread out their beds outside the door and sat on them. They then sent word to the Guru, 
that he should come out to them. When Guru Baba came out, the head Jaina asked him : " Thou, 
who art eating grain new and full, and who art eating split vetches and drinking cold and unstrained 
water, and callest thyself a Guru, what authority hast thou got, that thou art always killing living 
creatures ?" The Baba recited (in answer) a Paurl of a Var in the Rag Majh [there follows a 
Paurl] and (two) Sloks. 8 

When the Guru Baba had said these Sloks, the head Jaina came and fell down at his feet; 
he became a votary of the name and began to mutter: "Guru, Guru!" At that time in a state 
of ecstasy this whole Var of the Rag Majh. was made in the country of DhanasarT, and written 
down by Saido, the Gheho ; the whole is to be read. In ttxe country of Dhanasarl many became 
votaries of the name ; there is also a Manji there. Say : van Guru ! 

The Baba departed thence and wandered along. There was a Rakshasa of the Dhanasarl 
country, who was eating men. The Baba passed there, Saido and Siho being with him. The 
Rakshasa came up to them, haying seen that the iron boiler was put on. He seized the Baba and 
carried him away, who seeing this laughed. Saido and Siho began to weep and said: "He will 
also throw our bodies into the boiler." The Baba sat down in the heated boiler and fell into a 
state of ecstasy. At that time the Sabd was made in the Rag Maru, Mahala I. [there follow four 
verses]. 3 The Rakshasa kept on heating the boiler, but the boiler did not become hot, it became 
cold. Then he came and fell down at his feet and said: "Sir, effect my salvation!" Then Siho 
gave him the Pahul; 4 he became a votary of the name and was emancipated (saved). 

The Baba went on. wandering about. Eurther on, on the sea-shore, Makhdum Bahavadln 5 was 
sitting on a carpet and playing. The Guru went up to him. Then Makhdum Bahavadln having 
seen him saluted him and said: "Peace he on thee, 0 Darvesh I" The Baba answered and said: 
"On thee be peace, 0 Makhdum BahavadTn, the ]£uraishl!" Then having kissed his hand he sat 
down. Makhdum Bahavadln said: "0 Darvesh Nanak, come let us make a trip on the sea." 
The Baba said: "Makhdum Bahavadln, hast thou seen anything in making this voyage?" 
Makhdum Bahavadln replied: "0 Nanak, one day a tower came into sight." The Baba said: 
"Go and bring information about it!" Makhdum Bahavadln replied; "I promise to do it, Sir!" 
Makhdum BahavadTn threw his prayer-carpet into the ocean and sporting, sporting he went out 
(into the sea). He saw there one tower and went there. As he went on, he saw twenty men 
seated there. He went to them, saluted them and shook hands with them and sat down. When 
night had set in, twenty dishes of food came down from heaven; the Eaqjrs ate the food. Four 

1 See the last Slok of the Japji. 

2 The Pauri is in Majh Var XXV., but in the Granth ascribed to Guru Amar Das (third Guru) ; 
the following two Sloks are in Var XXVI. and also in the Granth attributed to Baba Nanak. 

8 These verses are not to be found among the Sabds of Rag Maru. 

4 The Pahul (now pronounced Pahul) is the initiatory rite of the Sikhs, which is here carried back as 
far as the time of Baba Nanak, which is by no means probable, as it is never mentioned in the Granth. The 
more ancient rite of the Pahul consisted simply in the. drinking of some sherbet with two other disciples and 
Uttering : " Vah Guru ! " 

5 Bahau-duln, the famous Musalman Saint of Multan. 



watches (of the night) they worshipped God. At daybreak those twenty men went away. 
Makhdum Bahavadin remained that day there. When the day had risen one watch (= three 
hours), one boat came along, and it began also to sink. Makhdum lifted up his hands before God, 
that this boat should not sink whilst he stood there. The boat ceased to sink. When night had 
set in, those men came back and remained together during the night, but no food came down from 
the sky. The Faqlrs went on remembering God during the night. When it became morning, 
those men went again away. Makhdum Bahavadm remained also that day there. When the 
second day had set in, that tower began to fall in. Then Makhdiim joining his hands begged 
that the tower, whilst he was sitting there, should not fall in, and it ceased to fall. When night 
had set in, those men also came ; they sat together during the night, but no food came down from 
heaven. Then those friends said: "Who is the unfortunate man, who has thrown an obstacle 
into the way of God's works?" They began to reflect and to inquire among themselves. Then 
said Makhdum Bahavadln: "I have preserved the boat and the tower." Those men asked: "0 
Darvesh, what is thy name ? " Makhdum Bahavadln answered: "My name is Makhdum Bahavadln, 
the Pir." Those men said: "0 Darvesh, here is no place for Pirs and Kings; 1 the Plrs and Kings 
are lustrous in the world and are the gate and foundation of the way of God ; the head of Pirs 
and Kings is high." 

Makhdum -Bahavadin having said: "Peace be on you!" took up his prayer-carpet and put it 
on the sea and sat thereon. But tho carpet did not go, the four watches of the day he remained 
sitting on the ocean. When the day began to sink, those men also came. When they saw that 
he was sitting on the ocean, those men asked: "0 Darvesh, why art thou sitting here?" Makhdum 
Bahavadln replied: "My prayer-carpet does not go." Those disciples then said: "Write the 
name of the true Guru Nanak (on it), that thy carpet may go ! " He wrote then (the name of) 
the true Guru Nanak and the carpet of Makhdum Bahavadin went along and he came back to' the 
Baba, Having made his salutation he sat down. The Baba asked: "What hast thou seen, 0 
Makhdum Bahavadin?" He replied: "Sir, thou knowest all; I have come back as a sacrifice 
-to thy slaves." The Baba said: "0 Makhdum Bahavadm, works are a carcass, it is forbidden to 
the devotees to sit down there." Makhdum Bahavadin came then and kissed (his, the Baba's) 
feet. At that time the Sabd was made in the Bag Sir! Bag, Mahala I. [there follow eight verses]. 2 
Then Makhdum Bahavadm flung away the prayer-carpet from his hands; he was ordered, that he 
should go and take a Pir. Makhdum Bahavadin said: "Sir, whom shall I make my PTr?" The * 
Baba gave the answer : " Whom Shekh Farld has made (his Pir)." Makhdum Bahavadin made 
his salutation, shook hands and was dismissed by the Baba. The Baba, also departed thence. He 
went along on the road of the ocean ; 3 further on Machind and Gorakhnath were sitting. 4 When 
Machind saw (him), he said: " 0 Gorakhnath, who is coming here on the ocean?" Gorakhnath 
answered: "Sir, this is Nanak." The Baba made his appearance; having said: "Ades, ades 
(salutation)!" he sat down. Machind asked and said: "0 Nanak, what did the ocean of the 
world appear (to thee)? In which wise is the ocean crossed?" The Baba uttered a Sabd in the 

1 Great Faqirs are also called Kings; thus Nanak is usually called Nanak Shah by the Muhammadans. 

2 These verses are not to be found among the Sabds of Siri Rag. 

3 That is to say: he went along on the sea-shore, but on the ocean. 

i Machind (properly Machendra) and Goiakh are Jogis (both have therefore the title of nath), Gorakh- 
nath being the son of Machendra and grandson of Adinatb, according to Price's Hindi and Hindustani 
Selections, vol. i. p. 141. In later times Gorakhnath was considered the founder of the Jogi sect, though without 
reason. At any rate Machind and Gorakhnath were not contemporaries of Nanak, as Gorakhnath was, accord- 
ing to all accounts, a contemporary of Kabir. It need therefore hardly be mentioned that this whole story is 
an invention of the Sikhs, who consider Machind as a fabulous being, half-man and half-fish. 



Ea-g Eamkall, Mahala I. [there follow four verses with two Eahaus]. 1 At that time the Sabd was 
also made [there follow four verses]. 1 Machind said further: (< 0 Nanak, practise the Yoga, that thou 
mayst become free from vacillation and cross in comfort the water of existence." The Guru 
recited a Sabd in the Eag Eamkali, iffihala I. [there follow four verses].* Then Gorjtkhnath humbly 
said: " 0 Guru: thy Pirship (spiritual guidance) is (my) prayer; from the beginning, from the 
beginning of the Yugas it has gone on." The Baba, replied: "Whom wilt thou make (thy) Guru, 
0 Gorakhnath?" Gorakhnath said: "Who is such a Guru, that he may put his hand "on thy head? 
that is thy Guru, who may be born from thy body." The Baba replied: "Very well." Then 
the Baba departed and went along. The conversation with Machind is finished, it was written by 
Saido of the Gheho Jat tribe. Say : vah Guru ! 

Then mention was made of Singhala-dlpa (Ceylon). They Went and stood on the bottomless 
ocean. The Baba said: "How shall this bottomless ocean be crossed and passed?" His disciples 
Saido and Slho humbly said: "ftir, by thy order the mountains will cross." The Baba said: 
"Keep on reading this Slok: the true name is the creator, the Supreme Spirit, without fear, 
without enmity, of timeless form, unproduced from a womb. By the favour of the holy true 
Guru! " Then the Baba said: "In whose disciple's mouth this Slok will be and who will continue 
reading it, and as many people after him will hear it, they will all cross the water of existence." 
At this the disciples fell down at his feet and said: "Sir, whom thou pleasest, him thou makest 
cross." Then they went across the ocean (to Ceylon). In Singhala-dlpa they went to the Eaja 
Siv-nabhi and took up their abode in his garden on the other side of the ocean. At that time the 
garden of the Eaja Siv-nabhi, which was worth nine Lakhs, was dried up ; it became green again, 
What bore flowers, got flowers, what bore leaves, got leaves. When Maghor, the gardener, saw that 
the garden, which had been dried up for years, had become green, he went and informed the Eaja 
Siv-nabhi of it, saying: "Sir, come out! with the sitting down in it of a FaqTr the garden has 
become green ! " The Eaja Siv-nabhi sent slave-girls of exquisite beauty, who, having arrived 
there, began to dance. They sang many Eags and made many sports, but the Baba did not say 
anything, he remained sunk in meditation. Afterwards the Eaja Siv-nabhi came (himself). Having 
come he began to ask and said: "Sir, what is thy name? what is thy caste? art thou a Jogi? Be 
so kind as to come to my palace ! " The Baba recited a Sabd in the Eag Maru, Mahala I. 3 [there follow 
four verses]. Then the Eaja Siv-nabhi asked: "Sir, art thou Gorakhnath?" The Baba recited 
then the fifth Pauri [there follows one verse]. When the Baba had concluded (this verse), the Eaja 
came and fell down at his feet, humbly begging and saying; "Sir, be so kind as to come to my 
house." The Baba replied: "I do not go on foot" Eaja Siv-nabhi said: "Sir, all is given to 
thee. If it be thy wish, mount a horse or an elephant! or mount also a travelling-throne!" 
The Baba replied: "We will ride on men." The King said; "Sir, there are also many men (at 
thy disposal), mount!" The Baba replied; "Your honour, if there be such a man, who is a Eaja 
(or) a prince, and if there be the Eaja of the city, on his back I will mount." The Eaja said: 
"0 King, I am thy creature, the Eaja am I, mount!" The Baba mounted on the back of the 
Eaja. The people (seeing this) began to say, that the Eaja had run mad. When he (the Baba) 
had come, he sat down. The Earn Candkala and the llaja Siv-nabhi joined their hands (in suppli- 
cation) and stood before him, humbly saying: "Do you wish to eat, Sir?" The Baba answered: 
"I am keeping a fast." The Eaja said: "Sir, how may we bestow any benefit (on you)?" The 
Guru answered: "If there would be some flesh of man, I would eat it." The Baja Siv-nabhi 

1 Ramkall, Sabd 3, 4, Man. I. 

2 Ramkall, Sabd 5, Mah. I. • 

3 These verses are not to be found among the Sabds of Rag Maru. 



said: "Sir, many men also are a sacrifice for you." The Eaba replied: " Your honour, if there 
would be such a man, a son in the house of the Raja, a prince of twelve years, his flesh I would 
eat." On this the Eaja and the EanI became thoughtful; then the Eaja said: "0 Lord, perhaps 
there is a son in the house of some Eaja." The Earn said then: "How shall I give him up by 
thy order?" A fight ensued with her; when she was overcome, she gave her son up. The EanI 
said then: "Tour honour, there is a son in our house, look at his janam-patrt ! " When the 
janam-patrl was examined, it was found, that he was twelve years old." The Eaja said then: 
"0 son, thy body is required for the Guru! what is thy desire?" The boy replied: "0 father, 
what benefit is derived from this, that my body should be required for the Guru?" The Eaja 
said: "As this one has been married seven days, his wife also should he asked." Then the EanI 
and the Eaja went and sat down at the side of their daughter-in-law. The Eaja said : " 0 daughter, 
the body of thy husband is required for the Guru, what is thy pleasure?" The girl replied: 
"0 father, this one's body is required for the Guru, and my widowhood is sacrificed to the Guru, 
what other benefit is derived from this?" Then the four came to the Guru and stood before him. 
The Eaja Siv-nabhi said: "Sir, here is the boy!" The Eaba replied: "Your honour, thus he 
is of no use to me. The mother should seize his arms and his wife should seize his feet and thou 
shouldst take a knife into thy hand and slaughter him, then he will be of use to me." The Eaja 
Siv-nabhi obeyed the order of the Guru ; taking a knife into his hand he slaughtered his son. 
Having boiled (the flesh) he brought it and put it before him. Then the Eaba said: "You three, 
closing the eyes and saying: ' Vah Guru!' put (it) 1 into your mouth!" The Eaja and the 
EanI and the Eaja's daughter-in-law closed their eyes and said: "Yah Guru!" When they 
put it into their mouth, the four were sitting there, but when they opened their eyes, the Guru 
Eaba was not there. The Eaja became distressed and went to the wilderness; he stood on his feet 
bare-headed and wandered about saying: "Guru, Guru!" Then after twelve months he (the 
Guru) came and gave him an interview and applied him to his feet; the regeneration and dying 
of the Eaja Siv-nabhi was cut off, be became a disciple. Saido the Jat, of the Gheho tribe, gave 
him the Pahul by the order (of the Guru) ; all the people of Singhala-dipa became disciples, they 
began to mutter: "Guru, Guru!" the whole region was pardoned after the Eaja Siv-nabhi. 2 
The evening service of the society of Singhala-dipa. 

When night sets in, then all assemble together and sit down in the Dharmsala. Then one 
disciple goes for the food of the night. In the morning they all go and eat together. In whose 
disciple's house the meal takes place, into his kitchen twenty-one maunds of salt are brought. 

At that time the secret devotional service was made manifest. Ey the favour of the holy 
true Guru is written the Pran-sangall 3 (viz.): the story of the empty palace;- 4 meditation on the 
Formless one ; the recital of the secret devotional service by the Baba, the consideration of the vital 
breath and the body. At that time the Eaba was wind-eating. It was made beyond the ocean 
in Singhala-dipa, in the country of the Eaja Siv-nabhi; at that time the disciples Saido and Slho 
were with him, when the Pran-sangall was made. First part : Eagu Asa, Mahala I. [there follow 
twenty-one verses]. 5 At that time the Pran-sangall was made, the knowledge of the soul is 

1 It is not stated, what they should put into their mouth, very likely, purposely. 

2 The story of Raja Siv-nabhi is also contained in the later Janam-Sakhls, but totally changed; see 
Lahore edition, p. 120. It was thought too offensive, as it borders on madness. 

3 Literally: the chain of the breath. The Pran-sangali formerly formed a part of the Sikh devotional 
service, but is now unknown amongst them (at least in the Panjab). 

4 The words of the original are : ?T7J sft 

5 I cannot find these verses in the Rag Asa ; they were, as it appears, not received into the collection of 
the Granth, if they are not altogether fictitious. 



(therein) discussed, hut none could take it, it was (therefore) left there. By Saido the Gheho he 
caused it to he written, having made him wash his feet near the small shop of Gorakh. Near the 
little shop of Gorakh is a square, in that he (the Guru) began to remain separated (from the 
world). But the secret devotional service was not made manifest, it was given to the Raja Siv- 
nabhi. The word was pronounced (by the Guru) : if one man shall come from Jambu-dipa (India), 
for him it should be written. 

The Guru departed thence. He came to the house of a carpenter and remained there during 
the night. This man performed much service to him and laid out a couch for him. The Baba 
slept (on it) during the night ; in the morning he seized with his hand the wood of the hut and 
smashed the couch with a side-post. When he came out, Saido the disciple humbly said : " Sir, 
in the whole town nobody was giving us a place, but this carpenter gave us a place. His things 
also have been ruined ; he had one hut and a couch, this also thou hast pulled down and gone 
away. What is the matter concerning him ? " The Baba replied : " 0 Saido, his love (to me) 
has been accepted. When that (carpenter) came to his house, those four feet (of the couch) were 
buried in the ground, but beneath them were four pots of money ; of the hovel a palace was 
raised, and of the low couch fine bedsteads were made." Then Saido and Slho fell down at his feet. 

The Baba went then to his house {i.e. home to Talvandi), and remained some days at home. 
Then he set out again and began to pass his third retired life in the northern region. In this 
(third) retired life he was eating the fruits and- blossoms of the Akk-fcree, 1 but in a dried state. On 
his feet he had a skin and on his head also, his whole body was wrapped up. On his forehead he 
had a Tilak of saffron. At that time were with him Hasu, the blacksmith, and Slha, the calico- 
printer. The Baba went to Kashmir and remained some days there; many people became votaries 
of the name. At that time there was in Kashmir a Pandit, Brahm-das ; he heard that a Eaqir 
had come. With him (i.e. the Pandit) went two camels (laden) with the Puranas, and on his 
neck he had an idol. Having come he said : " Bam, Ram ! " and sat down. Having seen the 
garb (of the Baba) he said : " Thou art a Sadh, why hast thou put on skins ? and wliy hast 
thou twisted round ropes ? why hast thou given up the (prescribed) works ? and why art thou 
touching meat and fish?" The Baba replied with the Var in the Rag Malar, Mahala I. [there 
follow two Vars]. 2 Then the Pandit Brahm-das came and fell down at his feet and said : " Sir, 
when this thing was not, where was then the Lord?" The Baba recited the Sabds in the Rag 
Maru, Mahala I. [there follow sixteen verses]. 3 Then the Pandit Brahm-das came and fell down 
at his feet; he flung away the stone (idol) from his neck and became a votary of the name, he 
began to perform service (to it). But the desire did not leave his mind, whatever service ho 
performed, that he did naturally sighing; it came into his mind, that he was performing this 
service also before. The sacrifice of his egotism was (therefore) not acceptable. One day the Guru 
Baba said: "Go and take a Guru!" The Pandit replied: "Sir, whom shall I make my. Guru?" 
The Guru Baba said: "Go, in the wilderness is a house, there four Eaqlrs are sitting, they will 
point him out to thee." Brahm-das started off; having gone there he made obeisance to them. 
Those disciples having paused for twenty-four minutes said: "Thy Guru is in that mansion." 
The Pandit came back and made his obeisance. A woman dressed in crimson clothes stood before 
him, and taking her slipper beat him badly. Weeping he went back (to those disciples). Those 
disciples asked him: "Hast thou met with the Guru?" He related to them the accident that 
had happened to him. Then said those disciples: "0 brother, that was the Maya, whom thou 

1 Which are considered very poisonous. 

2 Of these Vars the first Slok is ascribed in the Grauth to Amnr Das. See. Malar, Var 1, 2 (p. 1414). 

3 Rag Maru, Solahe, 15, Mah. I. 



wast desiring." Then he came and fell down at the feet of the Guru Baba; he drove away the 
two camels with the Puranas and began to mutter: "Guru, Guru!" he became the dust of the 
feet of the society. (This) true story was written by Hasu, the blacksmith, and SihS, the calico-printer. 

The Baba departed thence. Having passed a Lakh and a quarter of mountains he ascended 
Sumeru, where the residence of Mahadev (Shiva) was. There Mahadev, Gorakhnath, Bharthart, 
Gopi-cand and Carpat were sitting. The Baba went up to them, made his salutation and sat 
down. The Siddhs gave him then a small round box and said to him: "0 child of the Kali- 
yug, go, fill it (with water) and bring it!" The Baba went to fill the box; when he put it 
into the water, diamonds and pearls began to fall into it. The Guru Baba beat the box with 
earth, so that it broke into pieces. He joined then the pieces again together and recited the Slok : 

He breaks, fashions and adorns : 

0 Nanak, without the True one there is none other. 

Then the strength of the mantras went off; he put the box into the water and got water (in it) ; 
having filled it he brought it back to the Siddhs. All the Siddhs drank of the water, but the water 
was not exhausted. Mahadev asked then: "Art thou a householder or a lonely man?" The 
Baba replied: "What are the characteristic signs of a lonely man and of a householder?" 
[there follows a number of verses about the state of a householder, about loneliness and Bairag 
(indifference to the world)]. Then said Bharthan : "0 Nanak, become thou a JogI, who continues 
to live for ever!" The Baba replied: "What is the form of the Jog?" Bhartharl said: "The 
form of the Jog is the earring, the patched quilt, the wallet, the staff (and) the horn, the sound of 
which is emitted in the universe." The Baba recited the Sabd in the Bag Asa, Mahala I. [there 
follow four verses]. 1 Then the Siddhs said: "Nanak, go thou to the mountain (Kaila sa ?), there is 
an assembly there, a meeting of the Siddhs takes place there." The Baba replied: "How many 
days' journey is it to the mountain?" The Siddhs said: "The mountain is distant three days' 
journey; we are going there with the pace of the wind." The Baba said: "Go ye, I shall come 
slowly." The Siddhs started and after them the Baba too ; he went there in one moment on the 
flight of his desire. Having come there he sat down under a Ficus Indica, afterwards the Siddhs 
also came; when they looked about, he was (already) sitting there. The Siddhs asked: "When 
has this one come?" The forerunner of the Siddhs said: "To-day it is the third day, that this 
one has come." The Siddhs became astonished at this. When the time of the cup came, the * * 
flagon went round; they brought it also to the Baba, who asked: "What is this?" The Siddhs 
answered: "This is the cup of the Siddhs, drink thou?" The Baba said: "What does it 
contain?" The Siddhs answered: "It contains raw sugar and the blossoms of the Dhava-tree." 
The Baba recited then a Sabd in the Bag Asa, Mahala I. [there follow four verses]. 3 Then the 
Siddhs said: "Ades, ades! (salutation, salutation!)" but the Baba said: "Ades to the primeval 
divine male ! " He started thence. 

His fourth retired life was passed in the west. On his feet he had shoes of leather and trousers 
of leather; on his neck he had a necklace of bones, on his forehead a Tilak of a dot, his clothes 
were blue. He played amongst children; (thus) playing he went on a Hajj. One Hajl fell in 
with him and they remained together during the night. The Hajl asked him* and said: "0 
Darvesh, thou hast no cup, no staff, no skin, no sack, art thou a Hindu or a Musalman ? " The 
Baba recited a Sabd, in the Bag Tilang, Mahala I. [there follow four verses]. 3 The Hajl said again : 
"Sir, we are living in this world, what will be our state?" The Baba recited the Sabd in the 

1 Rag Asa, Sabd 37, Mah. I. 

2 Asa, Sabd 38, Mah. L 

3 Tilang, Sabd 2, Mah. I. 



Rag Tilatig, Mahala I. [there follow four verses]. 1 Then they went on travelling to Mekka. As 
they went along the road, a cloud went along with them over their heads. When the Haj! saw this, 
he said: "A cloud is over me." He began to say: " No Hindu has ever gone to Mekka, do thou 
not go with me J either go before or*behind me!" The Baba replied: " Well, let it be so! go 
thou ahead!" So he went ahead. When he looked again, there was no Baba nor a cloud. Then 
the Haji began to heat his hands (in grief) and said: "I have had a sight of God." But as he 
could no longer stop (him), he got alarmed. 

The Baba entered Mekka. It had been written before in books, that one Nanak, a Darvesh, 
would come, then water would be produced in the Wells of Mekka. When the Baba had entered 
Mekka he lay down to sleep, stretching his feet towards Mekka, It was the time of evening 
prayer. The Kazi Eukn Dm came to make his prayers ; when he had beheld (Nanak) he said ; 
"0 servant of God, why dost thou stretch out thy feet, in the direction of the house of God and 
towards the Ka'ba?" The Baba replied: "Where the house of God and the Ka'ba is not, drag 
my feet to that direction ! " The Kazi Eukn Din turned the feet of the Baba round, but in what- 
ever direction he turned the feet of the Baba, to that direction the face of the Mihrab 2 was also 
turning. The Kazi Eukn Din became astonished and kissed his feet saying: "0 Darvesh, what is 
thy name?" The Baba recited the Sahd in the Eag Tilang, Mahala I. [there follow four verses]. 3 
When the Baba had concluded, the KazT Eukn Dm made his salam and said: "Yah, vah (wonderful, 
wonderful!), to-day I have obtained a sight of a Faqlr of God." He went then to the Pir Patalia 
and said : " Nanak, the Darvesh, has come." The Pir Patalia came to have an interview with 
him; he saluted him and having shaken hands with him he sat down; they began then to speak 
the praises of God. Then the KazT Eukn Din asked and said : " Sir, those who are reading the 
thirty letters, will they get some advantage from it or not?" The Baba said: "By the favour 
of the true Guru!" The conversation that was held on the subject mentioned by Eukn Din is 
(written) in the Eag Tilang, 4 Mahala I. The speech was made by the Baba; Shekh Eukn Dm 
was the KazT of Mekka. The Baba said: [there follow thirty verses]. Then the KazI Eukn Din 
said: "0 Darvesh Nanak, the Hindus and Musalmans, who are reading the Yeda and the book 
(i.e. the Kur'an), will they obtain God or not?" The Baba answered with the Sabd in the Eag 
Tilang, Mahala I. [there follow four verses]. 5 Then the Kazi Eukn Din said: "Sir, those who are 
not reading these (the Yeda and the Kur'an) and are practising bad works, who never keep fasts 
nor say their prayers, and who are drinking wine or drinking Bhang 6 and beer, 7 what will be 
their state at the day of resurrection ? " The Baba uttered this Slok : 

His worship (=the Prophet) has said in his decision and in the book; 

Dogs, who watch well at night-time are better than not-praying men. 

The wretches, who do not wake and remain asleep after the call (to prayer), 

In their bone is uncleanness ; though men, they are like women. 

Who do not obey the Sunnat and divine commandment nor the order of the book : 

1 This is again a misquotation, the verses being attributed in the Granth to Guru Arjun. The order of 
the verses also is inverted; see Tilang, Sabd 1, Mah. V, 

2 t—Ajs? the arc hed niche in a mosque, the front of which is always directed towards Mekka. 

3 These verses are not to be found among the Sabds of Tilang. 

4 Nothing of this kind is found in,the Rag Tilang. 

6 These verses are attributed in the Granth to Kabir ! See Tilang, Kabir, I. 

6 Bhang, an intoxicating potion, made from hemp-leaves. 

7 The word is T^TT, Pers. xj^j. 



They are burnt in hell, like roasted meat put on a spit. 

Great misery will befall them, who are drinking Bhang and wine. 

A pig is interdicted from liquor and beer, nor is it Bhang-drinking. 

Who walk according to the advice of their lust, they will suffer great pain : 

At the day of the resurrection there will be a clamour and noise. 

At that day the mountains will fly about as when cotton is carded, 

0 Kazi, none other will sit (there), God himself will stand. 

According to justice all will be decided, the tablet is handed over at the gate. 

Just inquiries are made there, by whom sins were committed, 

They are bound and thrown into hell, with a layer (of earth) on their neck and with a 

black face. * 
The doers of good works will be unconcerned at that day. 
Those will be rescued, 0 Nanak, whose shelter his worship (the Prophet) is. 1 

Then Plr Patalia said: " Sir, we are living in the world, how will God be obtained?" The Baba 
replied with the Sabd in the Rag Tilang, Mahala I. [there follow four verses]. When the Baba had 
uttered this Sabd, the KazI Bukn Din and the Plr Patalla came and kissed his hands and his feet 
and with their saying: "Yah Guru!" water was produced in the well. The Baba was pleased 
and departed thence; he came home again. 2 

His fifth retired life. The Baba went to Gorakh-hatari. There he was seen by the Siddhs, 
who asked: "What Khatrl art thou?" The Baba replied: "My name is Nanak." The eighty- 
four Siddhs, making their (different) postures, were sitting there. Then the Siddhs said: "0 
devotee, say some praise (of God)!" The Baba answered: The conversation with the Siddhs (is 
written) in the Bag EamkalT, Mahala I. [there follow five verses]. 3 The Siddhs gave him then a 
cup of five Seers (=ten pounds). The Baba put it on the ground; at this the Siddhs became puffed 
up and said: "See something or show something!" The Baba replied: "Well, let it be so; if 
you will do something, I will look." Then the Siddhs began to show their power; some one 
made fly (in the air) a deer-skin, another caused a stone to move about, another gave forth fire, 
another caused a wall to run about. The Baba came into a state of ecstasy; at that time he made 
this Slok: 

If I put on fire and make a house of snow and cause the best food to be made. 
If I turn all pains into water and drink it and drive the earth about. 
If I put the sky on scales and weigh it and put afterwards a Tank 4 into (the scales). 
If I increase so much, that I be not contained (in any place), if I lead all about by a nose-ring. 
If I ascertain all the power there is and also tell it : — 
As great as the Lord is, so great are his gifts, in giving he does his pleasure. 
0 Nanak, on whom his favourable look his, (he gets) the greatness of the true name. 
0 Nanak, the faces of the workers of miracles (will be) black ; greatness is in the true name. 
Then the Siddhs said: "Ades (salutation!)" but the Baba said: "To the primeval divine male 

1 This last verse looks very suspicious, and very unlike Nanak, though his name is inserted. It contains 
a plain confession of the Islam and the intercession of Muhammad, which Nanak nowhere else has made. 

* I need hardly mention here, that this whole story is without any foundation whatever, though a very 
big Wftt (conversation) is made up under the title : J® ^ JRfe, which is in my possession. 

3 Rag Rainkali, Siddh GostI 1, Mah. I. (p. 1039). 

* A tank is equal to four masas. The sense of this phrase is : to weigh most accurately, wjich is done 
by putting a tank into one of the scales, in order to make it sink. 



(be) salutation!" At that time the word was spoken (as written) in the Rag Gauri, Astpadi, 
Mahala I. [there follows one Astpadi]. 1 The Siddhs said then: "Ades, ades ! " the Baba (how- 
ever) said: "To the primeval divine ^aale (be) salutation!" 

After that the Guru Baba went home. One day the order of the Lord was made (manifest), 
that one disciple of good caste in Khadur was muttering: " Guru, Guru!" and that the whole of 
Xhadur was minding the- (goddess) Durga, and that all were teazing that disciple, who remained 
in the quarter of the Tihanas, and that his worshipper was Lahana. One day that disciple was 
sitting and repeating his jap (muttering). Guru Angad heard it and asked, whose this word 
was. That disciple replied: "Guru Nanak's," Guru Angad came together with that disciple 
and fell down at the feet (of the Baba), and as soon as he had seen his sight, he tore away the 
jingling balls from his hands and feet and threw them away; he began to mutter: "Guru, Guru!" 
and came to serve him; he seoured the pots and swung the fan. One day Guru Angad went 
towards the close of night; when he looked about, he saw a woman dressed in crimson elothes 
sitting and pulling (the fan). Guru Angad humbly said: "0 King, who was that?" The Baba 
replied: "0 Angad, that was Durga; every eighth day she is coming to do service to the Guru/' 
Then Guru Angad fell down at his feet. One day by the order of the Lord the foot of the Baba 
was shaking. When Guru Angad looked on, several (living) creatures were taking leave of his feet. 2 

One day Guru Angad had got clothes from the town and put on a suit. The Guru Baba gave 
Trim the order to bring grass. Guru Angad brought grass from the pools,' but all his clothes beeame 
sullied by mud. When the mother (the wife of USTanak) saw this, she began to be angry with the 
Baba and said : " This one also is driven away (by thee) by worldly business ; he is another's son, 
who has brought (the grass) having sullied his clothes with spots and mud." The Baba laughed 
and said: "0 mother,, this is not mud, this is sandal-wood perfume of this and that world." The 
mother remained silent at this. Then the Baba went and slept; when it was dinner-time, a slave- 
girl began to awaken him. She licked the feet of the Baba with her tongue, and at the moment 
of licking them she saw that the Baba was standing in the ocean; a boat of diseiples was with 
him, which he was pushing on and pulling out. Then the mother also came and said : " Is !Nanak 
awake?" The slave-girl said; "ISIanak is not here, 0 mother, he is standing in the ocean." The 
mother began to beat the slave-girl and said : " Also this one commences to make drolleries." 
Then the Baba awoke and the mother said : "0 ehild, this slave-girl also commences to make 
drolleries, she says, that Nanak is standing in the ocean." The Baba replied : " 0 mother, do 
not care for what a mad slave-girl talks." The slave-girl became then mad, but as a reward for 
the sight (she had had), she was received into the society (of the disciples). 3 Many people became 
at that time votaries of the name. 

Then by the order (of the Lord) Gorakhnath came to the Baba and said: "A wide diffusion 
(of thy name) is made." The Baba replied: "0 Gorakhnath, if any one will belong to us, you 
will see yourself," Then the 3aba went out of the house and many people, votaries of the name, 
followed him, By the order (of the Lord) copper coins were laid on the ground; many people 
took the copper coins, rose and went away. When they went further on, Bupees were laid on 
the ground; many people taking the Eupees went away. When they went further on, gold muhars 
were laid down. Whoever had remained with him took the gold muhars and went away. Two 
disciples remained as yet with him. When they went further on, there was a funeral pyre, upon 
whioh four lamps were burning; a sheet was spread over it, (under which) a dead one was 

1 Not to be found among the Astpadls of the Rag Gauri. 

2 The words of the original run thus : JTC *tf*R 3T 3lft T^faf "QtT TTTfe f%^T U$ fffc. 
I have translated them literally, but their sense is not quite clear to me, 

3 A wonderful example of Sikh credulity ! 


JANAM-SAKHI of baba nanak. a. 

lying, but a stench was coming (from him). The Baba said: " Is there any one who will eat 
this one?" The other disciple, who was (with him), turned away his face and spit out, and 
having spit out walked away. Guru Angad alone came on, and having received a promise stood 
there and said: "0 Sir, from which side shall I apply my mouth?" It was said: "Prom the 
side of the feet the mouth should be applied." When Guru Angad lifted up the sheet, Guru 
Nanak was lying there asleep. Then Gorakh pronounced the word: "0 Nanak, he is thy Guru, 
who will be produced from thy body." Then his name was changed from Lahana to Guru 
Angad. Gorakhnath departed and JSTanak returned to his house. Then the people began to 
repent very much (of what they had done). Those who had taken the copper coins said: "If 
we had gone further on, we would have brought Eupees," and those, who had taken the Eupees, 
said: "If we had gone further on, we would have got gold muhars." Then the Baba uttered 
the Sabd in the Rag Sirl Eag, Mahala I. [there follow four verses]. 1 

Then one day the order of the Lord came, that Makhdum Bahava-din, the Pir of Multan, 
went to the mosque on a day of a festival, and many disciples of his and people came with him 
to pray. The word of Makhdum Bahava-din was then fulfilled; he began to shed tears and to 
weep. His disciples asked: "May the Pir live in health, why art thou weeping?" Makhdum. 
Bahava-din replied: "0 servants of God, this word must not be told." The disciples said: 
"May the Pir live in health, be so kind as to tell us!" Then Makhdum Bahava-din said: "From 
to-day the faith of none will remain firm, all will become infidels." The disciples said: "May. 
the Pir live in health, be so kind as to expound us this." Makhdum Bahava-din replied: "0 
friends, when a Hindu will come into paradise, then there will be light in paradise. Then as 
many as be intelligent, the faith of all these does not remain firm." The disciples began to say: 
"May the Pir live in health! the learned people say, that for a Hindu paradise is not decreed." 
Then Makhdum Bahava-din said: "Who among you is well read and intelligent, him bring to 
me ! " They brought a learned man. Makhdum Bahava-din wrote then a Slok and gave it to 
him (to the purport): "We have packed up, give us some notice." And orally he added: "The 
name of that Darvesh is Kanak, he is living in Talvandl ; when he asks for this, give it to him." 
That man went to Talvandi; above two Kos from it he sat down and said: "If it be true, he 
will send for me." The Baba sent then one disciple to him and said: "In that garden is a man, 
who has come from Multan, he is a man of Makhdum Bahava-din, call him and bring him here." 
He brought him to the Guru; having come he (i.e. the messenger) kissed his feet. The Guru 
asked for the paper Makhdum Bahava-din had written, and read it. Makhdum Bahava-din had 
written : "We have packed up, give us some notice." The Baba wrote a Slok above that Slok : 

Who is filled up, he will pack up 2 

0 Nanak, their faces are bright, who depart having done what is right. 

Then the Baba wrote him in plain prose: "Depart thou, we also shall come forty days after." At 
that time the Sabd was made in the Eag Sin Eag, Mahala I. [there follow five verses]. 3 Then that 
man went to Multan. Makhdum Bahava-din had gone out with his disciples, when that messenger 
brought him the letter; having seen it he began to weep. His disciples asked: "Sir, why do you 
weep?" He replied: "0 friends, I had written; if you go, we will go together, we will go to 
the threshold of God. He has written me ; go thou first, we also shall come forty days after.' 
0 friends, I am anxious about those forty days, because I shall have to remain forty days in dark- 
ness; 0 friends, on account of those forty days I am weeping, for how will they be passed? If 
he would go, we would go with comfortable light." When the departure (death) of Makhdum 
Bahava-din had taken place, tranquillity entered the heart of his disciples and of the people. 

1 Siri Rag, Sabd 3, Mah. I. 

2 The paper is torn here. 

3 Sir! Rag, Sabd 24, Mah. I. 



Then the Baba, came to the bank of the Kavi; he put five Paisa before Guru Angad and fell 
down at his feet; 1 this became known then among his retinue. Then among all the society the 
intelligence was spread, that the Guru^ Baba was in the house of Canan ; the society came to see 
him, Hindus and Musalmans also came. Then Guru Angad with joined hands stood before him; 
the Baba said: "Ask something!" Guru Angad said: "0 King, if it please thee, may that, which 
was broken off from the society, be again applied to (its) skirt ! " 2 The answer was given to Guru 
Angad: "For thy sake all are pardoned." Then Guru Angad fell down at his feet. At that time 
the Sabd was made in the Rag Majh, Mahala I. [there follow four verses]. 3 Then the Baba went 
to a Sarih-tree and sat down under it; the Sarih-tree had become dry and became now green again, 
leaves and blossoms came forth; then Guru Angad fell down at his feet. Then the mother (the wife 
of Nanak) began to weep ; brothers, relations, all the retainers began to weep. At that time the 
Sabd was made in the Rag Vadhans, Mahala I. [there follow four verses]. 4 Then the society began 
to sing funeral songs ; the Baba fell into a trance. At that time the order was given and the Rag 
Tukhari was made. The Baba uttered the Barah maha ; it was night, towards dawn of day, at the 
time of his departure. The Rag Tukharl, Barah maha, Mahala I. [there follow seventeen verses]. 5 
Then his sons said: "0 father, what will be our state?" The Guru answered: "Not even the 
dogs of the Guru are in want, you will get plenty of clothes and bread, and if you will mutter : 
'Guru, Guru!' the end of your existence will be obtained." Then the Hindus and Musalmans, 
who were votaries of the name, began to say, the Musalmans: "We shall bury him," and the 
Hindus: "We shall burn him." Then the Baba said: "Put ye flowers on both sides, on the right 
side put those of the Hindus and on the left those of the Musalmans. If the flowers of the Hindus 
will remain green to-morrow, then they shall burn me ; and if the flowers of the Musalmans will 
remain green, then they shall bury me." Then the Baba ordered the society, that they should 
recite the praises (of God); the society began to recite the praises, (as written) in the Rag Gauri 
purbl, Mahala I. [there follow four verses] ; 6 Rag Asa, Mahala I. [there follow two verses] ; 7 
then from Dhanasari IJag [there follows one verse] ; B then the Slok was read: "The wind is 

the Guru," etc. When (this) Slok was read having taken up (his feet?) he fell asleep 

* When they lifted up the sheet, there was nothing at all. The flowers of both parties 

had remained green, The IJindijs took theirs and went and the Musalmans took theirs and went. 
The whole society fell on their knees. Say: vah Guru! In the Samvat year 1595, the tenth 
day of the light half of the month of Asu, Baba Banak was absorbed (=*died) in Kartarpur. 10 

It was said; van Guru, vah Guru, vah Guru, yah Guru! The Saktri is finished. 

1 This was the initiation or appointment to the Guruship; afterwards, as it appears from the later 
Janam-Sakhis, a cocoa-nut also was placed before the successor ; see p. xlviii, 1. 15. 

3 The sense is ; may those, who were excluded from the society (of the disciples), be again restored ! 

3 A misquotation, the verses being ascribed in the Granth to Guru Arjun ; see Rag Majh, Sabd 18, 
Mah. V. (p. 113). 

4 Varans, Alahanil, 1, Mah. I. 5 Rag Tukharl, Barah maha, 1, Mah. I. 
6 Gaun purbl dlpakl 1, (20), Mah. I. (p. 175), 7 Asa, Sabd 30, Mah. I. 

8 The MS. is toru here nnd only a few words remain. 9 The leaf here is* tattered, 

10 Anno Domini 1538, 




(Enlarged recompilation of A.) 

The Janam-patr! of Baba Nanak was written in the Samvat year fifteen hundred and eighty- 
two, 1 on the fifth day of the light half of the month of Vaisakh. The book was written by 
Paira, a Mokha, 2 a Khatn of Sultanpur. Guru 3 Angad caused it to be written, and Paira wrote- 
it according to the oral dictation of Bala, a Sandhu Jat. 4 

Bhai 6 Bala had come from Talvan<II (the jaglr) of Ea,e Bh5e, the Bhattf, 6 and had looked 
out for Guru Angad. 

Two months and seventeen days were spent in writing (this book). Wherever he had 
wandered about with Guru Nanak, that Bhai Bala dictated with facility. 

Guru Angad was much pleased with Bhai Bala; (for) Bhai Bala had wandered about with 
Uardana, the rababl, in the company of Nanak; also at the time, when Nanak was employed 
in the commissariat, Bhai Bala was with him. 


How the Janam-Patri of Nanak was obtained. 

One day the thought came into Guru Angad's mind: "My Guru Nanak was perfect, between 
him and the Supreme Lord there was no difference whatever. I should like to know, 7 in which 
wise my Guru was born." This thought was occupying his mind. Meanwhile in the latter half 
of the month of Katak Bala, the Sandhu Jat, came to see Guru Angad. Guru Angad was keeping 
himself concealed. Bala, the Sandhu, had this desire, that if the Guru would come forth, he 
would have an interview with him. Then Bhai Bala heard that Guru Nanak had appointed (as 

1 i.e. a.d. 1525. If Angad was born in 1561 Sambat, he was then twenty-one years of age. 

2 *lttfT was the name of his *ff^f or clan ; by caste he was a Khatri. 

3 The word Guru is written differently: 3THJ, gur, guru and 3^ Guru. 

4 Bala, as will be seen, is here represented as the constant companion of Nanak ; the old Janam-Sakhi 
Zncver mentions his name. He was u Jat (tRHT) o f the Sandhu clan; Oust made him a Sindhl! 

5 Bhai is an honorary title for saintly Sikhs, literally: brother. 

6 Rae Bhoe, a Musalman Rajput, was formerly the jaglrdar of Talvandl, the birth-place of Nanak, after 
whom the place was named ; see p. iii, note 1. 

7 The original is: ^bff, I should like to see. 



his successor) one Khatri, by name Angad, a Trihun Khatrl, 1 but that it was not known in 
which place he kept himself concealed. But he heard further the news, that he was sitting at 
*rlhandur, a village of the Khahara-Jats. Having heard this, Bala came to see Guru Angad. 2 
He searched for the Guru and found %\m. He saw that Guru Angad was twisting van. 3 Bhai 
Bala, the Sandhu, went and bowed his head before him. Guru Angad said : " Come, brother ! 
true is the creator; 4 come, sit down!" Guru Angad left off twisting van and began to ask Bhai 
Bala : " 0 brother disciple, from whence hast thou come ? why didst thou come ? and who art 
thou?" Then Bala, the Sandhu, joining his hands in supplication, said: "Guru, I am a Jat ; 
my clan is Sandhu and my name is Bala. My birth-place is Talvandl, (the village of) E-ae Bhoe, 
the BhattI; I am come for the sake of an interview with the Guru. " Guru Angad asked further: 
"Bhai Bala, whose disciple art thou?" Bhai Bala said: "Guru, I am the disciple of Guru 
Nanak; with me Guru Nanak, the son of Kalu, the Yedi, had met." Gum Angad asked further: 
"Bhai Bala, hadst thou seen Guru Nanak?" Bhai Bala, said: "Guru Nanak was three years 
older than I, I was following Guru Nanak and going about with him. But at that time I had 
not this faith, that he is a perfect and great Guru; I was with him in the capacity of a servant." 
"When Bhai Bala had said this, Guru Angad wept and did not stop his tears in any way. Thus 
that night passed. When it had become morning, Guru Angad said: "Call Bhai Bala." Bhai 
Bala came and bowed his head. Guru Angad asked Bhai Bala: "Bhai Bala, is it known to 
thee, how the birth of Guru Nanak did take place?" Bhai Bala, answered: "Sir, that I do 
not know. But so much I heard from the mouth of the people, that Hari Dayal the Brahman 
says, that in these auspicious moments, in the twenty-seven lunar mansions and at the full 
moon of Katak, not any such one was born into the world. In the house of Kalu, the Yedi, 
a great Avatar is born. So much. I had heard. I had also heard that Mahata 5 Kalu caused a 
Janam-patri 8 to be written." Guru Angad said: "Bhai Bala, how could this Janam-patri be 
procured?" Bhai Bala answered: "The Guru knows it; 7 but by searching it may come to hand." 
Guru Angad said: "Bhai Bala, is there any such one, by whom a trace of the Janam-patri may 
be procured?" Bala said: "Let it be searched, Sir!" Guru Angad said: "Bhai Bala, thou art an 
inhabitant of that place, by thee a trace of it may be procured. Search and get it from any one." 

Bhai Bala, the Sandhu, said: "Sir! Mahata Kalu, the Yedi, has a brother, it is Mahata 
Lalu, the Yedi, from him it may be searched." Guru Angad answered : " Bhai Bala, you muBt 
search for it." Then- Bhai Bala said: "Give me one of your own men; he and I will go and 
say to Mahata Lalu, the Yedi : ' Bhai Lalu, thou hast become very old, Guru Angad has shown 
thee much benevolence : search after the Janam-patri of Guru Nanak and give it (to us) ! YTe 
have inquired and found Guru Angad: between Guru Nanak and Angad there is no difference 
whatever.'" Then Angad said: "Bhai Bala, what the society (of the disciples) says, that is 

1 Angad was a Khatii, of the Trihun clan. His former name was Labana. According to the Janam- 
Sakbi it was changed by Nanak to Angad: nft ^ W^T § "§'5V|"5 ^fSWT Compare also p. xliv, 1. 6. 

2 The lithographed Lahore copy inserts here: ^ ^ *HTvft *T %Z § IHlfWHT'- he brought 
a present, as his circumstances would permit him, significant for the later Sikh times. 

- 3 ^J5C, coarse twine made of munj. This occupation of Angad was afterwards considered as unbecoming 
a Guru and therefore, left out in the Lahore lithographed copy. 
4 ?33T3 was the old form of Sikh salutation. 

fi : HvJ3T is an honorary title given to Khatri merchants, corresponding to master. 

6 About the ^TTW V5t> see the remarks, p. i, note 1. The first marriage and ths birth of the 
first child is also frequently added. I have seen and examined many of this kind. 

7 Le. I do not know it, you know it better. 



true." Guru Angad was much pleased with Bhai Bala. "Well, BhaT Bala, take some disciple and 
go!" BhaT Bala said: "0 Guru, whom thou sendest, him I take with me." Then Guru Angad 
called Lala, the Punnu. He was a disciple, a Jat. Guru Angad said: "BhaT Lala Punnu/ 
thou art a disciple, thou art attending to the Guru, go thou with BhaT Bala to TalvandT, bring 
the Janam-patrT of Guru !Nanak." Lala, the Punnu, said: "Blessed is our lot, that we shall see 
the Janam-patrT of Guru Nanak, we shall consider it as if we had had an interview with Guru 
Nanak." Guru Angad said: "BhaT Lala, may the creator come into thy mind!" 1 

BhaT Bala, the Sandhu, and Lala, the Punnu, came to TalvandT, (the village of) Eae Bhoe, 
the BhattT. Having arrived there they met Mahata Lalu. They said: "BhaT Lalu, give us the 
Janam-patrT of Guru Nanak! Guru Angad asks for it." BhaT Lalu answered: "It is not with 
me." BhaT Bala said: "Thou art the brother of Mahata Kalii, search thou in the house." Lalu, 
the YedT, rejoined: "BhaT Bala, thou art the friend of Guru Nanak, speak the truth: is Angad 
Guru or Sin Cand?" 2 He told them also something else. BhaT Bala said: "BhaT Lalu, Angad 
has become Guru, before whom Guru Nanak put five paisas and a cocoa-nut and bowed his head. 3 
What competition is there against him? We have sought and found him. To his honour, Sin 
Cand, as being his son, due reverence will be paid." Then BhaT Lalu said: "BhaT Bala, look, 
I am searching. My brother's wife has departed and my brother Xalu also." They began to 
seareh in the house. Searching and searching they found on the fifth day the Janam-patrT and 
BhaT Lalu gave it into the hand of Bala, and Bala put it into the hand of Lala, the Punnu. 
Then BhaT Lala, said to BhaT Bala: "BhaT Bala, go thou also with me! much honour will be 
paid to thee." BhaT Bala answered: "Well, brother, go on!" 

When BhaT Lala and Bala went away, Lalu, the YedT, said: "Ye take away the Janam- 
patrT of Guru Mnak, but take also with you some offering of mine!" Bala said: "Well r 
brother Lalu, whatever comes into thy mind, that is good." BhaT Lalu gave five paisas and a 
cocoa-nut and said: "Put my offering before Guru Angad, bow the head and say: '0 Guru, 
if ever his honour SirT Cand should take offence (at this), you must render me assistance/" 4 
On this Bhai Bala said: "0 Lalu, there is no ground for fear." 

BhaT Lala and Bala took the Janam-patrT and brought it to Khandur, (a village of) the Khahara 
Jats, and put it before Guru Angad. Guru Angad was very much pleased and said: "BhaT Bala, 
may the creator come into thy mind! to-day thou hast procured us an interview with Mnak." 
Having taken it into his hands Guru Angad kissed it and put it on his eyes and on his head. * 
When he looks at it, he sees that the letters are shastrT. 5 Guru Angad reflected: "May there 
be such a disciple, who is read in both kinds of letters?" Mahima, a Khahara- Jat, in whose 
house Guru Angad was staying, said: "Guru, in Sultanpur is Paira, a Mokha KhatrT, he reads 
both letters." Guru Angad then said: "BhaT Mahima, he should be brought." Mahima 

1 This is a Sikh blessing. 

2 fkft OR, name of the eldest son of Nanak, as in the later Janam-Sakhis he is always mentioned 
first; in the old Janam-Saklii LakhmT-das is on the contrary mentioned first; see p. viii, I. 22. 

3 This rite of investiture with the Guruship, practised also by the following Gurus^ when nominating 
their successor, differs somewhat from that mentioned on p. xlv, 1. i. But from what follows, it may be 
concluded that it was the common way of doing homage to a superior. 

* The passage runs thus in the original : % ajg^ ^ Hfft *j fcft ^ 3t 3*1 ¥W*T 

5^T. This passage, being very significant as to the violent character of'siri Cand, was "in the Lahore 
lithographed copy changed in the following way: % 5^ fjfift ^ ^ ^ft jfc^ jf^im 75 
if ever Siri Cand should take offence (at this), you must not be angry (with him) 1 (sic !)" 

5 i.e. Devanagari. This notice is very important, as it shows that the so-called Gurmukhi letters were 
in use before the Sikh Gurus, and not invented by them. 



answered : " Well, Sir, I will bring him, at my bidding he will quickly come." Mahima went 
to Suttanpur and brought Paira, the Mokha. Having come, Paira, the Mokha, bowed his head 
and Guru Angad showed him the Janam-patri. He read it off quite fluently. Guru Angad was 
much pleased and said: "Paira, put*this for us into Gurmukhl letters!" Paira answered: 
"Well, Sir! procure good paper, I will write it." The Guru procured paper, ink and pen, and 
gave them to him. Paira wrote and Guru Angad caused it to be written. 
Say, 0 brother: vah.Guruji! — The narrative is continued. 

In Sambat 1526, the fifteenth of the light half of the month of Katak, Nanak was born at 
TalvandT, (a village) of Eae Bhoe, the Bhatti. He was born in the house of Haiti, a Yedl Khatri 
by caste. In the Kali-yug the name of Eaba Nanak was given to him. He founded his own 
sect (or way). Whilst one watch and a half of the night were remaining, in the moonlight night - 
an unbeaten sound was produced at the gate of Baba Nanak. The thirty-three crores of gods, 
t]ie eighty-four Siddhs, 2 the nine Naths, 3 the sixty-four Joginis, 4 the fifty-two Yiras, 5 the six 
Jatls, 6 paid homage to him (saying): "The incorporeal Supreme Spirit has come to save the world; 
to him, homage should be paid, who has come as an Avatar!" At midnight and twenty-four 
minutes he was born in the house of Kalu, the Yed!. 7 The family priest of Kalu the Vedl 
was the Brahman Hari Diyal. Early in the morning Kalu went to the house of Hari Diyal and 
said: "Pandit, do me a favour!" The Pandit said: "Mahata Kalu, why hast thou come at such 
a time?" Kalu rejoined: "A male child has been born. Do me the favour and set down his 
Janam-patri." Hari Diyal said: "Well, Mahata Kalu, having performed (religious) service and 
worship I will come. Meanwhile go thou." Kalu came again to his house. The Pandit came 
afterwards, after the day had risen for five GharTs. 8 Having come he called out: "Mahata Kalu, 
I have come." Kalu led him in; he had spread out cushions and seated the Pandit upon them. 
Being seated the Pandit said : " Mahata Kalu, bring paper (and) saffron, 9 and let me hear also 
the sound, the child emitted, when it was born; tell me the time when it was born." Kalu 
said: "I know about the birth, that it was midnight and twenty-four minutes when it was 
born, but about the sound I know nothing." On this the Pandit said: "Ask from within; ask 
the midwife Daulat." 10 Kalu called the midwife Daulat out. She came out saying: "Why have 
you called me out?" Kalu said: "The Pandit is asking, thou knowest it, tell it." The mid- 
wife answered: "Pandit, what do you ask?" The Pandit said: "What sound did the child 
emit when it was born?" The midwife answered: "0 Pandit, how many children were born 

1 It is quite evident that what follows cannot be the original Janam-patri of Nanak. The headings we 

5 It is not known exactly, who are meant by the fifty-two VIras. They are perhaps a sort of deified heroes. 

6 The TfT3rt C^rf??) are a scet i cs 5 wno tnese s * x are * s uot known. The Jainas worship seven Jatls. 

7 In the Lahore lithographed copy the words from : " In the Kali-yug" to here are left out. 

8 A Ghari is twenty-four minutes, five Gharis therefore = two hours 5 time. 

8 c^*ra or saffron is used, to blot out any letter, that may be written by mistake. 
10 As far as may be concluded from the uame, a Musalman midwife. 

8 The nine Natlis of the Jogis. 
are a sort of female fiends attendant upon Durga. 




under my hands! but such a child and iu such a manner was never born. The voice he emitted 
was such, as if some very wise one would laughingly join (us). I am quite out of my wits 
about this child." The Pandit said: "Hear, Kara: the child is born when the twenty-seven 
lunar mansions were full. If he were born before midnight, he would become a great merchant; 
this one is born in the following watch, the night declining (already). This night was a very 
momentous point of time, on his head an umbrella 1 will needs be turned. I am very much 
surprised, I will see what sort of umbrella will be turned (over him)." The Pandit was sunk 
in deep reflection and said: "Kalu, let me see the child." Kalu asked for the child from within, 
from his wife. But the wife of Kalu said: "I shall not give it, the days are chilly." The 
Pandit said: "It will do him no harm, you may rely on my word." Then Kalu brought him 
out in his clout on his hands and sat down with him before the Pandit. The Pandit was 
versed in divine knowledge. Having seen him he stood up, joined both his hands and worshipped 
him. The Pandit said: "Kalu, take him away." Kalu brought the child to the inner room, 
and having returned said: "Come (again) and point out some name for it; for in what' auspicious 
moments is it born ! " The Pandit said : " Kalu, I will determine on a name and give it him." 
The Pandit reflected for thirteen days. When thirteen days had passed, a coat was put (on the 
child) and the name given : Mnak the Formless one. 2 Then Kalu said: " 0 Pandit, this name should 
not have been given, this name is common to Hindus and Turks." The Pandit said again: "This 
is a man, in whom is a great Avatar ; he has come to thy house ; such a great Avatar has 


never been before. There has been Sri Earn Cand and there has been Sri Krisn, the Lord ; those 
the Hindus worship, but this one both Hindus and Turks will worship; his name will be current 
on earth and in heaven. Wood and grass will say: "Nanak, Nanak!" 3 The ocean will grant him 
access, he will mentally recite the Formless (Supreme) one. And he will be much given to ablutions 
and the creature he will consider as a creature. Without the Supreme Lord he will acknowledge 
none else. 0 Kalu, this will be my grief that I shall not see his dignity (he will attain to). 
What do I know how long my life will be?" 

When Nanak had become five years old, he used to lose everything which he took from 
the house. Kalu went to reproach the Pandit: "Well, Pandit, a (fine) umbrella is turned (over 
him) ! " The Pandit said to Kalu : " Now thou reproachest me, but that time will come, when 
thou with a straight face wilt not utter a word." 4 


JVdnaJc sent to school. 

When JSTanak became big, he commenced to play with boys, but his view did not agree with 
that of the hoys ; he studied with himself over the Formless one. 

When he had become seven years of age he began to talk of the Shastras and the Yedas. 
Whatever he talks, that he understands. Every one puts reliance on hinr. The Hindus begin 
to say: "Some form of a god has been born." The Musalmans say: "Some holy man of God 
is born." 

Then Kalii said: "0 boy Nanak, learn now to read." 
1 Id5> an umbrella, the sign of royalty. 

3 In A. this name Ta^TTI', the Formless one, is not even hinted at. 

3 r(T%3TT is here used in the sense of: to be done = to be said, not in the sense now common : to 

4 This whole passage is simply left out in the Lahore lithographed copy, as derogatory to Nanak, for 
whom it only has praise. 



Kalu went to the (village) schoolmaster and said: 1 "0 schoolmaster, look out for an 
auspicious moment, for we will send the hoy to school." The schoolmaster answered: "Now 
the time is good." Then Kalu asked from his wife for a two-pice pieoe, betel-nut and rice, and 
brought it and handed Nanak over to*the schoolmaster for the purpose of reading. Kalu said: 
"0 schoolmaster, teach Nanak to read!" The schoolmaster said; "Well, that shall t>e done, 
Sir!" Then the schoolmaster wrote him a wooden slate and gave it him. 2 Nanak read one day. 
On the following day he remained silent. The schoolmaster said: "Nanak, why remainest thou 
silent? why dost thou not read?" Nanak answered; "Q schoolmaster, hast thou read anything, 
which thou mayst let me read?" The schoolmaster said: "I have read everything." Then 
Nanak rejoined: "0 schoolmaster, by reading these words nooses are laid (on men); that which 
we must read, is all wind." Then Nanak uttered a Sabd in the Sir! Rag, Mahala I. 

[Now follow four Paurls with a lengthy paraphrase 3 from Sin Bag, Sabd 6, Mahala I.] 

The Pandit became astonished and paid reverence (to Nanak) as to a perfect man. 4 " What 
comes into thy mind, that do ! " 

Then Nanak came home and sat down, he did no work. When he sat, down, he remained 
seated. He associated with Faqlrs. His father Kalu became astonished, that Nanak went on 
in this manner. 


JSTanah gra%es his fathers buffaloes and spoils a corn-field^ which is miraculously restored. 

When Nanak had become nine years old, the (brahmanical) cord was plaoed (on him). He 
learnt also to read some Turkish. 5 He did not disclose the thoughts of his mind to any one. 

His father Kalu then said : " 0 son Nanak, take the buffaloes which are in my house and 
• pasture them ! " Nanak took the buffaloes and went out (to the pasture-ground) ; having grazed 
them he brought them back at night to the house. The following day he went out again. Having 
left the buffaloes, he fell asleep at the border of a field sown with wheat. The buffaloes went and 
fell upon the wheat and browsed it and the wheat was spoiled. The owner of the wheat came 
and said: "Brother, why hast thou laid waste my field? give answer for this devastation!" 
Nanak answered: "Nothing of what is thine has been wasted, 0 brother! What is it, if some 
buffalo has pilfered from it? God will put a. blessing on this (field)." Eut that man did not desist, 
he began to quarrel with Nanak. Then Nanak and the Bhattl proprietor came to Eae Eular, 

1 This story is also contained in the Sikha de raj di vithia (Ludihana, 1868), p. 201, but rather altered. 
The extracts from the Janam-Sakhl, which this book contains, are taken from more modern sources, and the 
explanations added are of little or no value whatever. 

2 The Hindus in the Panjab write on small wooden slates painted black, with a colour made of white 
earth. When the slate is written over, the letters are washed off with water. The boys, whilst imitating 
the letters, pronounce them aloud, which causes a considerable din. 

3 Whenever the Granth is quoted in the later times, a translation, or rather a paraphrase, is always added 
to it, which proves sufficiently, that at that time the Sikhs no longer understood the idiom of the Granth. 
These paraphrases are usually very indifferent and frequently misinterpret the original text completely, or 
simply pass over what was unintelligible to them. m 

4 The Lahore lithographed copy has here significantly: 3" ITci'ir'J? thou art the Supreme Lord. 

5 Under j^ofi s Turkish, very likely Persian is to be understood, the official language of those days. 
This is also corroborated by the fact, that some Persian verses of Nanak are found in the Granth, though 
his knowledge of Persian must have been very deficient. To this very likely alludes the notice in the Siyar- 
ul-muta'a%%irin (Briggs' translation, vol. i. p. 110), that some Sayyid Husain, who had no children of his 
own, charged himself with his education and introduced him to the knowledge of the most esteemed writings 
of the Islam, In the Lahore lithographed copy this is (no doubt intentionally) left out. 



the headman of Talvandi, hy trihe a BhattT. Then the headman said: "Call Kalu ! " Aside 
people had said that Nanak was mad and that he should send for Kalu. They brought Kalu. 
Then Bae Bular said to Kalu, that he was not warning this' his son, who was laying waste the 
fields of others. ""Well, though considering him mad, thou hast let him alone. Go now and make 
amends for the devastation done to others ! If not, thou wilt have to answer before the Turkish 
authorities." Kalu said: "Sir, what shall I do ? this one is verily mad." Then the Eae said: 
"I have forgiven this trespass to thee, Kalu, but go and make amends for the damage." Nanak 
spoke then: "Sir, nothing of the property of this one has been damaged, he speaks a falsehood," 
The owner of the field rejoined: "Sir, my whole field has been laid waste; I have been plundered. 
Grant me justice, if not, I go to the Turks." Nanak answered: "Sir, not one blade has been 
spoiled and cut off! Send thou thy own men, they shall see and report," Then Bae Bular sent 
his own footmen. When those footmen having gone see, what do they see? not one blade of the 
field was spoiled. The footmen come and report: "Sir, nothing at all is wasted." Then Eae 
Bular called the owner of the field a liar. Fanak and Kalu both went home, 1 


A Hack serpent expands its hood over Nanah when resting under a tree* 

When Baba Nanak was nine years of age, he had gone out (one day) to graze the buffaloes. 
They were the days of (the month of) Yaisakh (April-May), at the time of noon he came and 
rested under a tree and made also his buffaloes stand (there). As soon as he had taken to rest, 
a black snake came and sat at his head expanding its hood (over him). They were the days of 
measuring (the fields under cultivation). Eae Bular having measured wheat was going home; 
when he looked on, a boy had fallen asleep (there) and a black snake sat at his head, expanding 
its hood (over him). Eae Bular stopped ; when he looks on, what does he see ? that the shade 
of the other trees is gone and that the shade of that tree, under which the boy was sleeping, had 
remained there. He reflected in his mind: if that boy really lives, then he is some prophet, and 
if he has drunk the breath of the snake, he is dead. Afterwards some people cam.e there. Bae 
Bular said to them: "Look, who this boy is, who lies there?" When they looked on, what did 
they see ? that it was ISanak, the son of Kalu, the Patvan, 3 who was lying there. They said to 
Eae Bular: (( 0 Eae, the son of Kalu, thy Patvan, is lying there." Eae Bular said; "Look, 
that ye raise him up." They raised the sleeper and Nanak stood up and sat down. When he , 
looked about, he saw, that Bae Bular stood at his head, Nanak joining his hands saluted him. 
The Eae dismounted from his horse, embraced Nanak and kissed his head, and showed him mueh 
politeness. Eae Bular said: "Look, friends, a wonderful thing has been seen (already) and to4ay 
also see! This one is not empty, on him is some mercy of God." The people were astonished 
(saying): "0 brother, Bae Bular has become very kind to this boy." Having gone home he 
called Kalu and said to him: " 0 Kalu, the son of thy house tfanak do not consider as thy son, 
he is a devotee of the Supreme Lord. Do not say to this (thy) son: 'Be cursed, die J* he is a 
great person, my town is a sacrifice to him. 3 Kalu, thou also hast been exalted, in whoso house 
thy son ffanak has been born." Kalu said: "The thing of God God knows," and went home. 

1 This whole story is left out in the Lahore lithographed copy, as it was felt that this duplicity did not 
redound to the honour of Nanak. It is also missing in a MS. copy of the India Office Library, No. 2885, 
which is nearly identical with the Lahore lithographed edition of the Janam-Saklri. 

2 "MdcSlcfti land steward; his business is to keep the land-accounts of the village. 

3 The words : Do not say to this thy son— to the end of the sentence, are left out in the Lahore lithographed 
copy (likewise in the MS. No. 2885) as being too disrespectful. The answer of Kalu also is given differently : 




Nanak refuses to do any work ; the attempt to cure Mm from Ms supposed madness fails. 

But Nanak kept company with FfP^irs, he spoke with nobody else. His whole family was 
grieved and distressed thereby^ they said: "Nanak has become mad." Then his mother came to 
Nanak and said: "It will not do for thee to sit with Faqlrs, give up these perpetual foolish words! 
The people laugh at us, that the son of Kalu has become an idler." When his mother had said 
these words to Kanak, he did not mind them at all, he lay down again, he did not speak with any 
one, as he lay down, so he remained for four or five days. His mother came again and said to 
him: "0 son, how does it behove thee to He down? rise, eat and drink something! Look after 
the fields ! all thy family is grieved. And, 0 son, if anything do not please thee, then don't do 
it, we saj nothing to you; why art thou so thoughtful?" Then information was given to Kalu; 
Kalu said : " 0 son, what were we telling thee ? it is good to do work. If the sons of Khatris 
have money, do they no work? 0 son, it is good to do (some) work! Our field out there stands 
ripe, if thou wouldst go and stand in it, it would not be wasted. Then every one will say : ' Well 
done, well done, the son of Kalu has become a good son ! ' 0 son, the field is with (its) owners ! " 
!Nauak answered: "By us a private field has been ploughed, of that we are taking care. The 
plough has been carried (over it), the proper time for sowing the ground has come; the eight 
watches we were standing there. 0 father, we take care of our own field, 1 how shall we have 
knowledge of another's field?" Kalu became astonished and said; "Look, people, what this one 
is saying!" Then said Kalu: "When hast thou ploughed a private field? Give up (these) silly 
words, and if it be thy pleasure, I will give thee at the next harvest a private ploughed field, I 
will see, how thou wilt make it ripen ! " Then iNanak said : " 0 father, the field has now been 
ploughed by us and it has grown up well, it loots quite well." Then' Kalu said again: "0 son, 
we have seen no cultivated field of thine at all, how shall I know, what thou art saying?" iNanak 
answered: "0 father, that field has been cultivated by us, thou thyself wilt hear." Then Eanak 
uttered a Sabd in. the Bag Sorathi (Sabd 2, 1, Mah. J.). [Kalu said again : "0 ITanak, sit thou 
in the shop, our field is the shop." Then the second Paurj was said. Then Kalu said again : " 0 
son, if thou wilt not sit in the shop, take thou horses and traffic with them ! Thy spirit is 
melancholy. Do (some) business and see also foreign countries ! we shall say, that he is gone for 
(some) business and that he will come now." Then the third Pauri was said. Then Kalu said 
again: "0 Nanak, thou art gone from us, but go and do some service, perhaps thy spirit will come 
to rest therein, we have given up thy gaining (anything), 0 son, if thou wilt become an Udasi, 
then all people will say to us, that the son of Kalu has become a Eacjlr and the people will reproach 
us." Then the fourth Paun was said.] 3 Then iNanak said: "0 father, our field is sown, thou 
hast heard how. 0 father, our field has sprung up well, we have so much confidence in this field, 
that the whole government tax will fall off, sons, daughters and the whole family will eat to their 
satiety and will be happy; the debt of the Lord will be removed, and the poor, brothers and 
relatives, all will be profited by it. The Lord, whose husbandry I have carried on, gives me much 
assistance; for that day I rejoice much. 3 Whatever J ask, that he gives me. 0 father, I have 
found out a great Lord, traffic and shop, all has been entrusted (by him to me)." Then Kalu 

1 The negation which A.. has, is left out here, very likely purposely. 

2 The words in brackets arc an addition. It is easily perceived, that they do not agree with the context, 
but rather interrupt it. All the additions made by the second compiler will thus be pointed out by brackets. 

3 The text is here so much shortened, that the words are no longer intelligible, whereas they are quite 
plain in the first compilation. 


became astonished and said: « We have not at aU seen (or) heard of thy Lord." The Baba said: "By 
whom my Lord has been seen, by them he is praised." The Guru Baba uttered one Sabd in the 
Eag Asa (Caupada 1, Mah. L). Then Kalu said again: "Give up these things, walk after the 
manner of the people, it is nothing to live without a business." Then Nanak remained silent, 
Kalu rose and went home and took to his work; he said: -This work is beyond our strength, 
but may not the field outside be damaged!" Then all the family of the Vedis began to grieve, 
they said: "It is a great pity, that the son of Kalu has become mad." JNanak remained silent; 
three months he lay down and ate and drank nothing. The whole family of the Yedts became 
dispirited and all began to say to Kalu: "How dost thou sit down (quietly), whose son 
remains lying down? Call thou some physician and get medicine for him! The people will 
say, that Kalu, on account of the money, does not get his son cured. (This is)' much money, 
if (thy) son become well." Then Kalu stood up and went and brought a physician. The physician 
came and began to seize the arm of the Baba. The Baba drew away his arm, lifted up his 
leg, stood up and sat down. He began to say: "0 physician, what art thou doing?" The 
physician said: "I am looking after the disease, that may be in thy spirit." The Baba laughed 
and made the Sabd [there follow four verses]. On the subject of the physician he made also 
another Sabd, in the Eag Malar [there follow two verses]. Say, 0 brother: vah Gurujl! 1 


Mnak sows a field and neglects it thoroughly. Sis father expostulates with him. 

[When the Baba had become twelve years of age, then Kalu said, after he had reflected in 
his mind: " Nanak has read, but he should (now) be put into some business." Then Kalu said 
to Eanak: "Son, apply thyself to some business!" Nanak answered: "Well, father, if you 
tell me anything, I will do it." Kalu said: "Son, in such and such a place sow thou a field!" 
" Well, father, I am sowing." Xalu gave to Nanak one maund and a quarter of seed, Mnak 
took it, went and cast it. The field sprang up, but who protects it? Any one's cattle, any 
one's ass, any one's filly, any one's horse eat it away, Nauak removes none (of them). Kalu 
went and saw that his field had sprung .up well. Becoming angry (that the field had been 
wasted) he began to reproach him (i.e. Nanak), and said: "A fine son has in thee been born 
in my house to cause destruction!" and going away he began to say to the Pandit Hari Dayal: 
"A fine umbrella is turned about in my house; such are thy Yedas and Puranas! my field, 
that had sprung up, is wasted by him!" The Pandit Hari Dayal said: "Thou hast no in- 
formation whatever, thou art luckless! thou hast no profit whatever from Nanak, other people 
will be profited by Mnak and how many will be liberated (by him) ! having heard the words 
of Nanak they will do them, Nanak will become famous among Hindus and Musalmans. The 
people having heard and read the Yedas (and) the book ( = the Kur'an) will do (them). The 
four Yedas, the eighteen Puranas, the six Shastras and the Bhagavad-(Gita) and as many Gltas 
as there are, all will suddenly come •out of the mouth of Nanak without having read (them) (as) 
from the invisible (world). Hear, Kalu, be not alarmed about him ! It is weighty to say of 
him, what cannot be said of a corporeal being, that Nanak appears to me even as the Formless 
one (the Supreme Being). Between him and the Formless one there is no difference whatever." 
Then Kalii remained silent. 

When Nanak was fifteen years of age, Kalu said to him: "What sort of a man art thou, 

1 Here the second compiler breaks off suddenly without carrying the story to the end, which is also 
rather abruptly finished in the first compilation. It is very significant that this whole Sakhi is left out in 
the Lahore edition, as it was considered rather derogatory to Nanak. 



who wast born in my house? In the time of old age my name is drowned by thee. I have 
no more any hope. First Nanakl was born and then thou. I had hoped that my name would 
remain after me, and thou hast been born such a man ! Whilst I live my name is drowned 
by thee." Nanak remained * silent. T?nen Kalu said again: "I am gradually worn out and 
die and thou givest me no answer ! " 

. When Nanak had become seventeen years of age, Kalu said to Nanak : " Son, I have 
become anxious about thee, think of something!" Nanak answered: "Well, father, pardon me 
now ! Whatever thou wilt tell me concerning the field, that I will do."] 


Nanalt is sent on a trading trip and spends his money on Faqirs. Me is beaten by Ids 

father and protected by Rae Bular. 

[Then Kalu said: "Take twenty Eupees and go and bring four or five things! Bring salt 
and turmeric and some other things, that I shall point out to thee ; and if thou wilt make this 
time a good traffic, then I will give thee again many Eupees." Nanak answered : " Well, 
father, thou wilt see thyself, what a good traffic I shall make." Kalu gave him the twenty 
Eupees^ and (sent) one servant with him. 1 They set out ; when they had gone twelve Kos, he 
saw that an assembly of Sadhs was sitting there, and how was it ? Except a strip of cloth 
between the legs, they had no kind of clothes on. Among them was a Mahant; him iNanak 
asked: "Sir, are you not in possession of clothes or arc clothes not pleasant to your body?" 
The Mahant said: "How, brother, why dost thou ask? what object hast thou?" Then Bala, 
the Jat, who was as servant with him, said : " Hear, Nanak, thou hast come for the purpose 
of traffic, go and take up that traffic, that Kalu has told thee." JNanak said: "Hear, brother 
Bala, my father has said, that I should make good traffic. Shall I make a good traffic or a 
bad one, tell me thy advice." Bala answered: "Kalu has sent thee for good traffic." Then 
Nanak said: "Bala, this is good traffic and that is bad traffic." Bala replied: "Sir, know 
thou (thyself), thou art the son, he is the father." Then !Nanak asked these Sadhs : " Why have 
you not given me an answer?" The Mahant said: "0 boy, we are Nirbanis, 2 to us abstinence 
from clothes is necessary." Nanak said: "You will also not be eating?" The Mahant replied: 
"0 lad, when the Lord sends, then we are eating, otherwise we remain silent; for this reason 
we are dwelling in the jungle ; having become SanyasTs we no longer dwell 'in a village, in a 
village there is hope (of getting something)." Then Nanak said: "Hear, 0 Mahant, what is 
thy name?" The Mahant mentioned his name: "(my) garb (is that of a) NirbanT, (my) name: 
the dust of the saints." Nanak became very happy and said: "Hear, brother Bala, I cannot 
give up this traffic." Bala said: "Hear, Nanak, Kalu will be angry with me, see thou to it!" 
Nanak replied: "This is a good traffic, there is no loss in it, but on the contrary an increase." 
Bala said: "You must know it." Then Nanak took the twenty Eupees from Bala and put 
them before the Mahant. The Mahant said: "How, 0 lad? these are of no use to us, and 
they are given thee by thy father for the sake^ .of traffic ; what dost thou mean by giving them 
to Faqirs?" Nanak replied: "Hear, 0 Mahant! my father had said to me: 'If thou come 
having made good traffic, then it is good.' This is good traffic, every other traffic is bad." 

1 The lithographed Lahore edition adds here: *HT\IT: tne servant with (him) was 
Bala, whereas the MS. (No. 2885), which otherwise agrees verbatim with the Lahore edition, does not mention 
the name here, hut further on. 

2 (Admcftl ? an order of Faqirs,' who pretend to be freed from every want and to be emancipated whilst 
as yet in the body. ' 



The Mahant said: "Hear, 0 lad, what is thy name? who art thou?" Nanak replied: "Hear, 

0 Mahant, my name is Nanak Nirankari (the Formless one), I am the son of Kalu, a Khatri of 
the Yedi tribe." Then said that Mahant: "Hear, 0 lad, what is this? Nirankari and the son 
of a Khatri ? " Nanak replied: "In the Dvapara yuga we had performed devotion to the 
Formless one, the devotion was complete, hut desire entered us; therefore our birth took place in 
a low house. Then our birth took place in the house of an oilman; on account of that desire 
we were again born in the house of a Khatri. At that time also we were incorporeal and now 
also we are incorporeal." 1 Then the Mahant said: "0 lad Nanak, ask thou something!" Nanak 
replied: "What shall I ask? the One Formlesa one I desire, I desire nothing else." Then the Mahant 
said again: "0 lad, thou thyself art the Formless one, what shall we give to thee? But do (one) 
work, take these Kupees and bind them in thy bundle and bring provisions for these, that the 
Atits (Faqirs) may eat, money is of no use to us." Then Nanak took Bala with him and went 
to the town, he took provisions and fuel and raw pots and brought them and put them before the 
Mahant. Then the Mahant said : " Nanak Nirankari, thou art indeed the Formless one. The Atits 
had passed seven daya in fasting; now go thou!" Then Nanak bowed his head, rose and went. 
After (that) an Atit asked the Mahant: "Sir, why didst thou aend him away, he had done 
service to thee." The Mahant replied: "Hear, 0 Atit, he was himself the Formless one, he had 
come to inquire after us, we had to take from him our provisions, but service we had not to 
exact from him ; his splendour could not be borne by us, therefore we gave him leave." 

"When Nanak had gone above one Kos, he began to ask Bala : " Brother Bala, what has 
been done by us?" Bhai Bala aaid : "Hear, 0 Nanak, by me none (i.e. Kupees) have been 
eaten (= spent), thou didst demand them and I gave them to thee." Then Nanak aaid: "Bala, 
we did not make the mistake." Bala replied: "If I made the mistake, thou must know, if 

1 did not make the mistake, then thou must know. As thou wast inexperienced, so was I in- 
experienced; Kalii knows (this) or thou must know it." Having come there (i.e. home) Nanak 
did not enter his house and Bala went to his own house. Kalu was informed, that Bala, the 
servant (of Nanak), had entered his house and that Nanak had not come. Kalii became alarmed 
and went to the house of Bala and called him out. Bala came out of the house and Kalu 
asked: "Bala, where is Nanak and where are the Kupees?" Bala said: "Mahata Kalu, in going 
along Nanak has given the twenty Kupees away to feed Faqira." Kalu said again: "I, who had 
sent thee with him, what for did I send thee with him ? that you should feed Faqira ? " " Mahata 
Kalu, thou hadat said to Nanak : ' make a good traffic ! ' He said : ' Hear, Bala, we must make 
a good traffic;' by him the good traffic has been made, thou mayst cry or not." Then Kalu 
aaid: "Show me to a certainty where he is!" Bala took Kalu and came with him to the pond. , 
Having come there Kalu seized Nanak and began to ask: "Where are those twenty Kupees?" 
Nanak did not say anything. Kalu became angry and gave Nanak two slaps on his left cheek 
and on his right cheek he gave him (two) with his right hand. 2 Nanak shed tears, but said 
nothing, the water ran down his cheeks. One man went to Kac Bular and said : " Kalu, the 
Patvarl, has given his son a severe beating. NanakI, the daughter of Kalu, has fallen for the 

1 The MS. No. 2885 has the words : In the Dvapara yuga we had performed devotion to the Formless one, 
the devotion had become complete ; then also we were incorporeal and now also we are incorporeal. About 
the different births nothing is said. The Lahore edition has (intentionally) left out this whole passage. 
3 The MS. No. 2885 gives this passage more clearly: STJ^ trrfS SrfH £ ^fjj 3^TT% 

$ % ^fg 3*n% U^f $ Wft ?re5 %, i.e. Kalii having become angry struck 

Nanak two slaps with the right hand on the left cheek and two slaps with the left hand on the right cheek, 
(The verb (*n3) is dropped.) In the Lahore edition this whole passage, which all Janam-Sakhls have, is 
intentionally left out, it only says that Kalu became very angry. 


sake of Nanak at the feet of Kalii (saying) : « 0 father, forgive him this fault for my sake ! ' " 
Nanakl had released Nanak, when a man of Eae Bular came (and said) : " Go, Kalii, the Eae 
is calling thee, and bring also Nanak with thee!" Kalu said: "Sir, what shall I bring? this 
my son has quite upset me, what shall I do?" That servant of Eae Bular said: "Go, brother, 
go there !" That servant brought both to Eae Bular. The Eae was sitting in anger; when 
he saw Nanak, he wept. The Eae rose and embraced Nanak, he took him and kissed his 
bead. When he looked at his face, what did he see? that the water was running down his 
cheeks! Then the Eae said: "Hear, Kalu, I had told thee, don't call Nanak bad, and (yet) 
thou bast beaten him to-day. My word has made no impression on thee, thou hast bad no 
love to God nor affection to thy son, that there is only one son in thy house; Kalu, thou 
art a great fiend ! Kalu, Nanak is not (held) worthy in thy house. "What shall I do, as 
this one has no knowlege of himself ?" Kalu replied: "Sir, I had given him twenty Eupees ; 
there is no traffic and no Eupees (more), what shall I do ? You are quarrelling with me. I 
bad sent (also) a servant with Nanak; that one began to say, that he has fed Faqirs." Eae 
Bular asked the servant Bala: "Where has Nanak thrown away the twenty Eupees?" Bala 
told before the Eae the whole thing that had happened. Then the Eae said: "Till now I never 
called thee bad, but now I call thee so, because thou, uproarious, unhappy man, hast beaten so 
much Nanak for the sake of twenty Eupees. Go, Umeda, bring from within from the *Earu 
twenty Eupees and put them into the hand of the uproarious. Kalu ! What shall I do, as he 
(Nanat) will not eat in my bouse, otherwise I would keep him in my own house, be is not 
to be kept in thy bouse; to-day or to-morrow we were entrusting him to somebody." Mean- 
while Umeda brought the Eupees from the Earn Khokhar and put them before Eae Bular. The 
Bae taking 'them into his hand began to give them to Kalu, but Kalu would not take them 
and said : " Sir, the Eupees are thine and I also am thine and Nanak also is thine. I am 
not at all grieving about the Eupees, I am grieving about his conduct." The Eae replied : 
" He is acting well, Kalu, take the Eupees ! As long as the steps of Nanak are here, so long 
we will serve him." Then said Umeda, the Yazlr of the Eae: "Kalu, take the Eupees! it 
is not good to disobey the word of the Eae. Eae Bular must be obeyed, otherwise he will 
take it amiss." Then Kalu took the twenty Eupees. Kalu having taken the Eupees became 
astonished. The people of Talvandl, the Khatrls and the Brahmans and the Jat families, they 
all began to be angry (and said): "Art thou a Khatrl? Thy birth is rather like that of Candal, 
that thou hast thus beaten thy son. And thou hast taken twenty Eupees from the Eae ! " 
Then the next morning Kalii went again to the Eae and fell down at his feet and said: "I 
have no place whatever, don't beat me ; take back again these twenty Eupees ! " The Eae 
replied: "These twenty Eupees we have not given to thee, I had to give them to Nanak, to 
him they are given, how should they be again taken from thee?" Kalii answered: "Sir, 
where were Eupees with Nanak, that they were borrowed by thee from him?" The Eae 
replied: "Kalu, thou dost not know it; as much wealth and property there is in this world, 
the Lord of all that is Nanak, what he gave, that we were eating and drinking."] 


Jairam* 8 betrothal with Nanaki and subsequent marriage. 

[When Nanak was eighteen years of age, they were the days of Cet and Vaisakh, the 
Palta Jairam had come for the sake of measuring (the corn-fields), (for) he was an Amil. 
Before (him) the daughter of Kalu, Nanaki, was drawing water from a well; the sight of 
Jairam, the Palta, fell on her, she was very beautiful. Jairam seeing her fell in love with her 
and said to the Eae: "0 Eae, whose is this girl?" The Eae replied: "0 brother, thia girl 




belongs to Kalu, the PatvarT." Jairam asked further: "0 Bae, Kalu the Patvari, what sort 
of people are they?" Eae Bular said: "O brother, they are Khatris, of the VedT clan." 
Jairam said: "0 Bae, if her betrothal has not been made somewhere else, bring about my 
betrothal with her." The Bae replied: "0 brother, if between them and you intermarriages 
take place, I will speak about it, but if not, how can I speak about it?" With Jairam was 
a Brahman cook, but very intelligent. Him Jairam asked: f< Sir, between us and the Vedis 
do betrothals take place or not?" Nidha, the Brahman, replied: "0 brother, they are taking 
place." The Eae called then Kalu and asked: " Kalu, do betrothals take place between 
him and you or not?" Kalu answered: "They are taking place." The Bae said further: 
"Kalu, thy daughter has become big, betroth her with Jairam!" Kalu replied: "0 Bae, 
those who have a daughter, do not speak themselves, those speak, with whom something is 
wrong. I am thy servant, whatever is in my power I shall be ready to do." The Bae 
said: "She is our daughter, don't trouble yourself about it!" Jairam called again on the 
Bae: "0 Bae, what news about the betrothal?" The Bae answered: "The asking in 
marriage of others' daughters is not a law, but a matter of submission and entreaty. Call thou 
him and speak with him, what will have to be said on our part, that we shall also say. 
Jairam replied: "How shall I speak? you are Bajas, you understand it." The Bae said: "Do 
not speak thyself, let it be told by the Brahman." Jairam replied: "Well, Sir, the Brahman 
may go." Jairam called the Brahman and said: "Sir, go to Kalu, the Yedl's house, for the 
sake of betrothal." The Brahman answered : " 0 Bae, let us both, you and I, be together and 
speak to Kalu!" On Saturday, when one watch and a half of the day was yet remaining, the 
Brahman said to Kalu: "Look, Mahata Kalu, thou art a good Khatrl and Jairam also is a 
great man; it is a good union, consent to a betrothal!" Kalu replied: "Art thou speaking, 

0 Brahman, or is Jairam speaking?" The Brahman replied: "0 Mahata, how should Jairam 
speak? he has sent me." Then said the Bae: "Kalu, the Brahman speaks truth, how should 
Jairam speak? What the Brahman, says, that he says." Then said Kalu: "Well, 0 Bae, thy 
word is on my head ; what you do, that is acceptable to my seven generations ! " 

The betrothal of Jairam and NanakI took place. In the coming (month of) Manghar the 
work was done. 1 Jairam took the Doll (with his wife) to his house (at Sultanpur). Afterwards 
Kalu began to send Nanak, 2 but Nanak did not go. Kalu said : " Go and bring thy sister." 
Then the Bae called Nanak, comforted him and said : " Go for this time and bring thy sister, * 
after we shall entrust you (to them) there." Nanak went and as it was some journey, he took 
Bala, the Sandhu, with him, as he had an affection for Bala. Having gone there he began to 
ask leave for his sister. Then Jairam said: "Nanak, remain thou also here, I am not sending 
(thee and Nanakl)." Nanakl said then to Jairam: "Send me this time, that the father Kalu 
and the mother, hoth may be pleased and Nanak also may be pleased, he will say: 'I have 
not come back empty.' Then don't send me again ! I stand in awe of Nanak. When a dream 
comes to me, whatever comes forth out of his mouth (in the dream), that is taking place; 
for this reason I tell you this." Jairam said: "Well, go, when wilt thou come again?" 
Nanakl said: "When thou wilt come to do the government work, then take me with thee, 

1 am not coming by myself." Nanak took Nanak! with him and they went home and joined 

1 The words of the original are: nfT^ STTtT Wr; they allude briefly to the wedding which 
took place in Manghar. But the Lahore edition is not content with this brief allusion ; it gives a description 
of the marriage procession, and that much money and sweetmeats were distributed. That this is quite a 
recent addition is proved by the MS. 2885, which contains nothing of this kind, but agrees here quite with 
our text. 

2 Le. to Sultanpnr, to look after his sister. 



(their people). When [the season of Vaisakh came again, the measuring (of the eorn-fields) 
eommeneed. Jairam eame to Talvandl, and having measured there he was on the point of bringing 
back his wife. Eae Bnlar heard of it^ he showed Jairam much attention and entreaty; Jairam 
was much pleased with the llae, he said also to' the Rae : "0 Eae, I am very much pleased 
with you, may boldly some serviee be ordered to me ! " The Eae said : " 0 brother, thy father- 
in-law is very foul-tongued and Nanak thy brother-in-law is a perfeet Sadh. We were saying 
this, that you should keep him with you." Jairam replied: "0 Eae, what is better than this? 
He shall go with me." Then the Eae said: "0 brother, it will not do, that he go with you, 
after two months we will send him; you must bring about his betrothal there somewhere " 
(i.e. with somebody). Jairam replied : " Well, Eae, what Earn will do, that is good." Jairam 
took his wife and went home.] 


Nanak gives away Ms drinking vessel and ring to an Atit. Arrangements for his departure 

to Sultanpur. 

[When Nanak had beeome twenty years of age, one day an Atit (Faqir) eame and sat outside 
of the town. There also Nanak went with pleasure and sat down. In Nanak's hand was a 
drinking vessel (Lota) and on one hand a ring of gold. The Atit said: "Who art thou? what 
is thy name?" Nanak replied: "My name is Nanak Nirankarl, I am a Vedi Khatri." Then 
the Atit said again: "Whose are we?" Nanak replied: " Tou are the Nirankar's." Then 
the Atit said: "Tou are a Nirankarl 1 and I am a Nirankarl, between thee and * me what 
difference is there?" Nanak replied: "None whatever." Then the Atit said: "Give me this 
drinking vessel and ring ! " Nanak took off the ring from his hand and put (it and) the drinking 
vessel before the Atit. Then the Atit said: "They have eome to hand, let them remain with 
me." Nanak said: "0 God, when the spittle is thrown out of the mouth, it is not again 
taken up." The Atit replied: "0 Nanak, thou art really the Nirankarl (Formless one) and we are 
the eopy." Nanak went then to his own house and the Atit took the drinking vessel and the 
ring and went off. Kalii asked Nanak: "Where is the drinking vessel and the ring?" Nanak 
remained silent and did not speak. Kalu having beeome angry said: "Go, leave my house! I 
do not hold thee baek ! " Eae Bular heard this and ealled Kalu : " 0 Kalu, what has happened 
again ? " " Sir, I am (your) dust : the ring and the drinking vessel he has thrown away some- 
where; it is not known what he has done," The Rae then said to Kalu: "Let him be sent 
to Jairam ; here thou art annoyed and he also is grieved ; whatever happens there, that happens." 
The Eae wrote a letter to Nanak! and Jairam and wrote a good deal: "We have entrusted 
Nanak to thee; whatever will be done on thy part, that should be done without delay." Jairam 
also wrote a letter: "Nanak, oome and join us." When Nanak had read this letter, he said: 
"I will join Jairam," The people of the house said: "If Nanak go, it is good."] 


Nan&h arrives at Sultanpur and enters ike Commissariat. 

On the third of the light half of the month Manghar, in Sambat 1540, 2 Nanak went to 
Jairam; he eame on the fifth day from Talvandl to Sultanpur. On the seventh of the light half 
of Manghar, he met with Nanaki,- his sister. Nanak! on seeing Nanak fell down at his feet. 
Nanak said ; " 0 sister, thou art older (than I), I on the contrary will fall at thy feet, or shouldst 

1 Here Nirankarl has the sense : of the Formless one. 

8 The Lahore edition has Sambat 1544, against all MS. authority. 



thou fall at my feet?" 1 NanakT replied: "0 brother, thou art speaking the truth, hut though 
thou mayst be a man, thou appearest to me as my Supreme Lord." Jairam was not at home. 
The Bebe 8 put down a stool (for Nanak) and began to ask : "0 brother, art thou very happy?" 
Nanak replied: "0 Bebe, I am always happy." He was (still) sitting when Jairam afterwards 
came home. When he looked about, Nanak was sitting in front. When !Nanak saw that his 
brother-in-law Jairam had come, he rose and ran to fall down at his feet. Jairam was a very 
intelligent man; he seized the hands of Nanak and did not allow him to apply them to his feet, 
he himself put his hand on the feet of Nanak. Then Guru Nanak said: "0 brother-in-law, 
why is this inverted eustom made by thee?" Jairam replied: "0 Nanak, you know, that we. 
were brothers-in-law, and (now) I consider thee as the Supreme Lord. It has been my good luck, 
that you have come to me; you have given me your sight, and I have been exalted thereby. 
Don't you do anything, sit down and live with ease ! " Guru Nanak replied : " 0 brother-in- 
law, if there would be some business (for me), it would be a good thing." Jairam said: "Well, 
brother, as this (thought) has arisen in your mind, it is good. Have you read some Turkish?" 
Guru Nanak replied: "We have read some Hindi." Jairam said: "Brother Nanak, will you 
take the Commissariat?" Guru Nanak replied: "0 brother-in-law, whose is the Commissariat?" 
Jairam said: "It belongs to the Navab Daulat Khan Lpdl, it is a great commissariat; if it he 
possible, then take it!" Guru JSTanak replied: "Well, brother-in-law, the Formless one will bring 
it to an issue!" The Bebe Nanaki said again: "Thou art the form of the Supreme Lord, as 
the morsel is, so eat it in sitting down, o> thou not fall into these troubles! thou dost not come 
up to these troubles, thou art a Eaqlr." Guru JSTanak replied: "If one eats his bread in doing 
(some) work, it becomes pure, and the Turks are saying: 'What is eaten lawfully, that is 
good.'" Then Bebe NanakI said: "Well, brother, as thou art thinking and liking, so it is 
right." Then Bebe J^anakl said further to Jairam: "Sir, are you acquainted with his cir- 
cumstances or not?" Jairam replied: "0 servant of the Supreme I^ord, I am acquainted." 
Then Bebe Nanaki continued to say: "Where shall his betrothal be made? if he conceive an 
affection for the married state, then business will be done by him." Jairam replied: "I will 
see about it. If he will give himself to business, then some Khatn also will give the hand to a 
betrothal; do not be hasty! Keep the Lord in thy mind!" Bebe Nanaki replied: "Sir, I am 
not cleverer than thou, but I had to tell you this." On the fourteenth of the light half of 
the (month of) Manghar the Commissariat was given (to Nauak) by Jairam. Say, 0 brother: 
vah Guru-jl ! 


Mnalc in the Commissariat; visited ly his father. Sis accounts are examined hj Jairam and 

found correet. 

[One thousand Eupees in cash were given (to him by Jairam). 3 Bala, the Sandhu, said* 
"0 Guru (Angad), I also was with him. I said: <0 brother Kanak, thou hast taken one 
thousand Eupees and the Commissariat, give me leave to go.' Then Guru Mnak said: '0 

1 This story is also to be found in the Panjabi Grammar (edited by the American Missionaries, Ludihana) 
p. 97 sgq., but the text is not given correctly ; they print e.g. tu^ 7^ i nste ad of Uff^ ^JJ, as if UT? 
and Uffg were the same, whereas the latter is the Locative and written so in the MSS. 

2 ^ the same as ^prf, bibi, a lady, used also in addressing tt sister, out of respect or endearment ; 
generally 7ft is added to to enhance the respect. 

3 It is not quite clear, by whom the Rupees were given to Nanak, if by Jairam, as bead-steward, or by 
Navab Daulat Khan ; the original only says : fgsr TTt{\^ HV^TT I? f^TfWT 

JANAM-SAKHI of baba nanak. b. 


brother Bala, thou hast made an unsolid friendship (with rae), whilst living thou art leaving 
me?' I replied : ' Sir, thou wast the son of a Khatri and didst thy own business, I will 
now also do my own work.' Then guru Nanak said: '0 brother Bala, we shall pass (here) 
some days, this profession must be done by us, what our business is, that we shall do ; behold 
thou the amusement (show) of the Formless one ! what feats the Formless one is doing ! remain 
thou with us, live (with me) ! ' Then I replied : ' "Well, Nanak, as you like, what you will say, 
that I will do.' Then I also began to do work with Nanak. When in this work two years 1 
had passed, Mahata Kalu eame to get information (about it), and met with Guru Nanak. Guru 
Nanak rose and fell down at the feet of Kalu. Mahata Kalu kissed his head and pressed him 
to his neck and comforted him. He began to ask : ' 0 son, two years have now passed, sinee 
thou wast sent here, what is gained, what eaten ? ' jNauak replied : ' Father, mueh has been 
eaten (spent), much has been gained, but no Damn 3 remains with us.' Then Mahata Kalu 
began to quarrel with me {i.e. Bala). Guru Nanak made me a sign, and so I did not speak. 
Kalu began to say : ' I had thought, Nanak is now employed in business, what of my property 
he bad (formerly) squandered, that he will now have gained and will restore to me.' He talked 
in sueh a way, as it was usual with Kalu. He met then with Nanakl and Jairam and- began 
to say : ' What have you done ? are you looking after him ? you have not looked after his 
business nor have you made an effort for his betrothal, you have done nothing at all.' Bebe 
Nanaki replied : ' Since he has come here, he has squandered nothing of thine, you are not 
thankful, that he is happy and has taken to his work, one day he will make profit ; and we 
have also some information concerning a betrothal, to-day or to-morrow it will take place in 
some direction ; we have lost nothing in it, what must we look out ? 0 father, if (the betrothal) 
is in any direction being brought about on your part, then do so ! As it is painful to us, so it 
is still more painful to you.' Kalu said: '0 daughter Nanaki, if it will be done by me, then 
what is it necessary to me (to ask you) ? And, daughter, if you make (it, i.e. the betrothal), 
it must be made in the house of a good Khatri ; an indifferent one must not be made. 7 Jairam 


said then: 'We must not make entreaties, 0 Mahata! There is a Khatri Mula, of the Cona 
family, in (the village of) Pakho, the Radhava, 3 in his house is a daughter; he also is called a 
good man and is Patvari of the Radhava. He is making the betrothal (of his daughter) *for the 
sake of religious merit ; * there we have looked out for a betrothal ; what is pleasing to the Lord, that 
will take plaee. 0 Mahata, compose your mind, Ram will make (all) right.' Kalu said then : 
' The shame is common to the sons and to the sons-in-law, I was saying in my mind : the 
happiness of Bebe Nanak! I have seen with my eyes, now it is my wish, that whilst living I see 
the happiness of Nanak ; then my mind will be composed.' Then Jairam said : ' 0 Mahata, remain 
thou here, and the mother -lady we will also call and bring here.' Kalu replied : ' 0 son Jairam, it is 
hard for me to remain here, as I am occupied there.' Jairam said: '0 Mahata, thou art in the place 
of Parmanand, 6 thou art my father.' Then Kalu said: 'Jairam, when the betrothal of Nanak takes 
place, then give me information ; keep my son Nanak under your eyes, lest he waste any money.' 
- "Then Bebe Nanaki said: '0 father, you are not thankful. You were daily crying : "to-day 

1 All MSS. read : two years, but in the Lahore edition this is changed (apparently without any 
authority, for in the Panjabi Gram. p. 99, and in the Sikha de raj di vithia, p. 211, we find also ^.fjj <J3vf) 
to: *Jvf|7v ^ JJ-Hd 1 (P- 29)» tw <> months. 

2 j the eighth part of a Paisa. 

3 Thus the name is written in the MSS. Radhava (also pronounced Randhava, as I was told) is the 
proper name of a tribe of Jats. "Iftf ^ dMl$ signifies therefore literally : in Pakho, the Radhava's (village 
being left out). See p. lxiv, I. 25. 4 That is to say: without taking any money for her. 

5 Parmanand is said to have been the father of Jairam, 


this is wasted (by him) ; " now he does not waste thine own. And, O father, when he is feeding 
the Faqirs, then our heart is trembling ; if there is no deficiency in the money' of the Government, 
and if we remain unabashed on the part of the Government, it is all right. And, 0 father, when 
he is rendering account, some surplus comes out; he is some form of the Formless one.' Then 
Jairam said: '0 Mahata, for this reason we cannot say anything to him.' Kalii replied: f 0 
son Jairam, if you render again account and if some surplus comes out, you would do well to 
take it to yourself, to him a Lakh (of Eupees) and a straw is the same. And call thou Bala and 
admonish him, I am also telling it him.' Jairam sent a man aud called Bala; he said to him: 
' Bhai Bala, thou art the special friend of INanak, we were thinking of thee thus, that, as !Nanak 
is, so art thou ; take thou care of Nanak, that he do not waste his money on any stranger.' 
Kalii said then : ' It is a shame, that (my) son and Bala remain together/ What Jairam said 
I did not take amiss, but that which Kalii said. I answered to Kalii : ' Mahata Kalii, may not 
some suspicion be in thy mind, that Bala is remaining with !Nanak and will make some extra- 
vagance ! In my opinion Ghl also is" a bad thing, and some other greediness is a bad thing : to 
us, who were remaining with Mnak, Nanak appears as the Supreme Lord. Mahata Kalii, thou 
art hungry after money and I have a craving after this one. What he (Nanak) does, that he does. 
We make further no apology; if thou art hungry after money, then remain thou with him, 
whatever comes into bis hand that take ! ' Then said Jairam : ' 0 Mahata, Bhai Bala speaks 
the truth: Nanak is not a man, he appears as something else. Well, Mahata, depart thou now! 
when the betrothal has taken place, at that very time the affair (i.e. the marriage) must be done 
by us quickly, love will then spring up to his wife and then he will comprehend himself (what 
he has to do).' Then Kalu went home. 

"When one month had passed, some good man brought Jairam this information about Mnak: 
'Hear, Jairam, thy brother-in-law is a steward and is squandering the money of the Govern- 
ment, thou dost not take care of him; dost thou not know, how the temper of the Pathans is?' 
Jairam became sorry, he went home and took JNanaki aside. He began to say: 'Hear, 0 beloved 
of the Lord, a certain man said to-day to me: " Jairam, thy brother-in-law is a steward, he is 
squandering the money, thou dost not admonish him ; dost thou know the temper of the Pathans 
or not?" What shall I do now, wife? What you say, that I will do.' Eanaki replied; 'What 
comes into thy mind, that do, what can I say, I must also walk according to thy word/ Jairam 
said : « Give me some advice, 0 wife, I will do it/ JNanalu replied : < Sir, has no faith yet come to 
you? You will think, that I am taking the side of my brother. Whatever be the Maya of 
the world, that all goes out of the hands of JSTanak, But well, Sir, it is in thy mind, do this 
work: take thou once an account; if the account has turned out full, be it in excess or be it not 
in excess, but be it not deficient, then thou wilt not again be bewildered by the word of any one/ 
Jairam replied: 'Well, wife, I do not take it, if thou hast faith (in him), what should I do?' 
Nanaki said: 'Sir, don't let it go now, I will call my brother/ Jairam replied: 'Well, wife, 
as you like/ Nanaki sent the slave-girl Tulsa and called tfanak. The slave-girl Tulsa went 
and made her salam. tfanak said: '0 Tulsa, why hast thou come tp-day?' Tulsa replied: 
'Sir, my lady told me: "Go to my brother and tell him, that he should "give me his sight;" 
therefore I have oome/ Nanak said: 'Go, Tulsa, I am coming/ Afterwards Guru ffanak 
asked Bhai Bala: 'Why has the Bebe called me?' I sa id : 'She may have called you on 
account of anything/ Guru Nanak rejoined: 'Bhai Bala, my heart gives me witness, that 
some tale-bearing has been made about me.' Bala said: 'Sir, what tale-bearing can any one 
make about thee? what art thou doing?' Then Guru N&nak said: ' Bhai Bala, bring a plate 
of sweetmeats.' I brought it. Mnak put all the sweetmeats into his lap, they were one Seer 
and a half (^fhree pounds), tfanak took them and came to Kanaki. Bebe tfanaki was standing. 
'Come brother,' she said, and put a stool for him. tfanak sat on the stool, I also was with him. 



Nanak asked : ' 0 Bebe, why have I been called ? ' She replied : < 0 brother, many days have 
passed since I have seen you, I had a longing to see you, then I sent for you.' Guru Nanak 
said: 'Bebe-ji, I doubt it; tell me why you have called me!' Then the Bebe replied: '0 
brother, all is known to thee, but it cannot be told.' Nanak said : 4 1 know in my own mind, 
that somebody has made a tale-bearing about me, therefore say I also, that account Bhould be 
taken from me.' The Bebe Nanaki comforted him, hut Guru Nanak said : ( No, this is a matter 
of account, here no regard is had to any one.' Then the Bebe said: 'Well, brother.' 

"In Samvat 1543, 1 on the fifteenth of the light half of the month of Manghar, the account 
was made; the account of three months was given. One hundred and thirty-five Rupees remained 
due to Nanak after (deducting) eating, drinking, taking and giving. Then Nauak said to Jairam : 
'Well, brother-in-law, we have become justified in thy sight: take this Commissariat and give 
it to some one else ! ours is the Formless one, the creator ! ' 2 Then Jairam fell at his feet and Bebe 
Nanaki began to weep and to say : ' First beat me and then go ! ' Nanak said : 4 0 brother-in- 
law : now the account has turned out full, but if it would he less or more, then how ? you 
would bring me into difficulties.' Jairam replied : ' 0 brother, formerly I knew something, but 
now faith has come to me on both sides ; pardon me for this fault ! I have erred very much ! ' . . . . 3 

"Nanak went to the Commissariat and sat down there; all the workmen began to congratulate 
him, Hindus and Musalmans were happy."] 


NanaWs betrothal. He has to give account and comes out with a surplus. 

[In Samvat 1544, on the fifth of the light half of (the month of) Manghar, the betrothal of 
Nanak took place in the house of Mula, the Cona, in Pakho, the Radhava's (village). Jairam 
and Bebe Nanaki gave notice to Mahata Xalu and to the lady mother 4 and congratulated; they 
called them (saying): "If you come, the marriage expenses will be made." Kalu having heard 
this was very happy and likewise the lady mother. Who had brought this information, his 
mouth was filled with sugar-candy and Khlr, 8 which the mother prepared with her own hands. 
Having filled his mouth she began to say: "I am a sacrifice to thy mouth, which has given 
me the information of the congratulation of Nanak." Then all the females of the Yedis came 
by night and sat down to sing; they began to say: "One Nanak, a good man, has been pro- 
duced in our family; as his betrothal has lawfully taken place, our family is rendered spotless 
by him." And the lady mother sent congratulation to her father's house in the Hanjha. 6 Kama 
Jhangar 7 was the father of the lady and Bhirai was her mother; they were the maternal grand- 
father and grandmother of Nanak and the father and mother-in-law of Kalu. She sent word 
to them: "Come and go to Sultanpur, we will make fine expenses (in the marriage)." Bhirai, 
the grandmother, and Rama, the grandfather, and Xisna, the grandmother's brother, these three 
having heard this, were happy and came thence to Talvandl and met Kalu. Having met him 
they rose and went from Talvandl with Kalu and Lalu, the Yedi, and the mother lady, six men 
were ready. Two servants were with Eama, three servants and one Mardana, the Bum 8 of the 
house, in all four men were, with Kalu, so that all together there were twelve men. When they 

1 All the MSS. have the year 1543, only the Lahore edition has changed it to 1544. 

3 The MS. No. 2885 reads: nmTST ^ dddld ffr, our work is (to say and to testify) : the creator is 1 

3 We break off here, as the lengthened speeches and mutual compliments are quite irrelevant. 

4 The words are : nPTT 'sfNt- 5 is rice boiled in milk * 
e ^TP?T> the Manjha is the central part of the Ban Duab. 

7 is tne fam^y name, properly Rama of the Jhangar family. 

8 About P- xi > note Tnou S n Musalmans, they are also attached to Hindu houses. 



were on the point of starting, they went to Rae Bular to take leave of him. Kalu went and stood 
before the Rae; the Rae asked: "How, Kalu?" Kalu said: "The betrothal of Nanak, thy slave, 
has taken place, we are going to make the marriage expenses in Pakho, the Radhava's (village), 
may leave be given to us ! " The Rae replied : " Kalu, it is good, but is Kanak careful ? " Xalu said : 
"0 Rae, he has given me ground for apprehension ." "No, Kalu, I spoke on account of something 
else, thy temper is harsh, hut he is a Sadh, do not quarrel with him!" "This is not my intention, 
0 Rae! and, 0 Rae, you have been made equal to the Supreme Lord, speak you with kindness!" 
The Rae said: "Go, Kalu, may God do you good, may he accomplish the work! We also love 
him, but, Kalu, kiss the head of Mnak as being mine, go, the Lord protect you!" 

Kalu mounted a cart and started; on the fifth day they arrived at Sultanpur, on Thursday. 
They entered the house of Parmanand, the Palta, and congratulations began to be made. Nanak 
obtained information, that the mother and the father, the father's younger brother, the maternal 
grandfather and grandmother and uncle (on the mother's side) and also Mardana, the Dum, had 
come. He rose and ran and fell down at the feet of Kalu. Kalu lifted him up, and kissed his 
head. Nanak said: "0 father, is the Rae pleased?" Kalu replied: "0 son, it is good, that 
thou didst remind me, the Rae had said, that I should kiss thy head." Then Nanak fell down 
at the feet of his mother lady; his mother kissed his head and pressed him to her neck. Then 
15anak fell down at the feet of his uncle Lalu. Lalu took him to his neck, kissed his face 
and said: "0 son, thou hast made our family spotless here and the future the Lord knows." 
Then Nanak fell down at the feet of his grandfather Rama. Rama took him to his neck and 
did not let him go. Then the grandmother BhiraT said: "Let him go from thy neck!" Rama 
replied to Bhirai : ""When my desire will be fulfilled, then I will let him go." .... 

In Samvat 1544, on the seventh of the light half of the month of Magh, they started from 
Sultanpur, having reflected on a good moment and day. Nidha, the Brahman, was sent in advance 
to the village of Pakho, the Radhava. The grandson of Pakho, the Radhava, was Hita, his 
Patvari was Mula, the Cona. Nidba, the Brahman, went and gave information to Mula ; " 0 
Mahata Mula, be happy!" Mula replied: "Reverence to thee, 0 Pandha ! Come! whence hast 
thou come?" Nidha said: "I have come from Sultanpur." Mula said then: "Why hast 
thou come?" Nidha replied: "0 brother, Jairam and Parmanand, the Palta, have sent me." 
Mula said: "Why hast thou been sent?" Nidha replied: "Kalii, the father-in-law, has come 
from Talvandl for the sake of making the marriage expenses. And Jairam had said to me: 
'Go thou and bring information to Mahata Mula.; 7 therefore have I come." Mula. replied: "May 
they come on my head ! " 

On Sunday, the tenth, after a watch of the day had risen ( = passed), they arrived. Mula 
had made some preparations (of food) and put down (for them). Parmanand, the Palta, went 
and gave the wedding presents with his own hands. In taking and giving congratulations the 
custom was well observed from the side of both parties. Then Kalu, the Vedi, said to Parmanand: 
"0 brother, ask thou for the appointment of the marriage day!" Parmanand was an intelligent 
man, he took Mula and sat aside with him. The matter was accomplished. "Look, 0 Mahata, 
the lad is a young man, and it is heard that the girl also is grown up : give thou a day for 
the marriage, the Yedis have come from Talvandl, and the Jhangars, the relatives of the mother 
of the lad, have come from the Manjha." Mula answered: "0 brother, be of good cheer! give 
me one year's delay, then having ascertained a good time for the marriage I will send you 
word." Having said this he dismissed them in a good manner with honour. They re-entered 
Sultanpur with great joy. Congratulations began to be made ; Bebe Nanakl called her companions 
and they sat down to sing. On the fourth day they took leave. 

Then Mardana, the Dum, said: "0 Kanak, give me some marriage present of thy own." 
Nanak replied: "0 Mardana, what wilt thou take? We have some business with thee." 

JANAM-SAKHI of baba nanak. b. 


Mardana said: "Sir, give me some good thing!" Nanak replied: "Of a good thing thou 
wilt earn grief." Mardana said : "If thou wilt give me a good thing, how shall I be grieved?" 
Nanak replied: "0 Mardana, thou art a Mirasi, 1 thou art pleased with money and clothes, and 
the future thing (the other world) th%u dost not know." Mardana said: "0 Nanak, if you 
know a good thing, give us that!" Nanak replied: "We have given to thee the skill of the 
strings, this (art) is necessary for us." Then Mardana rose and stood and paid reverence. Then 
Nanak took off his coat from his neck, gave it to him and put it. on his neck, saying: "0 
Mardana, mind my word!" Mardana said: "Sir, command me!" "Mardana, thou art the 
Mirasi of the Vedls, thou must not beg from others ! " Mardana replied : " Well, Sir, I agree 
to this, but you must take care of me!" Eanak said: "Hear, 0 Mardana, the creator takes 
care of all." 

Then all the iamilies took leave and departed, after having met with joy and comfort. 
Nanak's conduct was the same as of old ; if one came (to beg), he did not send away any 
one empty. Eumours were spread among the people that Nanak will be ruined to-day or to- 
morrow. The people came and informed IfanakT and Jairam. Eanaki said to Jairam : " Tou 
must look out, (else) you may be led astray by the talk of the people." Jairam was pondering 
within, but he did not let out any breath. Then one, day Nanak said himself to Jairam : " 0 
brother-in-law, account should be given to the Government, many days have passed (now)." 
Jairam went to the Navab and said: "0 Navab, health! The steward Nanak says: f If the 
Navab would take account, it would be well.'" Navab Daulat Khan said: "Jairam, call thy 
brother-in-law, the steward." Jairam sent the Brahman Nidha and called him (saying): "Nanak, 
bring the ledger and give account." Nanak was much pleased and brought the ledger. The 
people were filling the ears of the Navab (saying): "iNavab, health! The steward is squandering 
the money of the Navab." 2 Having come (Fanak) saluted the Navab. The Navab asked: "0 
steward, what is, thy name?" Nanak replied: "My name is Nanak Nirankarl." The Navab 
said to Jairam: "Jairam, I have understood nothing, what did the steward say?" Jairam 
satisfied the Navab in Persian: "Tou say, (he is) incomparable, countless, without a sample, to 
whom this quality is applied, hia servant I am." The Navab laughed and said: "Jairam, is 
Nanak married?" Jairam replied: "Sir, he is not married." Then the Havab said: "I under- 
stand now, if he will be married, such talk will not be conceived (by him)." Then the Navab 
said: "Nanak, I have heard that thou art squandering my money; dost thou not know that 
I am Daulat Khan LodI ? " Nanak replied: "Navab, health! May account be taken! What- 
ever comes out for the Navab, that will now be paid and you may take it, and what will 
come out for (this) poor one, that you may give him or not give him, as you please." The 
Navab said : "Jairam, in what manner does the steward speak ? " Jairam replied : " Navab, 
health! The steward is truthful, he is not guilty of a crime." The Navab said then: "Call 
Jado Eae Navi Sinda!" Jado Eae Navl Sinda came and saluted. The Navab said: "0 Jado 
Eae, account should be taken from Nauak in a good manner!" Jado Eae answered: "Navab, 
health!" He began to make the account; the account lasted five days and five nights. Jado 
Eae Navl Sinda raised many difficulties, but with the Lord and with truth nothing could be 
brought against (him) ; three hundred and twenty-one Eupees came out as surplus for Nanak from 
the side of the Navab. Jairam was happy, he came and paid reverence to the Navab. The Navab 

1 f*Tdl*ft> a singer generally in India (^^y, an adjective formed from ^J>)j*> PI- °f "t&j*)', 
they are Musalmaus arid attach themselves also to Hindu families, from which they get some allowance. 

2 It is clearly seen from these words that the reason for giving account was very different from that 
stated aboye, where Nanak is said to have asked it himself. 




said: 4 4 How is it, Jairam, is the account made up?" Jairam replied: " Health, 0 Navab ! it 
is made up." The Navah said: "How has it turned out?" Jairam replied: "Health, 0 Navab, 
call Jado Eae ! " Jado Eae was called; having come he paid reverence to the Navab. The 
Navab said: "Has the account been taken? and how has it turned out?" Jado Eae replied: 
"Navab, health! three hundred and twenty-one Eupees have come out as surplus to tfanak." 
The Navab said: "What, ours or his?" Jado Eae replied: "Of Nanak, they are due to ffanak 
on the part of the Government." Then the Navab said: "The people were saying that Nanak 
is squandering the money." Then Jairam said: "0 Navab, health! the people are bearing 
much spite." The Navab said: "Call the treasurer Bhavani-das ! " The treasurer was called, 
came and saluted. The Navab said: " Bhavani-das, the money that is due to Nanak, give 
him now! and give him three thousand Eupees in addition." Bhavani-das replied: "Yery 
well, health, 0 Nanak ! " Bhavani-das gave him the three hundred and twenty-one Eupees 
and three thousand Eupees in addition. Nanak took the bags and came home; some of them 
he took to his shop, but the most of them he placed with his sister. Afterwards Jairam came 
very happy. Nanaki asked: "How did the account turn out?" Jairam said: "0 beloved of 
God, I am quite astonished. I was thinking that Nanak was openly squandering the money, 
and now, that the account is being made, comes out on the contrary a surplus for him." 
jNanakl said: "What surplus has to-day come out?" Jairam replied: "A surplus of three 
hundred and twenty-one Eupees after eating, drinking and giving away."] 


Marriage of JVdnafc, which turns out unhappy. 

[In Samvat 1545, for the seventh of the light half of (the month of) Har, the marriage 
day was written. !NanakI made congratulations in the house and by the hand of the Brahman 
!N"idha a letter was sent, sprinkled with saffron. Sweetmeats and Cardamom seeds and five 
Eupees in cash were sent to Talvandl to the house of Kalu. In the house of Kalu, the Yedi, 
they commenced to rejoice and to make congratulations. Kalu sent a man to his father-in-law's 
family in the ilanjha; there also congratulations were made; they began to divide fruits (among 
their friends). Kala went to Eae Bular : "0 Eae, be blessed!" The Bae said: "Kalu, what 
(is the matter)?" Kalu replied; "The day fixed for the marriage of thy slave 1 Nanak has 
come (to us)." The Eae said: "Kalu, don't call Nanak again our slave, we shall be grieved 
thereby." KalQ replied: "Well, Sir, politeness becomes us," 2 

Who went to the wedding? Kalu, Lalu, Parasram, the son of Lalu, Nandlal, Indrasain, 
Phiranda, Jagatrae, Lolcand, Jagsltmall, Jadmall ; all the Yedis were ready. When the first day 
of (the month of) Bhado had risen, seven days passed, then they started from Talvandi. Erom 
the ilanjha came Kama, the maternal grandfather, and Xisna, the (maternal) uncle, and two 
other companions with them. When they had arrived at Sultanpur, the beginning was made .in 
the house of Parmanand and Jairam, the Palta. When yet five days remained for the appointed 
day of the marriage, they started from Sultanpur. Having come to the twenty-second resting- 
place, 3 they stopped and alighted in a garden. Parmanand, the Palta, the father of Jairam, sent 
the Brahman Nidha, (saying to him): "Go and inform Miila, (that) the marriage company of 
the YedTs has come, let it be known to you." Nidha went and informed Mula, the Cona, he 
gave him a benediction and said: "0 patron, be happy!" Mula said: "0 Pandit, reverence 

1 The Lahore edition has struck out the word which all MSS. have, and substituted in its 
place \r$> son. 

2 We drop here some other complimentary words. 3 ^jj rest, resting-place. 



(to thee) ! u iNidha said : " 0 patron, the marriage company of the Yedis has alighted in a 
garden, in order to inform you Bhal Parmanand has sent me." Mula replied: "It is well." 
Then Mula went and assembled his own brothers and relatives; he went to Hita. the Eadhava, 
and said: "0 Caudharl, 1 the marriage* company of the Yedls has come." Hita, the Eadhava, 
said: "0 son Ajita, go with Mula; whatever Mula says, give that supply! "Whatever vessels, 
clothes, people, he may desire, that give, and remain thou thyself also with him! My body, 
0 Mula, is old, else I would be myself with thee." "Well, Caudharl, what your order is, that 
is "yourself." "Mula, good people have come to thy house, have an eye on (thy) honour, and 
restrain thy tongue, this is what I have to say. I have heard that Kalu, the Patvarl of the 
Bhattis, is foul-tongued, and thou also hast a sharp tongue. But well, among them Parmanand 
and Jairam are called good men, therefore from thy own part politeness must be shown (to 
them)" Mula replied : " Well, Caudhan, you are our refuge and asylum and the Lord also is 
our support." - "Well, Mula, go, mind my order." Then Mula having assembled the head men of 
the caste sent excellent food; Ajita, the Kandhava, was with them, much honour and politeness 
was shown (to them). At night the marriage company (of the Yedls) rose and entered (the 
village) with fine music, inside much honour was shown (to them). When one watch and a 
quarter of the night had passed, the (four) circuits (round the marriage fire) took place. "This, 
which I am telling, 0 Guru, I have seen with my own eyes, I was present and speak as an 
eye-witness." Guru Angad having heard some words became happy and began to weep in love. 
"When the time of the circuits (round the fire) came, Nanak said: 'Bhal Bala, remain thou 
with me.' 0 Guru, whatever was Nanak's secret expense, that was with me. I said : ' Well, 
Sir, I will remain with you.' 0 Guru, it was a good enjoyment. Three days the marriage 
company remained, on the fourth day it took leave. Having taken the Doli (with the young 
wife) they came to Sultanpur. Kalu and Lalu said, that the lad and his wife should go to 
their own house and Nanak said : ' I will remain here.' NanakI and Jairam said, they should 
remain here, for who would attend to the business of the commissariat? Then Kalu said: '0 
daughter NanakI, thy mother sits (at home) full of expectation, she also is longing for comfort-' 
This contention was going on, when Mula came. When Mula heard of it, he said, that the 
lad and the girl should remain here, they should not be sent to Talvandl. This strife was going 
on for several days, then Parmanand said : ' Mula, 2 this is now the first time, the mother of 
the lad is also full of expectation and desire, let them go to their own house, then having 
returned they shall remain here, the business of the commissariat is here.' 

"Nanakl and the mother, the Con!, 3 and all the other marriage company that had come 
from Talvandl, went with the Doll of the mother, the Com; Nanak (also) went to Talvandl 
and left the commissariat to me. 

"Nanak returned again to Sultanpur and took the mother, the ConI, to her father Mula's 
house, then he went to the commissariat and sat down there and commenced his work. As the 
custom of Guru !Nanak was, so it continued to be. He showed little affection to his wife and 
the mother, the Coni, became (in consequence thereof) angry, the conduct of the Guru did not 
please her, the Guru did not apply her to his mouth {i.e. he did not kiss her). Two months 
passed and he did not enter the house. 

1 xJ0McTl> the head officer of a village. 

2 In other MSS. he is also called Mulcand, cand being an epithet frequently added to the names 
of Khatris. 

3 ^T3T the mother, the Com, i.e. Nanak's wife. As soon as a girl is married, her proper name 
is dropped and she is only called by the name of her family. Nanak's wife was of the Cona family and she is 
therefore only called by that name ; her maiden name was SulakhanL(JTC5b[^Y) ; see p. lxviii, 1. 5. 



"When Mula came to see his daughter, she said to him: '0 father, where hast thou given 
me away? This one is feeding the people and does not at all care for his house.' Mula went 
to Jairam, made a great row and said: 'Having ohtained my daughter thou hast drowned her!' 
And to Nanak he said: '0 thou, whence hast thou heen born? 1 But Mnak did not speak 
at all. The name of the mother, the Com, was Sulakhani, and because she came to the house 
of the Guru, she was called the mother, the Corn. They made continually altercations and months 
on months passed in squabbles. The name of the mother-in-law of Nanak was Candorani. 
Candoram came to her daughter and the daughter began to weep before her mother. Candorani 
became very angry and went to Bebe iNanaki and began to quarrel with her. She said: 'How 
so? You begin to govern thus, that you ruin other people's daughters? You have no fear of 
God, thou dost not admonish thy brother, thou dost not consider thy sister-in-law as one (with 
thee), thou dost not look after thy sister-in-law ! Neither does thy husband admonish his brother- 
in-law, tell me, what you have in your mind ? ' Bebe NanakI replied : ' Hear, 0 aunt, how 
shall I admonish my brother? My brother is no thief, nor adulterer, nor gambler, he is not 
committing any wickedness, this is (all), that he is giving alms to the naked and hungry; with 
what one earns oneself, one may do what one pleases. Then you may reproach him, when 

your daughter remains hungry or naked.' Candorani remained silent, she could not say 

anything. She came back to her daughter and said: '0 daughter, thy sister-in-law has put me 
quite to shame, I could not give her any answer; 0 daughter, behave thou also a little humbly.' 
Sulakhani replied: '0 mother, I am not hungry nor naked, jewels, clothes, food, all this I 
have.' 'But daughter, if thou hast all this, why art thou giving a bad name to the son of a 
Khatrl ? ' She said : 1 0 mother, what shall I do ? He is not applying me to his mouth, he 


does not speak to me face to face, what shall I do, to whom shall I speak ? ' Candorani went 
then again to Bebe Nanaki and commenced to say: '0 daughter, I have much admonished thy 
sister-in-law ; she admits, that she is not hungry nor naked, but she says that he does not 
speak to her face to face, nor apply her to his mouth: what shall I do?' Bebe Nanaki replied: 

' 0 aunt, the manner of my sister-in-law is rough, but she herself will become discreet.' 

'Well, daughter Nanaki, there is no question of any want, but consider thou thyself: what is 
the custom of the women, that also is desired.' Bebe Nanaki replied : ' Thou art right, the 
Lord will make it well; comfort her and admonish her also, that she should walk according 
to his word, that she should be gentle and give up roughness. Thou also knowest, 0 aunt, * * 
that I am taking care of my brother and I do not consider Nanak as my brother, I consider 
Nanak as the Lord ; put thou true faith in him ! "We are so afraid of Nanak, that we dare 
not say a word to him, for Nanak is a Faqir.' 6andorani went then home."] 


NanaWs two sons are lorn. Me quits the commissariat. 

Guru Nanak carried on the commissariat and satisfied everybody, he commenced also to come 
to his own house. When he had become thirty-two years of age, a son was born in the house 
of the Guru, the turning pin of the world; the name of Sir! (W was given to him. When 
Sir! Cand was four years of age, Lakhml-das, the gentleman, was in the womb. 

The Guru was sitting in the commissariat, when one day a man of the Govind people 1 

1 The expression is : faq Tff^TZ the verb referring to it is throughout kept in the Sing., so that it 

eannot be translated by : some people of Govind. fU? atf^ ^ sta nds therefore for fa? 3tf^£ ^5?t 

being in Panjabi also used in the sense of » man » (Sing.). The Govind lok were a sect of Faqirs. See : 
Sikha de raj dl vithia, p. 268. 



appeared to him in a Turkish garb. Guru Nanak said: "Sir, sit down." Then that Govind 
man sat down and said: "0 servant of God, what pain hast thou?" Nanak replied: » Sir, 
I have no pain whatever." The Govind man continued to say: "Why has thy colour become 
yellow?" Nanak replied: "Sir, I am 'the son of a Khatri, without bathing I do not eat. Four 
watches pass while I am sitting (in the commissariat); when two Ghans ( = forty-eight minutes) 
of the day are as yet remaining, then, having bathed, I put a morsel into my mouth." The 
Govind man answered to Nanak: "0 brother, all is present with thee: rise thou early in the 
morning, dip in the canal and sit then in the commissariat after having put some Ghl, molasses 
and some raw grains of corn into thy mouth, then thy liver will remain green, it will not 
wither away." Nanak took up this custom. "When six months had (thus) passed, Nanak dived 
in the canal and was lost. After his servant had waited (for some time) he rose and came 
and informed the Navab. The fishermen began to search for him, but became tired of it; they 
threw in also a large net, but did not get him. Then in the commissariat and in the public 
office the noise was made, that Nanak, the Yedi, had been lost. Some said this, some that. 
Some said: "He has squandered the money of the Government, for he was feeding the Faqirs." 
Three days and nights he was lost. On the third day Nanak came out of the canal. When 
he had come out, the noise arose that Nanak is sitting among the Faqirs. The people said : 
"A demon has seized Nanak, the steward. Daulat Khan LodI seized Jairam and said: "Nanak, 
thy brother-in-law, was my steward, answer thou for my money." Jairam went to Nanak and 
said: "Nanak, Daulat Khan the Navab demands account, go and give it!" Nanak rose and 
went with him and gave the account, 760 Eupees came out as surplus to Nanak. Daulat Khan 
was informed that 760 Eupees came out as. due to Nanak on the part of the Government. 
Daulat Khan said again : " 0 Nanak, sit down in the commissariat, what is thy own bill, 
settle that and take it and go on with the business of the commissariat." Nanak replied : 
" 0 Navab, this money is of no use to me, this money belongs to God, feed the Faqirs with 
this money." Nanak got discharged and did not enter his house, he remained outside. Mula, 
his father-in-law, burnt and became hot like coals. 

On the third month (after) Lakhml-das was born in the house of Guru Nanak. Mala, the 
Cona, his father-in-law, was a votary of the Pandit Sama; he went to him and wept: "Look, 
Sir, Nanak is neither doing any business nor does he go anywhere; I am very much afflicted." 

(17). 1 - 

Mula, his father-in-law, complains against Nanah and declares him mad. Nanak proves that 
he is in his senses. The prayers in the mosque. 

Then Mula, the Cona, went to the Navab and complained. The Navab Daulat Khan said : 
"0 Tar Khan, who is this man, of whom does he complain?" Tar Khan asked Mula : 
"Who art thou and of whom dost thou complain?" Mula answered: "Sir, I am the father- 
in-law of Nanak, the steward, and I complain of Nanak." Tar Khan told it to the Navab. The 
Navab said: "Bring him here!" Tar Khan brought Mula; and the Navab asked him: "Why 
art thou complaining of Nanak?" Mula said: "Navab, health! The 760 Eupees, which came 
out as due to Nanak, should go to the wife of Nanak." The Navab said: "0 Mula, Nanak 
is saying, that they should be given to the Faqirs." Mula answered: "Navab, health! Nanak 
has become mad." The Navab said: "These have a just claim. Apply to Nanak a Mulla ! 
If he has not become mad, then give the money to the Faqirs ! " Then the Mulla commenced 

1 In the sixteenth Saklil it is related that the admonitions of the Sama made no impression on Nanak. 


to make incantations to Nanak, but Nanak remained absorbed (in tbought). When tbe smell of 
tbe burnt roll of candlewick went into the nose of Nanak, lie said: 


Whose field is wasted, what need have they of a threshing-floor ? 
0 Nanak, woe to their life, who write and sell the name ! 

The Mulla said further: "Who art thou? tell me thy name!" Then Nanak uttered a Sabd in 
the Eag Marti, Mahala, I. [there follow four verses]. 1 The Mulla became comforted and began 
to praise (him). Having come the Mulla said to the Navab: " Navab, health! Nanak is not 
mad, with him some saint has met, he is in his senses." The Navab said then: "Call Jairam!" 
Jairam was called. The Navab said: "Jairam, what shall be done? We cannot keep the money 
of Nanak, and Nanak has said that it should be given to the Eaqlrs. His father-in-law com- 
plains against him (saying) : ' We know, that Nanak has become mad,' and the Mulla, says that 
Nanak is in his senses. Speak thou ! what thou sayest, that we will do.' " Jairam was very 
much afraid of Nanak, he remained therefore silent The Navab said again: "Jairam, why dost 
thou not give an answer?" Jairam replied: "Navab, health! The Navab understands every- 
thing (better than I); what shall I answer?" The Navab said: "Jairam, (his) wife has also 
a right." Jairam replied: "Nanak is also present, he is not gone far off." Then the Navab 
said: "Call Nanak!" A man went to call Nanak, but Nanak did not come. The man 
returned and said to the Navab: "Sir, he does not come." The Navab Daulat Khan became 
angry and said: "Seize and bring him!" The man went again and said: "0 Nanak, the 
Navab has become very angry." Then Nanak rose and came and stood before the Navab, he made 
his salam (to him). The Navab got angry and said: "Nanak, why didst thou not come?" 
Nanak replied: "Hear, 0 Navab! when I was thy servant, I came to thee, now I am not thy 
servant, now I have become the servant of God." The Navab said then: "If thou hast become 
such a one, then go with me and say prayers! it is Eriday to-day." Nanak said: "Go, Sir!" 
The Navab, the KazI, Nanak and many innumerable people went together and stood in the great 
mosque. As many people as were in the mosque, they all began to say in their place, that 
Nanak has to-day come over to this side, and among all the respectable Hindus in Sultanpur a 
noise was made. Jairam was much grieved and went home. When Nanakl saw that her lord 
was much grieved, she rose and said: "What is the matter to-day, that thou hast come so 
grieved?" Jairam replied: "Hear, 0 servant of God, what thy brother Nanak has done! he is 
gone with the Navab to the great mosque to say prayers ! and in the whole town, among Hindus 
and Musalmans, a noise is made, that to-day Nanak is coming over to this side ; why should I not 
be grieved?" Nanak! said: "Compose thy mind, rise and eat food! do not be in anxiety about 
Nanak! Nanak, my brother, is under his {i.e. God's) strong protection, no one is able to look towards 
Nanak with a bad eye; rise thou and eat with joy!" Whilst they were talking thus, a noise 
arose. Jairam had left Nidha, the Brahman, as a spy; he came and congratulated Jairam, (saying): 
"0 patron, comfort and joy set in! no apprehension is to be made!" Jairam and Nanakl began 
to ask Nidha: "Tell, Nidha, how has it happened?" Nidha said: "I was not within (the 
mosque), but I have heard it from the mouth of the Turks, that the Navab made his prayer and 
that Nanak remained standing. When the Navab had finished his prayer, he began to say to 
Nanak : < 0 Nanak, thou hadst come to make prayers, why didst thou not say them ? ' Nanak 
replied: 'With whom shall I make prayers?' The Navab said: 'Thou shouldst have made 
them with us/ Nanak replied: 'Thou hadst gone to Kandahar in order to buy horses, with 

1 See Rag Ward, MhIj. I. Sabd 7. 



whom shall I pray?' Daulat Khan said: f O Mnak, thou art telling so much falsehood, I am 
standing here.' !Nanak replied: 'Hear, 0 Khan, thy body was standing here, and he who 
was saying the prayers had gone to Kandahar to buy horses.' Then the Kazi said: ' Navab, 
health ! how much falsehood is the Hfhdu telling ! ' The Navab replied : ' 0 Kazi, Nanak is 
truthful. At the time of bowing down my spirit had gone to Kandahar for the sake of horses.' 
Again the Kazi made a calumny (saying) : ' Hear, 0 Khan ! we surely had not gone, he should 
have said prayers with us ! ' Then the Navab said : 1 Nanak thou shouldst have prayed with 
the Kazi ! ' Nanak replied : ' 0 Navab, the Kazi had gone to his house to take care of a colt, 
"perhaps my colt may be falling into the pit." ' " 

Then both believed. 1 "So, 0 brother, I have heard." Nanaki said again: <( 0 Misr, where 
hast thou left Eanak?" Nidha, replied: "I have left him there." Jairam began to quarrel 
with Nidha: "If thou hadst stood there for one hour, JTauak would have come out and thou 
wouldst have met with him." Nidha replied: "Sir, he was in the mosque, and all the people 
that were there, returned to their houses, but he did not come into my sight, who knows where 
he is gone?" NanakI comforted Jairam: "Be thou not anxious at all, Nanak is coming now." 
In the meanwhile Nanak came to Jairam's house. The slave-girl Tulsa cried from below : 
"Mistress, your brother has come!" Jairam became very happy and began to ask Nanak : 
"0 brother Nanak, how did the mentioned affair happen? tell thy own story, what is heard from 
thy own jnouth, that is genuine information." Nanak said : " 0 brother-in-law ! Daulat Khan 
and the Kazi began to say their prayers, we remained standing by. When he (the Khan) had 
finished his prayers, he began to say : ' 0 Nanak, hast thou come to say , prayers or to stand here, 
thou hast not said prayers.' We replied : 

The forehead he knocks on the ground, the heart rises to heaven, 
Daulat Khan, the Pathan, buying horses in Kandahar. 

The Kavab said: 'I have not understood it, what didst thou say?' I said again: 'Thou hadst 
gone to Kandahar to buy horses, how should I have made prayers?' The Kazi said then; 'Look, 
0 Khan, how much falsehood the Hindu is telling!' The Khan replied: f 0 Kazi, the Hindu 
is truthful. At the time, we were making the bows (in prayers), our heart had gone to Kandahar 
for the sake of horses.' Then the Kazi said : ' We indeed had not gone anywhere, he should 
have said (prayers) with us,' I replied to the Kazi: 'In (thy) courtyard a pit was dug, while 
bowing down on the ground (thy) spirit was with (thy) colt.' The Navab said : ' 0 Nanak, 
why art thou saying this ? ' I replied : ' The mare of the Kazi had hrought forth a colt, and 
in his courtyard is a pit; when the Kazi made his bowings, his spirit was dwelling on the colt, 
"perhaps the colt may fall into the pit and die."' This I said; then Daulat Khan laughed: 
' 'Now, Kazi, what does Nanak say ? speak the truth ! ' The Kazi began to say : ' 0 Khan, 
the matter is indeed so.' Then the Navab said to the Kazi: 'Nanak is a perfect Faqlr. 2 Now 
not a word can be said against him.' The Navab said further: 'Hear, Mnak, thy money I 
cannot, keep and thy father-in-law has brought a complaint against thee, that it is the right of 
(thy) wife, and thou hadst said, that I should give it to the Faqlrs, say now, to whom shall I 
give the money?' I replied to the Navab : 'I have told thee, know thou, (what is further to 
be done)!' The Navab said: 'Hear, Nanakj.the one half of thy money we will give to thy 
wife and the other half to the Faqirs, give thou it with thy own hands!' I replied: 'We 
know nothing at all, know thou!' This word we have spoken, whether it please thee, 0 brother- 

1 Here the Lahore edition adds (against all the other MSS.) : Both fell at his feet and said : " Sir, thou 
thyself art indeed God." 

2 The Lahore edition has here again : 3" 'HTM" *TCT vh Nanak indeed is himself God. 



in-law, or displease thee!" Jairam said: " What is done by thee, that is done." Then Nanak 
and Jairam took their food, and having eaten they sat down. Afterwards Mula and Candorani 
came in. ' Before Mula and Sama, the Pandit, had been quarrelling. Now CandoranI, the mother- 
in-law, came; having seen Nanak she pealed like thunder and began to say: "Hear, Nanak, 
for this purpose thou hast married, that having increased the family thou leavest it and runnest 
away?" So she went on chatting. . . . Mula did not again give up his daughter. Lakhmi-das 
was as yet on the haunch {i.e. a baby) and Sir! Cand was four years, and three-quarters old. 


Nanak leaves his family, which is broken up. 

[Nanak then went away from Sultanpur and remained outside (of it in the jungle); he did 
not come (any longer) to the house of his wife. CandoranI and Mula did not give up their 
daughter; prating on he (i.e. Mula) made much altercation. At last the matter was settled thus. 
Bebe NanakI said: "Well, aunt, Sirl Cand shall remain with me, and my sister-in-law and 
Lakhml-das you take with you. If there should be any question about property and if my 
eister-in-law should become excited about anything, we will make a present of it to her; we 


cannot struggle with the Lord." Then CandoranI and Mula took their daughter and grandson 
with them *] 

(84) . 

Nanak returns to Talvandl. 

Then Guru Nanak and Bala came to Talvandl; his uncle Lalu met with him and said: "My 
brother Kalii is departed and my lady sister-in-law is also departed, thou art my arm, remain 
now with me! what thou sayst, that I will do!" Guru Nanak replied: "0 uncle Lalu, we also 
must go, we cannot remain." Then uncle Lalu said again: "Well, Sir, what thou wilt say, 
that we must mind." Guru Nanak remained there fifteen days. 

(85) . 

Nanak joins his wife at Palcho. Questions about the succession in the Guruship. 

Then Guru Nanak and Bala came to (the village) of Pakho, the Kadhava, and began to 
remain there. 2 One day the mother, the Com, said: "Bhal Bala, let now the ascetic stop (here), 
he has wandered enough about." Bala replied: "Well, madam!" Bhal Bala said then to Guru 
Nanak: "Sir! give me now leave!" Guru Nanak replied: " Bhal Bala, where we remain, 
there remain thou also!" Bala said: "Sir, going and remaining depends on the Lord, but, Sir, 
who will be after thee (thy successor)?" Guru Nanak replied: "Bhal Bala, afterwards Lahana, 
the Khatrl, the son of Pheru, the Tihan Khatrl, will meet with us, he will remain after me 
(as Guru)." Bala asked again: "0 Guru, will he also be a good man?" Guru Nanak replied: 
"Bhal Bala, he will be like me." Bala asked again: "Sir, what about his honour Sirl Cand?" 
The Guru replied: "Bhal Bala, he will not be in want of bread and clothes, they will follow 
him, but that thing (i.e. the Guruship) belongs to Lahana." Then Bala took leave and went 
to Talvandl. 

1 We break off here and give the conclusion of the life of Nanak. The intermediate wanderings of 
Nanak, as related here, have very little in common with the original compilation and are full of wonderful stories, 
which bear the stamp of invention on their front. We pass them over as irrelevant to our object in view. 

2 The home of Nanak's wife, where she had been staying in the house of her parents since her separation 
from her husband. 




Bald presses Angad to tell Mm how he became Nanatts disciple and successor. 


Then Bala said: "Hear, 0 Guru (Angad)! between Guru Mnak and thee there is no 
difference whatever ! and till here I have information about the Guru ; what I have seen with 
my own eyes, that T have dictated. Of what follows I have no knowledge." Then Guru Angad 
said: "Bhai Bala, thou hast given us a sight of Guru Nanak, the creator is merciful to thee." 
Bala replied: " Sir, thou hast taken from me the whole account, give me now, Sir, thy own 
story, how did it happen with thee?" Guru Angad replied: "Take my account, 0 Bhai Bala! 
thus it happened with us. "We had gone to Kangra with the family (wife) to worship the Devi. 
We had heard before, that one Nanak, a Yedl Khatri, had become an ascetic and was staying 
there. We said : ' As we have come here, we will also have an interview with him.' We went out 
and had an interview with him and every hair of us became cool. The Guru asked us : ' How, brother, 
what is thy name ? whence art thou, 0 brother disciple ? ' I answered : ' 0 Guru, there is a village of 
the jungle, there we dwell and my name is Lahana.' Then the Guru said: 'Who art thou?' We 
replied: '0 Guru, we are a Tihan 1 Khatri and have come on a pilgrimage to the Devi.' The Guru 
said then : 1 Well, brother, go and having worshipped the Devi come (again) ! ' We replied : ' Sir, 
now our going is stopped, if crores of Devis he put together, they will not come up (=be equal) 
to your sight. For which, sake we were going there, that business has been accomplished here.' 
The Guru said : ' Hear, 0 brother Lahana, what will be due to you on our part, that you will 
take.' Then, brother Bala, whilst I looked out for my own opportunity, all the bonds of my body 
broke, and when I moved away, my breath became stopped. The Guru said then : ' Brother 
Lahana, go now to thy own house and take thy wife with thee ! 1 I did not go. 2 Thus, 0 brother 
Bala, it happened with me." Then Bala replied: "Sir, between Guru Nanak and thee there is 
no difference whatever. Guru Nanak did not hide anything from me, what defect hast thou seen 
in me, that thou hidest (things) from me?" Guru Angad said: "Bhai Bala, show to me, that I 
have hidden anything from thee?" Bala replied: "Sir, manifest that, why Guru Nanak has 
given thee the name of Angad?" Guru Angad understood in his mind that this was a perfect man, 
and that it was not good to hide anything from him, as he had stayed with Guru !Nanak. 

Guru Angad said then: "One day I had brought a bundle of grass from without (i.e. the 
jungle) for the cow. The mother, the Com, was sitting at the side of Guru Nanak, and having 
seen on my clothes splashings of mud she said to Guru Nanak: 'Fear a little God, 0 ascetic, 
this one is also the son of a Khatri!' Guru Kanak replied: 'Hear, 0 daughter of Mula! 
these are not splashings of miid, they are Kungii 8 of the threshold (of God).' Bhai Bala, thus 
my name Angad was given to me." 

Bala said : " Sir, having become Guru you keep (things) back from the disciples ! Eather 
say, that you are not a Sikh!" Then Guru Angad answered: "Bhai Bala, one day the mother, 
the Com, brought her two sons to Guru Mnak and sat down. She began to say: 'Though thou 
hast sons of thy own, thou art throwing this thing into other houses. 4 It is not becoming to 
thee, that thou givest it to the sons of strangers, whereas thou hast sons of thy own/ A mouse 
fell into the sight of Nanak, which was dead. Guru Mnak said: '0 son Sir! Cand, this mouse 
is dead, it is not good that it should lie here; touch it with the toe of thy foot, that it may be 

1 f^TtJt? or f^<J<A is the name of the clan. 

2 The Lahore edition interpolates here an apparition of the Devi to Lahana, professing to be herself the 
servant of Nanak. The story is apparently newly made up, as all the other MSS. do not contain it. 

3 a fine powder composition of red colour, rubbed by women on the forehead. 

4 The Guruship is meant here by the thing (^T3). 




removed to some distance !' But Sirl Cand answered: 'I have seen many such conjurers, who 
putting down a wing let fly off a pigeon, and who from skins make cats.' 1 Upon this Guru 
Nanak remained silent. When an hour had passed, I came. Then Guru Nanak said : ' 0 child 
Angad, a dead mouse is lying here, touch it with the toe of thy foot and throw it to some 
distance.' I touched it with the toe of my foot and it fell down in some direction. Then 
Nanak said: <0 daughter of Mula ! this is the son of a stranger and this one is my own son, 
what shall I do? To whom the creator gives it, he takes it' (*.*. the Guruship). Then, Bhal 
Bala, my name became Angad.' ' 

Bala said: "Sir, another doubt has come to me: is there in me some great vice that you 
are putting a screen before me every twenty-four minutes?" Guru Angad answered: "Hear, 
Bhal Bala! 2 One day I and BhaT Bura were with Nanak, it was midnight. Guru Nanak 
said: 'BhaT Bura, what time of the night is it?' Bura looked, came and said: 'Sir, it is 
midnight.' Guru Nanak said: ' Bhai Bura, I know it is not midnight, it is a watch of the 
night.' 3 Bura went again out and looked; it was midnight. Bura said (therefore) again: 'Sir, 
it is midnight.' Guru Nanak said the third time : ' Bura, it is not midnight, it is a walch of 
the night.' Bura said the third time: 'Sir, it is midnight, it is not a watch of the night.' 
Guru Nanak then said: 'Bhai Bura, remain seated!' Then Guru Nanak said again: 'Son 
Angad, see thou, how much of the night it is?' I went out to see; it was midnight. Having 
come in I said: 'Sir, it is midnight.' Guru Nanak said again: 'Son Angad, it is a watch of 
the night, go and see!' Then I understood in my mind, that it was (indeed) midnight, hut 
that the Guru's view was different. I" came and said : ' 0 Guru, a watch of the night is 
remaining, but there was a defect in my eyes.' Then Guru Nanak became much pleased and 
said : ' Son Angad, bow thy head before the creator ! ' I bowed my head, but Bura became 
displeased in his mind. Then Guru Nanak said: 'Bhal Bura, bow thy head before Angad!' 
But Bura became much displeased. Then Guru Nanak said: 'Bura, don't be displeased! this 
is the order of the creator.' Thus, Bhai Bala, it happened with us." 

Upon this Bala said: " Why are you continually keeping the secret from me?" Guru 
Angad answered: ''Bhal Bala, the mouth is middling and the greatness unfathomable, it cannot 
be told, it must be kept in the heart. But as thou dost not leave off, it must be told." Bala 
said : " Sir, let it be told ! " Then Guru Angad said : " The discipleship is difficult and all is 
the creator's ; but this is the conduct of the world. But, Bhai Bala, this story has not been written. 4 

"One day my daughter was going about and fell into the sight of Guru Nanak. He said: 
'Son Angad, having dressed thy daughter hring her to me.' I dressed and brought her to him. 
Guru Nanak said : ' Son, go thou, sit outside ! ' I went and sat down on the threshold. Guru 
Nanak and my daughter sat down on the bedstead, then the rail of the bedstead broke. Guru 
Nanak was sitting in his composure of mind. 5 I said then (to myself): 'In the Guru's com- 
posure of mind discomposure must take place.' I seized then that rail and sat down. Thus, 
Bhal Bala, it happened with us, if you will accept it or not," Bala said: "0 Guru! true, true, 
true!" Then Guru Angad said: "Bhai Bala, this story, that has been heard, must be taken as 

1 The MadarTs (followers of the Musalman Plr Madar) are such jugglers. They put down a wing of a 
pigeon, read a mantra over it and a pigeon flies off, etc. 

2 This story is left out in the Lahore lithographed edition. 

3 That is : it is the last watch of the night. 

This story, which throws a good deal of light on the reason of the intimacy of Nannie and Angad, is 
naturally left out in the Lahore lithographed copy, being too discreditable to the character of Nanak. 

5 The MS. ^ reads here : 3Tf *HTV^ ftfttfTO fefe IHTvTL Guru Nanak was in his own 




true, and, Bhal Bala, thou must consider Guru Nanak as true. And if one will consider him as true, 
his vices and sins, as many as they may be, will, by taking his words as true, be washed away. 
And if one will do the words of Guru Nanak, he will arrive there, where Guru Nanak is." . . 

"One time there was in a certain ^own a pool full of black mud. When rain was falling, 
all the filth of the town was collected there. The Gruru having gone near it threw a cup into 
it. At that time both sons of the Guru were with him and I {i.e. Angad) also was with him. 
The Guru looked first towards Sir! Cand and said : ' Son, take the cup out from the pool ! ' Sir! 
Cand answered : ' Where one must go, there one may go, some others will take it out with 
pleasure and not give it up.' Then the Guru looked towards Lakhmi-das and said : ' Son, take 
out the cup from the pool ! ' He answered in the same manner as Sir! Cand had done. Then 
the Guru looked towards me. I did not let the Guru speak, but jumped with my clothes into 
the pool and brought the cup out. Though my clothes were full of mud, I felt very happy." 

Death of NanaK 

As it was the Baba Guru's habit to remain in Xartarpur (towards his end), so he remained. 
At the time of praising (the Lord) praise was made, towards the end of the night ablution was 
made and recitation and austerity practised, the Lord was magnified; then crowds (of disciples) 
come and cooking goes on. In the mind of Guru Baba Nanak dwelled this thought: "When will 
that time come, in which I shall see the Lotus-foot of the Lord?" When some days had passed, 
the month of Asii came. Then Guru Nanak became very joyful and happy. On the seventh 
of Asii it happened, that songs of joy were sung and the praise of the Lord was made. Baba 
Nanak fell into deep reflection. After that he said to his attendants: "I think, that to-day 
my absorption will take place ; smear a place with cow-dung, throw Kusa-grass upon it and 
make things ready." His attendants began to weep ; Guru Nanak comforted them. Then his 
attendants began to collect the (necessary) things and a man went to call LakhmJ-das and 
Sir! Cand, (saying): "You are called for." Lakhmi-das and Sin Cand did not come, they began 
to say: "Why should we go, as he is in good health?" The mother, the Com, went by her 
own disposition to the Guru. When Guru Nanak saw that her hands were sullied with Dal, 
he said : " How, 0 Con! ? If thou hast anything to say, say it ! And why are thy hands 
sullied?" When the mother saw that the Guru was in the state of absorption, she said: 
"To-morrow is a Sradh, it is the date of thy father; if it please thee, we will go and make 
the Sradh." The mother, the C5nl, having become very humble, begged of him. Then Guru 
Nanak said; "Well, be it so, 0 Com ! make the Sradh! Eemaining (as yet) the eighth and 
ninth, we shall be absorbed on the tenth." Having seen the submissiveness of the mother, the 
Com, the Guru became merciful and said: "Prepare the things for the Sradh!" Then the mother 
in token of sacrifice elung to the feet of the Baba. The Guru Baba then gave the order: "Give 
up. to-day preparing the things for (my) absorption!" This word was noised about among the 
people, that the Guru Baba will be absorbed on the tenth. On the eighth the Sradh of his 
father was performed, on the ninth the whole family of the Guru Baba assembled. 2 Then Lakhml- 

1 Here both the Manuscripts, which we have hitherto followed, break off, after some conversation between 
Angad and Bhai Bala on the former Bhagats and why Kablr alone reached the presence of the Supreme 
Lord. The death of Nanak is not mentioned by them and we are therefore restricted to the Lahore litho- 
graphed copy alone, which relates some more stories of Angad's blind obedience to the commands of Guru 
Nanak and of the disobedience of his sons. 

2 We leave out the story, that all Prophets, Pirs, Saints, etc., came to take leave of Nanak, as it is not 
worth mentioning. 



das and Sir! Cand besought him much, saying: "Sir, the Gnruship you have given to Lahana, 
what is our support?" The Guru answered: "Children, you will have plenty of food and 
clothes." Then Lakhml-das and Sin Cand said: "Pood and clothes we shall have, but nobody 
will mind us." The Guru answered: " Children, don't be anxious! The dogs of Gurus and 
Pirs are minded, you also will be minded. But the greatness of the name ^ is with Angad." 
When they had heard this order of the Guru Baba, Lakhmi-das and Sir! Cand and all the 
family and the disciples fell down at his feet. 

When two watches and a half of the night were remaining, the Guru Baba fell into deep 
meditation. All the things (for cremation) were prepared. Then the Lord appeared to him and 
in the true region a cry of victory arose. When the Baba had given up his meditation, he 
began to say: " I am a sacrifice, have mercy on me the lowest sinner! Blessed be the Lord!" 
Then the Lord, having become merciful, said: "I have pardoned thy way (i.e. thy religions 
system and the followers of it), before and after, whoever will take thy name, he shall become 
emancipated." Then with the order of the Lord the Guru Baba was absorbed in Samvat 1596, 
on the tenth day of the dark half of the month of Asu. The Mahajans (i.e. Khatris) and the 
people of Govind 1 began to perform the duties of the world (i.e. to prepare for cremation) and 
put Guru Xanak on the funeral pile. There were also Pathans, who were disciples of the Guru. 
They said: "We also will have a sight of him." The Mahajans said: "Khans, now it is not 
your time." They answered: "Baba 2sanak is our Fir, we will have his sight." The Mahajans 
said: "To-day is not the time to see him, go away!" The Pathans came on with might and 
began to say: "Baba Nanak is our Pir, we will do with him as it is customary to Firs, we will 
bring him to the grave-yard." The Mahajans had, on account of the Turks, drawn sheets round 
about (the corpse). Then one disciple said: "Ye brethren, Hindus and Musalmans, what for are 
you quarrelling? The Guru Baba is not here indeed, he has departed to the true Tegion." When 
he went and looked, there was nothing on the funeral pile ; the quarrel of both parties ceased. 


Impression made by the death of NanaTc. 
All the retinue, the attendants, the Mahajans and the people of Govind began to say: 
"Earn! Bam!" They praised Guru Nanak, (saying): "Yah, vah! Guru Eanak has been the 
visible Supreme Lord! but by our own lot we have not been able to worship him in any way." *■ 
They began to repent and having seen the sport of the Guru Baba they were confused with 
fear. The Musalmans began to take the name of God, (saying): "Vah, vah God! Guru Baba 
Nanak has been a great man, of a great spirit, he was the image of God himself." They set 
to praise God. Hindus and Musalmans, having seen this, were astonished. The family and 
attendants of Guru Baba Kanak set fire to the funeral pile and performed the funeral ceremonies, 
(saying): "The Guru Baba iNanak is bodily gone to Paradise!" 


How shall I, the sinful worm, utter thy praises ? 
The speaker art thou thyself, thou thyself singest thy praises. 
Who sings, reads, hears and writes (them) with an attentive mind : 
Him surely Hari unites (with himself). 

I am a musician, begging at (thy) door : may by thy favour the name be given to me ! 
Give (me) the name, (the bestowing of) gifts and ablution, that I may become fully satiated! 
The musician has by silent repetition (of the name) obtained eomfort, meditating on the lotus-foot. 
0 Xanak, it is the prayer of (thy) slave : keep me in thy asylum! 

1 See about the 3ff^ 357, p. lxviii, note 1. 



2.— GURU ANGAD (a.d. 1538-1552). 

The disciples (Sikhs, fir*0 of INanak would no doubt have soon dispersed, and gradually dis- 
appeared, as well as the disciples of many other Gurus before !Nanak, if he had not taken care 
to appoint a successor before his death. The disciple, on whom his choice fell, was Lahana J- who 
had joined !Nauak not long before his death. None of his early disciples seems to have remained 
with Nanak, and we may fairly conclude that there was not one amongst them who had attained 
to any degree of learning. The way, in which Nanak used the disciples who attached themselves 
to his person, was not very conducive to impart to them any considerable knowledge; they were 
in fact little more than his menial servants (see p. xliii, 1. 18 sqq.). No Brahman of any note or 
learning had, as it appears, joined "him, and the_ mass of the disciples were ignorant Jats, who, 
on an average, could neither read nor write. 

What Nanak looked chiefly for in his successor, were not scientific accomplishments, or a 
cultivated mind, but blind obedience to the commands of the Guru. The stories, which are told in 
the Janam-sakhis, of the total " wcriftcium intellects" of Lahana, are therefore very significant 
(cf p. xliv, 1. 1 sqq. ; p. lxxiv, 1. 9 sqq.). 

Lahana became first acquainted with Nanak "at Kangra, whither he had gone to worship the 
Devi. He heard there, that Nanak, a great Eaqlr, was staying there, and after the first interview 
he attached himself firmly to him and no more left him. This is the relation of the later Janam- 
sakhTs, whereas the old Janam-sakhl states that Angad became .acquainted with Nanak by the 
medium of another disciple of the village of Khadur (see p. xliii, L 3 sqq. ), which seems far more 

The later Sikh tradition states, that Nanak changed the name of Lahana into that of Angad 
when conferring on him the Guruship, as being a part of himself 2 but the old tradition knows 
nothing of this neither does the panegyric of Angad in the Granth allude to any such change of 
name, which, if it had been known at those times, would certainly not have been passed over in 
silence. The Bhatt Klratu (Trarisl. p. 703, V. xv.), on the contrary, gives him both names 
("Then Angad Lahana becoming manifest," etc.), from which it would appear, that he bore both 
names at the same time. I need hardly "remark, that the explanation, which the Sikhs give of 
the signification of the name of Angad, is altogether fanciful, for is an old Hindu proper 

name and signifies literally: giving (one's) limbs or lody. 

Angad- settled down at the village of Khadur, on the banks of the Biasa, which was very 
probably his native place. He gained his subsistence by his own handiwork (see p. xlvii, 1. 4) 
and led the life of a Recluse. He was ( altogether unlettered and could himself neither read nor 
write, as may be fairly concluded from p. xlviii, 1. 4 from below. The later tradition, which 
makes him the inventor of the Gurmuktri letters (see Sikha de raj di vithia, p. 20, 1. 13 sqq.), is 
therefore without any foundation. 

1 (Also written : Liihina), a Tilmu (=Trih U n, Tehun) Khatrl (p. xlvii, I. 1). 2 See p. xlvii, note 1. 



The few verses of Angad, which are contained in the Granth (marked Mahalla II. 1 ), are but 
a poor repetition of the words of Nanak and shallow in the extreme. Being fully aware of the 
importance of the "successio episcoporum" to the Sikh community, he nominated before his death 
(4th March, 1552) his devoted servant Amar-das his successor, deeming, like Baba Nanak, neither 
of his sons worthy of the Guruship. 

3.— GUKU AMAE-DAS (a.d. 1552-1574). 

Guru Amar-das was a Khatri of the Bhalla 2 clan, born in the village Yasarki C^WdJl') in 
the district of Amritsar. The story goes, that he went in his youth on a pilgrimage to Harduar. 
There a thirsty Pandit drank water from his hands; after he had quenched his thirst, he 
asked Amar-das, who he was and whence he had come? Amar-das answered, that he was a 
Bhalla Khatri from the Panjab, from a village called Yasarki. The Pandit asked him further 
who his Guru was? When Amar-das answered, that he had not taken any Guru, the Pandit 
felt vexed and said: "Alas! I have committed a great sin, that I have drunk water from this 
man who has got no Guru ! I am a great transgressor, that at the time of being thirsty I did 
not (first) reflect ! how will my transgression now be done away ? " On hearing this Amar-das 
felt much ashamed in his mind ; he fell down at the feet of the Pandit and said : " Maharaj, 
pardon now my fault, as soon as I shall come home, I shall take a Guru." 

When he had come home, he began to look out for a Guru. One day he heard, that in the 
vicinity, in the village of Khadur, there was a perfect Guru, Baba Angad, and that he, who would 
take his instruction, would cross over (the world of existence), and that in him all qualities, 
that are required in a Guru, as steadiness, contentment, forbearance, mercy, devotion, etc., are 
to be found.. 

Thereupon Amar-das went to Khadur, seized the feet of Guru Angad and said : " 0 Lord, 
having heard your name I have come to you for the sake of my own salvation ; give me mercifully 
the name of the Guru!" Guru Angad received him kindly and he remained with him, serving 
him with heart and body. 

It is related that Amar-das was so conscientious in the service of the Guru, that he did not 
eat any bread from the store-room of the Guru, but got his subsistence by carrying round on his 
back a bundle of salt and oil and selling it to the people. 

He was performing to Angad all sorts of menial services, as Angad had done to Nanak, Thus 
he used to bring daily for the sake of the ablutions of the Guru a large metallic jar of water from 
the river of GovindvaJ, which was about two Xos distant; out of reverence for his Guru he is 
said to have made the way from Khadur to Govindval in walking backwards, lest he should turn 
his back on his Guru, One night, when he was oarrying water from the river, he is said to 
have slipped and to have fallen into a weaver's hole. When the weaver asked his wife who it 

1 All the Sikh Gurus call themselves "Nanak" in order to designate themselves as the legitimate 
successors of Nanak. For the sake of distinction between them *jO*6 | VfOMI (maballa pahiisi, Jirst court), 
^vJWT ^HT (mahalla duja, second court), etc., is added to their respective compositions in the Granth 
(see p. Ixxxi); otherwise they are also mentioned by the name of irftj^ft Hl ^q T Ot , first reign, etc., as 
the Sikhs soon commenced to look on their Gurus as their sovereigns (thence the address: 7^ \| 

O true king !). In later times, when Nanak was gradually looked upon as an Avatar, every succeeding Guru 
was considered as an incarnation of Baba Nanak. In the Granth itself no allusion of this kind is found, only 
the Bhatts, whose panegyrics are added at the end of the Granth and who know no bounds in their flattery, 
commence praising Nanak as Avatar. 

2 In the Granth written ^?5T bhala, as no letter is doubled in the writing of the Granth. 



was, she answered: "Who will fall at this time? it must be that unfortunate, homeless Amaru.'' 1 
Amar-das rose and returned to the river and having filled his jar he brought it to the Guru. 
Angad heard from somebody, that the people were calling Amar-das "the homeless one" ( />Ml^ |> 
Being fully satisfied of his sincerity ancf devotion, he took him to his neck and said: "Amaru 
is not homeless, hut from this day the Lord has made him the home of the homeless and the 
asylum of those, who have no asylum ; who will follow him, will obtain great happiness." On 
that very day Angad put five Pai&as and a cocoa-nut before him, bowed his head before him and 
said to aU the societies (of the saints) : " Now I am entrusting the throne of the Guruship to 
Amar-das, bow ye all your heads before him ! he is a perfect Guru, the Lord has received him 
to-day; who will be on his side, he will also be pleasing to the Lord." 

After the death of Guru Angad, Amar-das took up his residence at Govindval. He was a 
humble, .patient and pious man, round whom many disciples assembled. Though unlettered, like 
his master, who could teach him only the few simple tenets he had heard himself from Nanak, 
he composed many verses, which were incorporated in the Granth (Manilla III.)) and which are 
conspicuous for simplicity and clearness. 

The offerings of his numerous disciples enabled him to build a great walled well ( y ( 6 &\) 
at Govindva], in which eighty-four steps led down to the water. The Sikhs believe, that whoever 
sits down on those eighty-four steps one by one and makes ablution and reads the Japji to the 
end, gets free from the eighty-four Lakhs of forms of existence and enters paradise. A great 
Mela is still held every year round that well. 

Guru Amar-das died the 14th of May in the year 1574, having appointed in the usual way 
Eam-das as his successor in the Guruship. 

4— GUKU EAM-DAS (a.d. 1574-1581). 

Eam-das was a Khatri of the Sodhl clan (^^) and a native of the village Gurucakk (J|^Woj). 2 
He had come in early youth to the house of his grand-parents at GovindvaJ and remained there. 
His grand-parents were very poor and he sustained them and himself by selling boiled grain 

It is said, that one day he sat near the door of Baba Amar-das selling boiled grain, when 
Amar-das by chance called his family-priest and said to him: "Misr, our little daughter has now 
become of ripe age, go and look out in some good house (for a suitable partner), that we may 
betroth her." When the family-priest had gone, the wife of the Guru said: "Tor my daughter 
a lad must be sought of the same age, as the lad there is, who is selling boiled grain, the 
girl being of about the same age." At the same time Guru Amar-das said in his own mind: 
"Our girl is now this lad's, for it is the religious observance of the Khatris, that the thought, 
which first comes into the mind, must be performed." Having considered this he called that lad 
and asked: "My dear boy, who art thou?" He answered: "I am a Sodhi Khatri." When 
Amar-das had heard this he thanked God and said :*" Blessed be thou, Lord, that thou hast 
preserved the honour of my word : for if this lad would be no Khatri, my caste-fellows would 
reproach me for giving him my daughter." 3 At that very time he put into the hem of the lad 
the betrothal-presents and a few days after the wedding took place and Eam-das took his wife 
to his native village Gurucakk. 

1 **PTcT is a diminutive form of OPTO- 

2 The word 3TJ was very likely added more recently, when Guru Ram-das had taken up his abode there. 
The real name was therefore only . 

3 This passage is very significant as to the observance of caste by the earlier Sikh Gurus. 



Guru Amar-das was particularly fond of his daughter (whose name was Mohani), so that 
passing his son Mohan, he entrusted the Guruship to his son-in-law Ram-das, who was a pious 
and peaceful man. He was eager in collecting disciples and great crowds used to flock to his 
residence at Gurucakk. 

His income from the voluntary offerings of his disciples must have heen considerahle : for 
it enabled him to restore magnificently an old tank which he called Amritsar (the nectar- 
tank), in the midst of which he built a place of worship, to which he gave the name of 
Sarmandar (TTdWtt, temple of Hari). The new town, which soon sprang up round this tank, 
was first called Ram-dds-pur (city of Ram-das), afterwards the name of Amritsar was extended 
to the whole town and the old name Guriioakk fell into oblivion . 

This was of the greatest importance for the firm establishment of Sikhism, for the Sikhs obtained 
thereby a fixed central place of worship, where the disciples annually assembled round their 
Guru and performed their ablutions in the nectar-tank. Ram-das, though without any scientific 
education, gave himself much to literary work. He composed a great many verses, in which 
he expounded his doctrines, and though no originality of thought is to bo found in them, they 
belong to the better compositions of the] Granth (Manilla IY.). He spent his days in peace and 
rest, as under his Guruship the organization of the Sikh community had not yet progressed so 
far as to arouse the suspicion and alarm of the Muhammadan Government. He died on the 
3rd of March, 1581, having nominated his son Arjun (Arjun-mall) 1 his successor in the Guruship. 
From Ram-das the succession remained hereditary in the family, which added greatly to increase 
the wealth and the authority of the Gurus, as the Sikhs were thereby gradually accustomed to 
look on their Gurus as their actual sovereigns. 

5.— GUEU ARJUN (a.d. 1581-1606). 

Up to Guru Arjun the Sikhs were a community neither very numerous nor much taken 
notice of, their Gurus leading the life of Eaqlrs and being averse to outward show and pomp, 
though Amar-das, and more so Ram-das, had already considerable means at their disposal from 
the voluntary offerings of their disciples. 

This state was changed considerably under Guru Arjun, who was an enterprising and active 
man, and the first Guru who meddled with politics. After the Sikhs had obtained under the 
Guruship of his father Ram-das a visible sacred place, which served them as a rallying point, 
Guru Arjun's first object was, to give them also a sacred code, in order to unite them more 
closely by one common religious tie and to separate them from the mass of the Hindus. He 
collected therefore the verses of the preceding Gurus, to which he added his own very numerous 
(but carelessly written) compositions, and in order to prove that the tenets of the Sikh Gurus 
were already entertained and proclaimed by the earlier popular saints (Bhagats), he inserted 
considerable extracts from their writings as loci probantes at the end of nearly every Rag. This 
miscellaneous collection he called Granth (or Granth sahib, U l RjU ), i.e. the booh, and it was 
thenceforth held sacred as the Bible of the Sikhs, supplanting gradually the authority of the 
Yedas and Euranas, which the unlettered people had never been able to read, whereas the Granth 
was composed in their mother-tongue and intelligible to the vulgar. 

The story goes, that the disciples assembled one day round Guru Arjun and said, that by 
hearing the verses which Guru Mnak had uttered, tranquillity came to the mind and desire 

1 It is not quite clear if Ram-das had two or three sons. It is certain that Bharat-mall was the brother 
of Arjun, which is confirmed by the Dabistan (II. p. 273), where it is mentioned, that Bharat followed after 
his brother Arjuo-mall, though the Sikhs themselves disavow the succession of Bharat. 



for worship was increased, but that by the numerous verses which were uttered by other Softs, 1 
and to which the name of Baba Nanak was (also) given, pride and worldly wisdom were springing 
up in the hearts of men; it was therefore necessary to put a sign on the words of Nanak, 
that people might be able to distinguish them from the words of others. 

Hearing this, Guru Arjun collected all the words of Nanak from different places, and having 
also collected the verses of the other Gurus and the words of other Bhagats, which were not 
contrary to the words of Mnak, he gave them to the writer Bhal Gur-das, that he should write 
them in one place (i.e. book) with Gurmuhhi characters. And because Angad and the other Gurus 
had put down in their words the name of Nanak, he thought that it would be difficult for 
the disciples to distinguish their several speeches ; where therefore the word of Nanak is, he put 
down the sign: ^{0*61 VfvR^T, and where the words of the second reign were, there he wrote 
?10«>i <"HT> and in this wise HvT35T and H*T35T t^T> and his own words he marked 

*1vf«i 1?Tl<Sf ; in this way he distinguished the words of the several Gurus. Similarly he marked 
also the speeches of the Bhagats by putting down their names. When all the speeches were 
made up into one volume, Arjun gave out the order to all disciples, that they should mind 
whatever was written in it, and reject everything else, though it bore the name of Nanak. 

It is said, that Arjun left a few blank pages in the volume, predicting that the verses 
of the ninth reign would be written upon them and that before that no Guru would utter a 
speech (that was to be written), — <a prophecy ex eventu. 

Another measure, which Arjun set a-going, was likewise of the greatest importance for the 
organization of the Sikh community. 

We have mentioned already, that the Gurus had no fixed income, but what was voluntarily 
offered to them by their disciples. Arjun saw clearly enough, that for his aspiring schemes 
and the extension of his spiritual authority, he required considerable sums, which should be forth- 
coming with some regularity. He reduced therefore the voluntary offerings of his disciples to 
a kind of tax, which he levied by deputies, 2 whom he nominated in the several districts, 
and who forwarded whatever they had collected annually to the Guru. In this wise the Guru 
was on the one hand enabled to hold a court and to keep always a strong band of adherents 
round his body, and to extend his authority by the not inconsiderable sums he had at his 
command, wherever he found an opportunity, and on the other hand the Sikhs were thereby 
gradually accustomed to a kind of government of their own, and began to feel themselves as 
a firmly organized and strong party within the state. 3 This institution of deputies of the Guru, 
though very useful in a political and financial point of view, led soon to very hard oppression, 
so that the last Guru was compelled to give way to the continual complaints of his adherents 
and to abolish it. 

Guru Arjun was the first Sikh Guru who laid aside the garb of a Faqir and kept an 
establishment like a grandee; he engaged also in trade in a grand style, as he either loved money 
or was much in want of it, though the Sikh tradition is now quite silent about such transactions 
of their Gurus. Under Arjun, who had apparently a great talent for organization, the Sikh' 

1 In the Sikha de raj dl vithia, p. 29, 1. 2 from below, ifc^JHt * s found, which is a misprint for ^^Jlft 
Softs (or Sufis). For the first Sodhl Guru was Ram-das, who cannot be meant here, and of other Sodhi poets 
tradition is altogether silent. 

2 These deputies were called masand, a corruption of the Arabic-Persian Jj**,* (or more properly 
4XW^)> a support on which one leans, or a person to lean upon, used in the sense of "deputy" in the Indo- 
Persian idiom. 

3 See the remarks of MuKsin Fan! in the Dabistan, II. p. 271, who very well perceived the purport 
of this measure. 




community increased very considerably and spread fast over the Panjab; but in proportion as 
the Sikhs began to draw public attention on themselves, the suspicion of the Muhammadan 
Government was roused, and Guru Arjun was the first who fell a victim to it. 

There are different accounts of the causes of the death of Arjun. 1 The common Sikh 
tradition is, that Arjun had a son named Har-govind. When he had attained to the years of 
discretion, a barber and Brahman came and brought about his betrothal with the ^ daughter 
of Candu-sah, who was a servant (finance administrator) of the Emperor of Dilli. Candu-sah 
heard from the people, that in the house, where his daughter had been betrothed, they lived 
after the manner of Faqlrs and were eating offerings. He got very angry with the Brahman 
and the barher and turned them out of his house. When Arjun heard of this, he sent word to 
Candu-sah, that the betrothal was given up on his part, he could betroth his daughter somewhere 
else. Candu-sah hecame greatly ashamed at this breaking off of the match and from that day was 
a bitter enemy of the Guru. He calumniated him to the Emperor, and Guru Arjun was several 
times summoned to Lahore, where he suffered severe treatment. One day this wretch suggested to 
the Emperor, that he should sew Arjun up in a raw cow-hide, which the Hindus abhor most, and 
burn him. When the cow-hide was brought before him, he begged to be allowed to take first a 
bath in the Kavl. The Emperor granted this request; Arjun jumped into the Ravi, and was lost 
in it ; the people searched much for his corpse, but could not find it. Guru Arjun died in the 
year 1606, having nominated his young son Har-govind his successor in the Guruship. 

This account of the cause of the death of Guru Arjun is very unsatisfactory. It is easily 
perceived that the real charge which was brought against the Guru, is passed over in silence 
by the Sikh tradition, even if we admit that Candu-sah was actuated by private enmity for 
the reasons stated above. Fortunately the Dabistan (II. p. 272) throws some light on this dark 
point. There we learn, that the Emperor Nuru-ddTn Jahangir called to his court (when at 
Lahore) Arjun-mall, on account of his having offered prayers for the King's son Khusrau, who 
had rebelled against his father. Khusrau having been taken, the King ordered the imprisonment 
of Arjun-mall, and wanted to extort a large sum of money from him. The Guru was helpless; 
they kept him prisoner in the sandy country of Lahore until he died from the heat of the sun 
and ill treatment. This happened in 1606. 

From this it appears that Arjun was arraigned on the charge that he had joined (with his 
adherents) in the rebellion of Khusrau. Whichever way he died, his death was ascribed to the 
higotry and cruelty of the Muhammadan Government, and his disciples were burning to revenge 
it. The death of Guru Arjun is therefore the great turning-point in the development of the 
Sikh community, as from that time the struggle commenced, which changed the whole character 
of this reformatory religious movement. 

6.—GURTJ HAR-GOVIND (a.d. 1606-1638). 

After the death of Guru Arjun, some troubles arose in the Sikh community, as the uncle of 
the youthful Har-govind, Pirthi-mall, 2 claimed for himself the succession in the Guruship. PirthT- 

1 Malcolm (Sketch of the Sikhs, p. 32) gives a different story, that a Hindu zealot, Danl-cand, aKhatri, 
whose writings Arjun refused to admit into the Granth, caused his death by prevailing upon the Muhammadan 
Governor of the province to imprison Arjun. The whole story looks very unlikely and I have hitherto not 
been able to trace it in any Sikh tradition that has come under my observation. 

2 It is very likely that fL^P^ ^R* is identical with (see the Dabistan, II. p. 273) and 
ift^TC*. His progeny, called tfld*ie£V&, and his disciples, called contemptuously (H^T an ox 
with the horns bending down the face), were at a later time excommunicated by Guru Govind Singh. 



mall seems to have been of an intriguing disposition, j he is said to have- gone to Candu-sah to 
DillT, in order to get the Guruship by his assistance, but becoming obnoxious to the Sikhs by 
his intrigues, he was soon deserted and Har-govind was acknowledged as the rightful successor to 
his father. 

In order to revenge the death of his father he for the first time armed his followers and 
took bloody revenge of Candu-sah and the Muhammadans whom he considered concerned in 
his death. 

The Sikh aocounts agree by no means on this point and are full of confusion, as they 
apparently try to smooth over many uneven things and to conoeal the real facts of the life of 
their Guru. 1 According to one relation it was Candu-sah, instigated by Pirthl-mall, who told 
the astrologers of the King, that they should frighten the King by telling him that for one month 
and a quarter there was great danger for him; if he would call Guru Har-govind from the Panjab, 
all would go well. On this the King (or Emperor) sent men to bring him from Amritsar; 
when he 'arrived, the King told him that he should for his sake sit forty days in prison and 
perform worship. Others say, that the King sent him for forty days to the fort of Gualiar to 
perform devotion there. When the forty days were over, a Sikh, named Bidhl-cand, who was 
staying with the Guru, gave himself the appearance of a physician, met the King and said, that 
Har-govind, whom he kept in prison .for the sake of his own eomfort, was a great saint, he 
should speedily set him at liberty, for those, who had caused his imprisonment, were his enemies. 
The King ealled Har-govind, acknowledged his fault and asked the Guru to forgive it. Har-govind 
had a priceless pearl, which he offered as a present to the King. When the King had seen its 
splendour, he was much pleased and said ; " If one other like it could be found, it would be 
very well." The Guru answered, that on the neck of his father Arjun there was a necklace 
containing more than one hundred aud eight of sueh pearls^ but they were now in the possession 
of his Divan Candu-sah. •When the King heard this, he was astonished, and asked how Candu- 
sah got them from his father? The eyes of the Guru were filled with tears; he told the King 
the whole story and added, that when his father under the hard treatment of Candu-sah had died 
at Lahore, 2 he took the whole necklace from him. The King became very angry, and - when he 
had ascertained the full truth also from other people, he seised Candu-sah and handed him over 
to the Guru, to revenge himself on him as he pleased. He took him with himself to Amritsar 
and began to punish him. It is said, that they bound a rope round his feet and dragged him 
through the bazar of Amritsar and Lahore. As he had seated Arjun on heated frying-pans and 
hot sands, so did Har-govind to, him, till he at last died being dragged about in the bazar. 

AU this appears very improbable, as it is far more likely that he revenged himself without 
any reference to authority. We know from the Dabistan, that Har-govind was a man of a warlike 
spirit and addicted to hunting; he always kept a strong band of armed followers round his person 
and he is said to have had eight hundred horses in his stable. He huilt the town of Har-govind- 
pirr on the banks of the Kasa, to serve him, in ease of necessity, as a firm retreat. His warlike 
inclinations prompted him also to enter the service of the Emperor Jahangir, but his irregular 
conduct involved him in many difficulties. It is expressly stated in the Dabistan (II. p. 274), that 

1 The history of the later Sikh Gurus from Har-Govind to Go.vind Singh is involved in a great deal of 
obscurity, as the Sikh accounts are so frequently contradictory and dictated by prejudice or hatred against the 
Muhammadans. This part of their history requires as yet a careful, critical sifting, as the Sikhs themselves 
have no idea of historical truth. 

2 From this tradition it would! follow^ that Arjun had really died of ill treatment, as the Dabistan reports, 
and not by drowning in the Ravi, This is also more or less confirmed by Arjun's tomb, erected at Lahore ; 
for if Arjun's corpse had not been found, how could a tomb have been erected over it ? 



he appropriated to himself the pay due to the soldiers in advance, in consequence of which and 
on account of the mulct imposed upon his father Arjun, the Emperor Jahangir sent him to the 
fort of Gualiar, where he remained imprisoned for twelve years. At last the Emperor released 
him, being moved by pity. The Sikh tradition is quite silent on this point; and his imprison- 
ment at Gualiar, which it restricts to forty days, is ascribed to quite different reasons, as we have 
seen above. 

After the death of Jahangir (1628) Har-govind entered the service of the Emperor Shah- 
jahan, but he seems soon to have left his service and to have taken up a reckless course of 
life again. Shah-Jahan sent troops against him, who took Ramdaspur and plundered the Guru's 
property. Thence he fled to Kartarpur, where he soon had a serious encounter with the Pathan 
Paindah Khan. 1 According to the Sikh tradition Paindah Khan was living with the Guru in his 
tent (he is even said to have been his foster brother). One day a Sikh brought a sword, a hawk 
and a beautiful dress as presents to the Guru, which he bestowed on Paindah Khan, who gave 
them again away to his son-in-law, When the Guru heard this, he became angry with Paindah 
Khan and expostulated with him about it. Paindah Khan denied it at first, but was convicted, 
whereupon he was beaten by some Sikhs present and turned out of the tent. 

Paindah Khan got the ear of the Mugul authorities, and as he was considered a fit instrument 
to strike a blow at the dreaded Guru, troops were entrusted to him, with whom he besieged 
Har-govind at Kartarpur. A severe struggle ensued, in which the Imperial troops were vanquished 
and Paiudah Khan himself slain by the Guru. 

Encouraged by this victory he moved to Bhagvara in the vicinity of Lahore. He seized 
some horses belonging to the Emperor, but being pursued he fled to the hills, He took up his 
abode at KTratpur (near Anandpur), in the house of his eldest son Gur-ditta, who was living 
there with Baba, Buo^ha, 2 and some time after, having given the throne of the Guruship to his 
grandson Har-rai, he died there a.d. 1638, the 10th of March, 3 • 

Guru Har-govind has given quite a different appearance to the Sikh community. The peaceful 
Eaqirs were changed into soldiers and the Guru's camp resounded with the din of war; the 
rosary was laid aside and the 'sword buckled on. As the Guru's expeditions were nearly always 
directed against the Itfuhamniadans and the extortionate provincial authorities, we need not wonder, 
that his popularity fast increased with the ill-treated Hindu rural population; every fugitive or 
oppressed man took refuge in his camp, where he was sure to be welcomed without being much 
troubled about religion, and the charms of a vagrant life and the hope of booty attracted numbers 
of warlike Jats, who willingly acknowledged him as their Guru, the more so as he allowed his 
followers to eat all kinds of flesh, that of the cow excepted. The home of the Sikhs was now 
the camp, where the heterogeneous elements, by close contact, and stimulated by the same hopes 
and fears, soon welded together into a new community. The expeditions and fights however 
were as yet on a small scale and partook more of a local character, and were therefore hardly 
ever noticed by the authorities, who were either too shortsighted and indolent or top powerless to 
stop effectually the concourse of such a turbulent and dangerous crowd, 

1 In Gurmukhl written V^tff . 

2 tu tu TFG\ f a notorious freebooter in the Panjab, who had become a disciple of Har-govind. He got 
therefore the honorary title of "EfTER (father Budha). 

3 There is a great diversity about the date of Har-govind's death. The year given is that commonly 
recorded by the Sikhs. In the Dabistan the year 1645 is mentioned, corresponding to the Hijrah 1055. 
Mulisin Fani says (II. 281), that he saw Har-govind in the year of the Hijrah 1053 ( = 1643) at Kiratpur. 
We do not know how to reconcile these two dates, which differ by seven years. Perhaps there is a mistake in 
the Arabic ciphers of the Dabistan. 


^ That a Guru like Har-govincI had no time nor taste for meditation and the composition of 
religious poetry need hardly be remarked ; not a single verse of his is therefore to be found in 
the Granth. 


7. — GUEU HAK-KAI (a.d. 1638-1660). 

Har-govind had five sons, Gur-ditta, A tall, Teg-bahadur, Anl-rai and Surat-niall. Teg- 
bahadur was from youth up of a contemplative mind and did not care for anything; like a 
madman he is said to have observed deep silence; 1 the four other brothers were worldly-minded 
and continually quarrelling amongst themselves about the succession in the Guruship. Their 
father was therefore greatly perplexed to whom he should give the throne of the Guruship and 
could not make up his mind. They say, that one day at Kiratpur the little son of Gur-ditta came 
to his grandfather and seated himself on his lap; when the Guru began to fondle him, Har-rai 
took off the turban of his grandfather and put it on his own head. The Guru, who was not 
much pleased with his own sons, or seeing this rejoiced, and thought within himself that he 
would give the throne to this boy; by doing so the mouths of all the brothers would be shut 
and a stop put to their mutual jealousy. Having reflected on this be called together the society 
(of the disciples), put a cocoa-nut and five Paisas before Har-rai and bowed his head before him, 
saying: "brother Sikhs, the Lord himself has put the turban of the Guruship on the head of 
this boy, now no on& has anything more to say about it; whoever is my disciple, he shall 
consider Har-rai as his Guru, he will become a great, perfect saint." The society was much 
pleased with this decision of the Guru, they bowed their heads before Har-rai, and also the four 
brothers (t.e, the sons of the Guru) remained silent, 2 as none of them had the power to wrest 
the Guruship from him. Har-rai was, according to all accounts, a wise and sensible man, and 
Of A more peaceful disposition of mind than his grandfather had been. 

When J)$ra Shikoh, the brother of Aurang-zeb, came to the Panjab in order to make war 
against his brother, he sought the alliance of Guru Har-rai, who joined him with his Sikhs. But 
when Dara had been beaten and killed, the Guru prudently withdrew from the scene of war 
and retreated to Kiratpur, sending at the same time his eldest son Kam-rai with an apology to 
Aurang-zeb, who received him kindly, but retained him as a hostage at his court, thereby securing 
the peace of the Panjab. "This whole incident of the joining of the Guru in the rebellion of 
Prince Dara is totally passed over by the Sikh tradition, neither is the mission of Eam-rai to 
the court of'pilli mentioned. 

Har-rai seems to have had neither inclination nor calling for poetry; no single verse of his 
is therefore found in the Granth. He died in peace and tranquillity at Kiratpur a.d. 1660, 3 
having nominated his younger son Har-kisan his successor in the Guruship. 

8.— GUEU HAK-IQSAN (A.p. 1660-1664). 

Guru Har-riii had two spns, Eam-rai and JIar-kisan, It is said that the Guru was displeased 
with his eldest son, because he made disciples of his own and worked miracles. When he had 
therefore one day gone away to visit his own disciples, Har-rai declared his younger son his 
successor in the Guruship before all the societies' (of the disciples), When Kam-rai heard of this, 

1 The Sikh! de raj di vithia (p. 39) says of him ; JRTCtwt ^T? ^WTM" Hf#TT 

2 Some say, that Gur-ditta had died already before his father; but this is by up means certain. He died at 
Kiratpur, where a splendid tomb was built to him. 

8 The date of his death differs considerably. Some give the year 16G1, some 1663, au<J some 1664. 



he was much vexed; he said before the Sikhs, that Har-kisan was still a minor, on whom the 
small-pox had not yet broken out, if he should get through the small-pox, then he might take 
the Guruship. 

According to one tradition (as given in the Sikhl de raj dT vithia, p. 43) Guru Har-kisan 
was summoned to the court of Dill! in the following way. Aurang-zeb one day asked his 
courtiers, who amongst the Eaqirs of Baba Nanak was now the best? They answered, that now 
a young lad, by name Har-kisan, was reported to be their leader, who already in his youth 
was a perfect Faqir. Thereupon the Emperor ordered that they should quickly bring him to 
Dilli, as he wished to see him. One Khatri, who was a Divan (minister) of the Emperor and 
one of the disciples of the Guru, offered himself to bring Har-kisan. He went to Kiratpur 
and communicated to the Guru the wish of the Emperor, who set out with the messenger and 
with many disciples in a Palkl for Dill!. Here the matter is represented as if Aurang-zeb desired 
to see the Guru out of curiosity, whereas we know from other sources, that this was by no 
means the case. 

Bam-rai, the elder brother of Har-kisan, was detained as hostage at the court of Aurang-zeb, 
and was apparently not on a good footing with his father, and therefore was passed over. When 
Bam-rai heard of the death of his father and that his younger brother had been installed as 
Guru, he oomplained to the Emperor and asked for his decision. Aurang-zeb was very glad 
to have an opportunity of interfering, and summoned the young Har-kisan to his court, who 
reluctantly obeyed. 

"Whilst staying at Dilli, Har-kisan was attacked by the small-pox, so that he was unable 
to appear at court. When the Guru became very weak, the disciples asked him whom they 
should acknowledge as Guru after him ? It is said, that after some reflection he put five Paisas 
and a cocoa-nut on the ground, and having bowed his head said to the disciples : " Go, your 
Guru is in the village of Bakala (TRTOT)? near Anandpur." He died in 1664. No verse of his 
is contained in the Granth. 

In the disturbances which followed the death of Har-kisan, Bam-rai was disavowed by all 
parties. He went therefore to the hills aud settled at Dehradun. (^OHl^^), 1 where he started 
a seet of his own, and collected many disciples. He still lived in the times of Guru Gavind Singh 
and frequently quarrelled with him. He taught his disciples not to bow the head before any 
one but himself, and not to worship any god or goddess but himself. His disciples were called 
"Bam-raie" (dl*Cdlifl£% and" were afterwards excommunicated by Guru Gqvind Singh. 

It is reported that Bam-rai, for the sake of one of his disciples, underwent in a deep cave 
a very severe course of austerities (^Jf ^Ht^UTRT) ; when the breath had risen to the tenth 
gate, the disciples, who were near him, knew that the Guru had died, and they burnt his body 
after the manner of the Hindus. They erected there a tomb (TOYT^) ana< called it <JW^TfE 
^ <\)4\ S hence that hilly country received the name of Dehradun ; there every year a great 
Mela is held, where many holy personages assemble, 

9.— GURU TEG-BAHADUR (a.d. 1664-1675). 

After the death of Har-kisan, dissensions arose among the Sikhs as to the succession in the 
Guruship. A company of disciples went to Bakala, in order to pay their reverence to Teg- 
bahadur as their Guru. But Teg-bahadur at first refused to accept the Guruship : for the Sodhls 
thereabout had set up a Guru of their own, and Bam-rai also was raising claims to the succession. 

1 %iJ<JT signifies a shrine and (5/.) a valley between two mountains, literally therefore : the shrine- 


At last Teg-bahadur was prevailed upon, chiefly by the entreaties of his mother, to take upon 
himself the burden of the Guruship, and he was soon generally acknowledged as the head of 
the community. 

Teg-bahadur left then Bakaja, whefe he had lived in seclusion, and removed to Makhoval 
(WM<Sie*)> which is near Kiratpur, on the banks of the Satluj ; this place was afterwards called 
Anandpur, as being the residence of the Guru. 

Some time after he left this place and went, as the story goes, on a pilgrimage to Patna 
with his wife and kindred, where he stayed for about - five or six years, and where Govind Singh 
was born and also received his first education from the Pandits of that place, which deeply 
tinged his mind with the Hindu superstitions. Yery likely Teg-bahadur no longer felt safe in 
the Panjab, where the spies of Aurang-zeb kept a watchful eye on the proceedings of the Sikhs, 
and he resolved therefore to leave the Panjab altogether, and to settle under the garb of a 
Hindu pilgrim in some populous place, where he could remain concealed or unnoticed. On the 
following events of the life of Guru Teg-bahadur the accounts differ very widely, as the Sikh 
tradition is endeavouring to conceal or do away with everything that could throw an unfavourable 
light on him. According to the Sikh tradition, Guru Teg-bahadur was a saint, who, even after 
his accession to the Guruship, remained an TJdasI (i.e. indifferent to the world) and was totally 
taken up with meditation and devotion. 

He removed from Patna again to Anandpur on account of some enmity with the people, 
the reasons of which are not stated. 

He is said to have been very fond of wandering about in the jungles with some disciples. 1 
On one of these wanderings he is said to have come to Hindustan. When he arrived at Agra 
he stopped in a garden, and sent his signet-ring and a shawl to the bazar to dispose of them 
and to buy some provisions. The confectioner, to whom these things were offered for sale, took 
fright, lest they should be stolen goods, and brought them to the Kutval. The Kutval, having taken 
the signet-ring, went to Teg-bahadur into the garden and began to interrogate him, who he 
was and whence he had come? When he had ascertained that it was Teg-bahadur, he sent a 
message to Aurang-zeb at Dilll, that Guru Teg-bahadur had by chance fallen into his hands, 
and asked for orders regarding him. The Emperor Aurang-zeb was making all efforts to bring 
the whole world to the Musalman faith, and he. had in those days imprisoned many Brahmans, 
as he hoped, that if these first became Musalmans, the. other people would readily follow their 
example. When the Emperor heard that Guru Teg-bahadur had been seized, he was very glad, 
because he had heard much of the Mnak-panthis and wished to meet with them. He sent 
therefore orders to Agra, that he should be quickly sent to Dilli. 

When the Guru had come to Dilll, the Emperor had many disputations with him, and tried 
all means to bring him over to the Musalman faith. Teg-bahadur, who was not a learned man 
nor conversant with disputations, gave no answer, and when the Emperor desired to see miracles 
from him, he remained silent. At last he was thrown into prison with three disciples, and 
told that he would not be set at liberty till he would embrace the Musalman religion. When 
the Guru remained firm, they began to torture him. He managed to send a letter to his son 
Govind at Anandpur, informing him of his hopeless state. Govind answered him with a consolatory 
Dohra, but could do nothing for him. 2 When no more any hope was left for the Guru, two 
Sikhs fled and only one remained with him. Despairing of life, and being weary of the cruel 
treatment he had to suffer, he ordered the Sikh to cut off his head. He refused at first to 

1 What is concealed under these harmless words we shall see hereafter. 

2 See Translation of the Granth, p. 708. 



commit such a crime, but when the Guru pressed him hard, he at last struck off his head with 
a sword. Teg-bahadur died a.d. 1675. 

When Govind heard of the death of his father, he sent his sweepers (^vj?f I cuhra) 1 to- Dilll 
to bring the corpse of the deceased to Anandpur. They entered the jail under the pretext of 
sweeping there, and brought away the corpse on a cart laden with grass. The body was burnt 
at Anandpur and a great shrine erected there; the head, which had remained at Dilll, some 
Sikhs burnt there, and erected a tomb which was called Sis-ganj (jffanfrrT, head-stack). 

According to this tradition 2 of the Sikhs, as it is essentially contained in the Sikha de raj 
dl vithia, p. 47, sqq. 9 Guru Teg-bahadur appears quite as an innocent man, who suffered severely 
at the hands of the bigoted Aurang-zeb, and who, in order to avoid a contumelious death, with 
which he had been threatened, got his head cut off by one of his disciples. To this view his 
compositions, which are contained in the Granth and which bear the stamp of a rather melancholy 
and world-renouncing character, seem to have contributed greatly, and it is not to be overlooked, 
that as to his sanctity and renunciation of worldly desires, those very verses are appealed to in 
the foregoing tradition. We need therefore not wonder if Teg-bahadur, after the troubles and 
turmoils of the times were somewhat forgotten, appeared to the later Sikhs in this light. 

But we must not rashly conclude from the words of Teg-bahadur, as far as they have been 
handed down to posterity, that he was altogether a quiet, world-renouncing Faqir, who did not 
meddle in worldly affairs or the politics of those days ; for the moral views of the Sikhs of those 
times were already so thoroughly confused and their hatred against the Muhammadans so great, 
that they considered rebellion against the established government and plundering the property of 
the Muhammadans quite as lawful acts. 

The reasons alleged in the Sikh tradition for the persecution and death of their ninth Guru 
appear very defective and improbable, though the bigotry of the Emperor Aurang-zeb is conceded 
on all hands and may not have been altogether strange to it. Some hint as to the real cause 
of the destruction of Teg-bahadur is given by the Sairu-lmuta'axxirln (Briggs's translation, vol. i. 
pp. 112, 113), where it is stated, that he was taken prisoner on account of his predatory proceed- 
ings and executed as a rebel against the Government. 

The Sakhis, 3 which Sirdar Attar Singh, chief of Bhadour, — who with an enlightened mind 
follows up the history and religion of his nation, — has lately published, throw a very significant 
light on the wanderings of Teg-bahadur and their real character, and tend to confirm the charges * * 
brought against him by Muhammadan writers. As these Sakhis reproduce the Sikh tradition, 
we have the less reason to question their trustworthiness. According to them the Guru appears by 
no means as a harmless, spiritual instructor, but riding at the front of well-armed disciples, who, 

1 Their descendants arc said to be the f*TfeT (Majbi Sikh), as those sweepers were received into the 
Khalsa by Guru Govind Singh for their daring courage. ^TrTEft is a corruption from the Arabic ^Jb&* 
(regular, due Sikhs). 

2 The traditions about the imprisonment and death of Teg-bahadur differ very much and are frequently 
contradictory. Some ascribe his persecutions and consequent death to the inveterate hatred of Ram-rai (see 
M £ Gregor, History of the Sikhs, vol. i. p. 66 ; Malcolm, Sketch of the Sikhs, p. 39), some solely to the bigotry 
of Aurang-zeb. Cunningham (History of the Sikhs, pp. 61, 62) comes nearer the truth, as he consulted also 
a Muhammadan authority. The Sikh reports must be taken with great precaution and critical discernment. 

3 Their title is : The Travels of Guru Tegh Bahadur and Guru Gobind Singh. Translated from the 
Original GurmukhT by Sirdar Attar Singh, Chief of Bhadour. January, 1876. Lahore, Indian Public Opinion 
Press. It would have been very useful if the translator had also added some critical apparatus about the 
probable time of the composition of these Sakhis. They cannot be very old, as the British territory thereabout 
is already mentioned (p. ii). 


if not willingly provided, levied contributions on the Zamlndars and the .inhabitants of the villages 
through which they passed, and made predatory incursions on the Muhammadan population. The 
Guru had not only a strong band of Sikhs with him, but he engaged also some rural clans to 
enter his service, promising them, that h? would pay them handsomely and put them in the way 
of obtaining booty (Sakhi 44). It is also stated, that the Muhammadan soldiers were at the 
heels of the Guru, trying to capture him (Sakhi 50). That it was dangerous to receive the Guru, 
we see from the same Sakhi, where one Eupa KhatrT, in whose house the Guru wanted to put 
up, says: " Sir, I cannot entertain you at my house, for the Emperor will destroy me and my 
family." From this it may be safely concluded, that the Guru was outlawed at that time. 1 We 
can therefore easily understand, why the Kutval of Agra seized Teg-bahadur, when he feU into 
his hands. The Muhammadan reports, which ascribe his capture and execution to political reasons, 
deserve therefore full credit, the Sikh tradition itself confirming by these SakhTs the charges 
brought against him. 

10. — GURU GOVIND SINGH (a.d. 1675-1708). 

Teg-bahadur was succeeded by his son Govind Singh, who was only fifteen years old when 
his father died. As he was surrounded on all sides by dangers, he retreated to the mountains, 
where he kept himself concealed, being occupied with hunting and archery, in which latter art 
he became a great adept. He studied also Persian and read a good deal of Hindi, but never 
attempted the study of Sanskrit, though he occasionally tried to imitate it in his compositions, 
which on the whole are very difficult and intricate. 2 

1 We must remark here, that in these Sakhls no distinct line is drawn between the wanderings of Guru 
Teg-bahadur and those of Guru Govind Singh, so that it remains uncertain, where the first end and where 
the second commence. As I have not the original text at my disposal, I caunot say, if this is owing to some 
fault of the text or to some oversight of the translator. This great defect seems at any rate not to have struck 
him, as he makes no remark about it. It is certain that the Sabhis from 51 refer to Guru Govind Singh, the 
fight at Mukt-sar having taken place under him. In Sakhi 56 it is also stated that the Guru was only thirty- 
five years old, which could only be said of Govind Singh. 

2 Govind Singh describes his youth briefly in the following verses of the Vicitr na^ak: 

** My father had travelled to the east, 
To different kinds of Tirthas. 
When going along he was at Tribeni, 
The days passed in bestowing alms. 

" There I was manifested. 
I took birth in the city of Patna. 
He took me (then) to Madra-des, 
(Where) I was fondled by various nurses. 

" My body was preserved in various ways. 
I received instruction of various kinds. 
When I had come to years of discretion, 
My father went to heaven." 

describe his hunting expeditions and after his 


3tf5 Stfe^ 3taf6r *T*T II 

tTW^ rTTfe fciycft 3§ II 

V* TT7> fe* tt3 fxrre II v. 280. 


inrTsr wns 35 **** h 

3tf5 3tfs *TEto* rarrrg 11 v. 281. 

cfaft n\7R 3tf3 375 <JsTT II 
^ffcft 3tf5 3Tfe sft fifgT II 

tp* to*t $ nrrc 11 

TZK&tt ftTST f*TW II v. 282. 
By the Panjab is meant. The verses following 

accession to the Guruship his wars with the hill Rajas. 



When he had attained to years of manhood, he stood publicly up as Guru, and com- 
menced to collect the dispersed and intimidated members of the Sikh community. During his 
retreat he had matured his plans; his aim was to wreak bloody revenge on the murderers of his 
father, to subvert totally the Muhammadan power, and to found a new empire upon its ruins. 

As his mind was deeply tinged, owing to his early education by Hindu Pandits, with the 
superstitious notions of the Hindus, he resolved, before embarking on his great enterprise, to secure 
to himself the aid of the goddess Durga, who was his special object of worship. After he had 
procured some Pandits from Benares, he went with them to the hill of the Naina-devI (aoi<<\)> 
which 'is about six Kos distant from Anandpur. There he began to practise the severest austerities 
according to the directions of the Pandits. When he had gone through the course of thesa 
austerities, the Erahmans began to offer up his burnt offerings, throwing hundreds of maunds 
of Ghl, raw sugar and molasses into the fire. 

When the burnt offering (TP*) was completed, the Pandits told the Guru, that he should now, 
in order to make a powerful offering, cut off the head of his own son and put it before the goddess. 
Govind Singh had four sons, 1 but when he asked their mothers to give him one, they flatly 
refused it. The Guru asked the Pandits, what was now to be done ? and when they answered, 
that the head of some one else would do, five (others say twenty-five) disciples offered their heads, 
one of which was cut off and offered to the goddess, and thus the burnt offering made complete. 
The story goes, that thereupon the Devi appeared and said: " Go, thy sect will prosper in the 
world " (TTTtf ?foT ifa tRT3 V%7TT). 2 

When the Guru had returned from the hills to Anandpur, he assembled the societies of the 
disciples, and told them that he required the head of a disciple ; he, who loved his Guru, should 
give it. Most of them were terror-struck and fled; but five out of them rose and offered 
resolutely their heads. Their names (which have been carefully recorded, whereas the name of 
the poor victim 'offered to the Naina-devI is not mentioned) were : Dharm Singh, Sukkha Singh, 
Daya Singh, Himmat Singh and Muhkam Singh. These five he took into a room, and told them that, 
as he had found them true, he would give them the Pahul of the true religion (*J% tj<PT oft \| IVI&). 
He made them bathe and seated them side by side ; he dissolved purified sugar 3 in water and 
stirred it with a two-edged dagger, and having recited over it some verses, which are written in the 
0+i33)* be made them drink some of this sherbet, some part of it he peured on their head 

1 The names of the four sons of Govind Singh are : Joravar Singh, Fate Singh, Jujhar Singh and 
Jit Singh. 

1 There can hardly be any doubt that this bloody human sacrifice was really offered, as all reports agree 
on this point. The Sikhs, who felt very much the atrocity of such an act, would never have ascribed anything 
of this kind to their Guru, if it had not really taken place. At the same time we may learn from this fact, 
that the Brahmans, even as late as the seventeenth century, did not scruple to offer up a human sacrifice. 

' V3T**T (Sindhi TTcfnft), purified sugar ; also some kind of sweetmeats made of it. 

4 The nf3TO "@*T33 (the praise of the Timeless one) follows immediately after the Japji in Govind's 
Granth. It commences with the words : 

VcTM" S?t BIdT vRT ^ II "The protection of the timeless divine male is to us. 

The protection of all iron is to us. 
TJET onttiTI' ^ <jf^KT Xm ^ || The protection of the All-time is to us. 

^nft ^ 7fe*KT vPT ^ II The protection of the All -iron is to us." 

^ is ^ n old Hindi Dative Affix ' *ra*T STTCFrfY, the All-time (i.e. he who comprehends all time) and IfW 
WOiiY, the All-iron (i.e. he who is all iron), are epithets for the Supreme Being. 



and the rest he sprinkled on their body; then patting them with his hand he cried with a loud 
voice: "Say, the Khalsa of the Vah-Guru ! victory of (= to) the holy Yah-Guru!" (^TTJ3nnft 3FT 
"fcTTWTT faTt ^lOJId-rft sft After he had given the Pahul 1 to these five in this manner, 

he took it likewise from them, and in %is way all the rest of his disciples were initiated, to 
whom he gave the name of the Khaha? adding to the name of each of them the epithet of Singh 
(lion). Then he gave the order, that whoever desired to be his disciple, he must always have 
five things with him which all commence with the letter Kakka (i.e. X), viz. : the hair (Sfrf, which 
must not be cut), a eomb $nn)» a knife (TOT), a sword (fsJlTMT^). and breeches reaching to the 
knee (SJlf), otherwise he would not consider him as his disciple. In order to separate his Sikhs 
totally from the Hindus and to form them into a distinct body, which as such should also be 
known by outward signs, he issued many other regulations, which are called ^jfo^AISTT (book 
of conduct). As he had perceived, that the Hindus had become an easy prey to the Muhammadan 
invaders by their division into castes, which nursed a rancorous feeling and did not allow the 
lower orders to bear arms, he abolished the caste altogether, in order to put all on a footing of 
equality, and received people of all" castes into the Khalsa. But this offended the pride and 
prejudices of the higher castes to such a degree, that a great many of his disciples left him and 
would no longer acknowledge him as their' Ghiru; the Khalsa consisted therefore chiefly of men 
of the lower orders, especially of Jats, whereas the disciples, who did not acknowledge the 
authority of Guru Govind Singh on account of his inovations, simply called themselves Sikhs, 
without adding to their names the title of Singh.' 6 He tried also to infuse his own spirit into 
the Adi Granth, which was already generally received as the holy book of the Sikh community, 
as he slightingly remarked that the Ad! Granth, such as it was, only instilled into the minds of 
the Sikhs a spirit of meekness and humbleness. He therefore sent men to Kartarpur, where the 
official volume, signed by the hand of Guru Arjuu himself, was preserved, to bring it to him, 
in order to make additions to. it; but the Sodhls, to whom the volume was entrusted, refused 
to give it away, as they did not acknowledge Govind Singh as Guru. 4 They sent him word, 
that he should make a new Granth, if he was able to do so. This message incensed Govind Singh, 
and he resolved forthwith to make a Granth of his own for his followers, which should rouse their 
military valour and inflame them to deeds of courage. He set to work, and composed a big heavy 
Granth and when it was completed (Sambat 1753 — a.i>. 1696), he called it the Granth of the 
tenth reign (&l£t VRMl^t ajj^). 6 

1 The PahuJ was no new invention of Govind Singh, as frequently asserted, but only the renovation of 
an old Sikh rite (see p. xxxv, note 4), which in those troublous times seems to have fallen into disuse. His 
object was to put the Sikh community on a new and firmer basis by administering the Pahul to all his disciples. 
The sherbet drunk at the ceremony of the Pahul the Sikhs call 3>rfiT3' (nectar). 

t| 166+11 > the name of the new Sikh commonwealth, is derived from the Arabic itdlsL, It signifies: 
one*s own, pure property ; thence:, the Guru's (or God's) own, special property. This is the most appropriate 
explanation, in spite of the Sikh saying : tTT^TT "MWftWT W[ **&57> *T7RT STT ftHTTT ^fw 3T§- 

8 Among this latter class were also the Nanak potra, the descendants of Baba Nanak, some of whom 
visited me at Lahore. This class of Sikhs differ very little from the Hindus, as they are equally particular as 
ta caste (especially as regards intermarriages) and do not refrain from smoking, as the Govind Singhls do. 
As far as I could perceive, the stricter Sikhs are now fast decreasing in number, since they no longer enjoy 
any public privileges. 

4 These Sodhas were the "cftcW55^§, the descendants of DhTr-mall. See p. lxxxii, note 2. 

5 Only a small portion of it was cnmposed by Govind Singh himself, by far the greater portion of it was 
made up by his court poets. The idiom of it is the older Hindi, but couched in very difficult and frequently 
obscure language. 



Govind Singh knew very well, that he could not accomplish his schemes with an undisciplined 
crowd; his great aim was therefore to exercise his Sikhs in the use of arms. When this point 
was reached to some degree, an opportunity for trying their valour was not long wanting, though 
Govind Singh assures .us, that war was made upon him without a cause. 1 According to tradition 
the war broke out on account of an elephant, which the hill Eajas demanded from Guru Govind 
Singh, and which he refused to give up. The hill Eajas marched with a considerable force on 
Anandpur and some severe battles were fought, in one of which, near the town of Camkaur 
the two eldest sons of Govind Singh were killed ; but the Eajas were at last successively 
repulsed and compelled to flee to the hills. When the Eajas perceived, that they could effect 
nothing against Govind Singh, they addressed the Emperor and asked for assistance, which was 
readily granted. In union with the Imperial troops they again attacked Anandpur and besieged it. 
When Govind Singh saw the danger of his position, he left his troops there and fled with those five 
Sikhs (whose names have been mentioned above) and his two youngest sons to the town of 
Machiivara (*Tnf^TWT)> where he concealed himself for some time in the house of a Sikh. When 
the Imperial troops followed him also there, he managed his escape with those five Sikhs by 
disguising himself and putting on the dress of a Musalman, and reached safely Malva; but his 
two sons he was compelled to leave behind at that place. They were betrayed into the hands 
of the Imperial troops, who brought them to Sirhind (in Panjabi *i3<£). Vazlr Khan, the 
Governor of Sirhind, informed the Emperor Aurang-zeb of it, and asked for orders regarding them. 
He was ordered to put them to death. He put the poor children under the foundation of a wall, 
closed the place up and buried them thus alive. It is said that the weeping of the children 
was heard for some days. 

The Guru was meantime pursued by the Imperial forces, but as they could follow him in 
the sandy deserts only slowly, owing to the want of water and provisions, he found time to oollect 
again a body of Sikhs round his person. When the troops at last came up with him and brought 
him to action at a place called afterwards Mukt-sar (*T^3T3)> ne ^ as defeated with his small 
band ; but as the Imperialists were under the impression that the Guru had been slain, they 
desisted from further persecution, as they were nearly dying of thirst.' 2 Thus Govind Singh 
found some rest; he built on the battle-field a large tank, which he called *ToT3T3 (the tank of 
emancipation), as he asserted that many had there been emancipated. He settled in a village 
of Malva and remained peaceful, only bent on making disciples, in which he is said to have * * 
been very successful. 3 He built there a large residence for himself, which he called Damdamd 
0£*re!TT)- This place became the Benares of the Sikhs, and many resort thither, as a residence 
at Damdama is considered a very meritorious act. A saying of Govind Singh is current among 
the Sikhs, that whoever would dwell at Damdama, he would become wise, he he ever so great 
a fool. The study of the Granth is much in vogue there and the Gurmukhi writers of Damdama 
are considered the best. 

1 Vicitr natak, v. 285 : Ifjr vHT if f%17? STTfTT- Jt is very remarkable, that Govind Singh passes 
here in complete silence the reason, or reasons, which led to these sanguinary conflicts with the hill Rajas, 
which he describes in such glowing colours (if he does not too much exaggerate the importance of these 
fights, which is by 110 means certain). 

2 This fight is recorded in Sakhi 53 (Attar Singh's edition). There it is stated, that forty Sikhs fell and 
obtained the crown of martyrdom and that 250 Muhammadans were killed. It is openly conceded, that the 
Imperial forces remained masters of the battle-field. During the fight the Guru had retired to a hillock and 
after the departure of the Muhammadans he came down from that hillock to the battle-field and wiped the 
faces of his wounded followers. 

3 It is said that Govind gained 120,000 disciples, 



Some time after the Guru left his retreat at Damdama and went to Sirhind, where his two 
youngest sons had been buried alive. The Sikhs with him were so exasperated, that they wanted 
to burn down the town and to destroy it utterly. But Govind prudently damped their rash 
zeal, as he feared that such an act w^uld bring down upon him new persecutions. He only 
ordered his discipleB, that whoever passed through Sirhind on his way to the Ganga should dig 
up two bricks and throw them into the Jamna, and on his way back he should likewise dig 
up two bricks and throw them into the Satluj, otherwise hiB ablution in the Ganga would be of 
no use to him. They built there a great shrine, which the Sikhs still visit. From Sirhind the 
Guru went to Anandpur, his old haunt, and settled there again, aB he seems not to have been 
molested towards the olose of the reign of Aurang-zeb. Some say, that he was summoned to the 
court of Aurang-zeb; but this is doubtful, at any rate he never obeyed the summons. It is equally 
doubtful if the Zafar-nama, in which Guru Govind Singh exposed the wrongs he and hiB pre- 
decessors experienced at the hands of the Mugul Emperors and their Governors, ever was presented 
to Aurang-zeb. 

When Aurang-zeb died (in 1707), Govind Singh rejoiced much at being now freed from 
his bitterest enemy. His son Bahadur Shah had to contend with his younger brother Azim for 
the crown ; both brothers assembled large armies, and in the bloody battle near Agra Azim waB 
beaten and killed with two of his sons. According to a Sikh tradition Govind Singh joined 
Bahadur Shah with hiB followers and assisted him in thiB war. 1 This appears very probable and 
would account for the otherwise hardly comprehensible turn in the Guru'B life, that of entering 
the service of the Emperor Bahadur Shah, who entrusted him with a military command in the 
!Qekhan. "When this war of succession was over and Bahadur Shah firmly seated on the throne 
of Dilll, the Guru is said to have visited the Emperor at Dill! and to have been graciously received 
by him. From Dill! he returned to Anandpur and waB implicated again in a short predatory 
warfare with the petty hiU chiefs, whom he routed. 

About this time the abrogation of the institution of the Bo-called Masands or hereditary deputies of 
the Guru took place. The Masands had become a regular plague to the SikhB, extorting money in every 
possible way and ill treating the poor people more than ever the Government tax-gatherers had done. 
ThiB gives some significant hintB as to how the Sikh Gurus were ever enabled to keep such large 
bands of armed men and to wage such an obstinate and persevering struggle against the Govern- 
ment. In the times of Guru Govind Singh the oppression of the Sikhs by his deputed collectors 
must have been beyond endurance, bo" that they at last resolved to bring the matter before their 
dreaded Guru in the form of a play. The passage in the Sikha de raj di vithia, pp. 70, 71, is 
very instructive aB to the overbearing conduct of the Masands of the Guru. The Guru took the 
hint to heart, and as he perceived that the institution had become thoroughly hateful and unbearable 
to his disciples, he resolved to abolish it altogether. He punished the MasandB severely and 
excommunicated them. 2 

1 Thus it is stated in the Sikhl de raj di vithia, p. 68 : nmR* UTS #*T ifo SJi jVfcg " ^ fS|uf 
^ ^ft *HTM"^V ^tT B-H? *4vM-dd *TRT $W *TC3 sft^Y, though the high pretensions of the Sikh 
tradition, that Bahadur Shah vanquished his brothers and ascended the throne by means of the Sikh host 

(tre^ ftfurf ^ Itt ^ ^yyJY yoKd jtttt nnvS srr^t 5 ^ irr^ ^zt) are by n0 

means countenanced by history. 

2 The Guru cannot have been so ignorant of the proceedings of bis Masands as he pretended to be ; for he 
must have known that such large sums of money, as he was continually demanding and spending on his 
troops, were not forthcoming willingly, especially from a poor population. It must surprise every one, that the 
Mugul Government did not stop this secret tax-gatliering of the Sikh Gurus, as we can hardly assume that 
the authorities were kept in ignorance of it. 



After Govind Singh had settled his affaire at home, he marched for the Dekhan, where he 
had been appointed to the command of five thousand horse. 1 On the march there he fell in 
with a Pathan, who was the grandson of that Paindah Khan with whom Guru Har-govind had 
fought. The Guru showed to this man great affection, and engaged him in his service and took 
him with him. 2 One day the Guru began to mock at him; when he perceived that the Pathan 
paid no heed to his taunts, he began to put him to shame, saying: "If the son (and) 
grandson, whose father (and) grandfather have been killed by somebody, goes to him in order to 
get his subsistence from him, say, what shameless man must he be?" The Pathan answered: 
" If a man remains with the enemy of his father (and) grandfather and gets his subsistence from 
him, he must be a very shameless, nose-cut person." The Guru continued: "If a Pathan remain 
with the enemy of his father (and) grandfather, what dost thou consider him?" He answered: 
"I do not consider him a Pathan, but a weaver." a The Guru said further: "If thou wouldst 
meet with the enemy of thy father (and) grandfather and a weapon would be in thy hand, say,, 
what wouldst thou do?" He answered: "I would not let him live." The Pathan wondered 
why the Guru asked him such things and reflected on it. He recollected that Govind Singh was 
descended from Har-G6vind, with whom the battle of Kartarpur was fought; he felt ashamed in 
his mind and resolved to take his revenge at a given opportunity. One day a Sikh brought to 
the Guru from abroad a very beautiful dagger. The Guru seeing its brightness and its edge was 
much pleased with it and kept it always with him. One day he asked the Pathan by how 
many thrusts of this dagger a man might be killed? He answered, that one thrust of it was 
enough. The Guru went on to say: "Well, if he, by whom thy father and grandfather may 
have been killed, would come before thee and this dagger were in thy hand, what wouldst thou 
do with him?" The Pathan on hearing this got very angry in his heart, but could say nothing. 
Shortly after the Guru fell asleep and all his door-keepers went to their own tent. The Pathan, 
who had remained sitting near him, took gently the dagger out of the hand of the Guru and 
thrust it into his belly. When he thought that he was dead, he rose and fled. The Guru, who 
was not dead, on seeing the wounds of the dagger, cried out : " 0 brother Sikhs, I am dead ! " 
All the Sikhs assembled together and running in the four directions they seized that Pathan and 
brought him back to the Guru. It is said, that the Guru praised the bravery of the Pathan and 
set him free, telling the Sikhs, who were overcome by grief on seeing the wounds of the Guru, 
that they should not be sorrowful, for this was ordered so by the Lord ; the Pathan had not 
struck him (treacherously), but he had himself provoked him to kill him by putting him to shame. 4 

1 The Sikhs are now loath to concede this appointment of Govind Singh. In the Sikhl de raj di vithia 
it is only said : fg^r J|f^ f*ju[ ^ ^ ^5 7^ fjRHT: one day Govind Singh went on a 
journey to the south. Govind Singh can have been only a short time in the Dekhan, others extend his stay 
there. The chronology of these events requires a careful research, which can only be carried out at the 
hands of more trustworthy materials, which have as yet to be searched for. 

2 There is a Sakhi in the "Sakhi Book of the description of Guru Govind Sbigh's religion and doctrine/' 
translated into English by Sirdar Attar Singh, chief of Bhadour, Benares (printed at the Medical Hall Press), 
1873, which gives some more details about the story in question (see Sakhi 98, p. 198 sqq.). It is stated there, 
that the grandson of Paindah Khan saluted the Guru in a Darbar held by him, having been sent by his mother, 
who considered the Guru as a prophet. The Guru presented him with five gold Muhars and ordered him to 
come every day to his house to play with him at chess. For this service he received five Rupees per diem. 

3 The "HWivJ, or weaver, is considered in India a coward. 

4 Cunningham gives a somewhat different story, p. 79, following MacGregor in this point (vol. i. p. 99). 
Malcolm, who is here very brief, seems to have had the same tradition before him, which we have given more 
in detail, following the Sikha de raj di vithia, p. 76 sqq. lu this book however a great chronological blunder 



The wounds were sown up and healed again, hut it seems that the Guru was hent on dying, 
One day he hent his how ' with great force and hy so doing the stitches of the wounds were 
broken and the blood began to flow. The surgeon hound up his wounds again, hut the Guru 
obtained no rest. He mounted a Palkl tPhd travelled towards the south. When he had arrived at 
a town named Nader (JS^), 1 the Guru became greatly exhausted by his wounds. He said to 
his Sikhs, that he saw that he would not live any longer, they should therefore stop in this 
place. When they were staying there for some days and his pain was not relieved, he said to 
his disciples, that they should give some alms, as medicines were no more of any use to him. 
The Sikhs brought together a great quantity of food of various kinds and feasted Brahmans and 
Saints and distributed in alms ornaments and clothes. The Guru felt that his dissolution was 
near at hand, and ordered his Sikhs to keep ready wood (for cremation) and a shroud. Having 
done so they all joined their hands and asked: "0 true Guru, whom will you seat, for the sake 
of our welfare, on the throne of the Guruship?" He answered: "As the nine Kings before 
me were at the time of their death seating another Guru on the,ir throne, so shall I now not 
do ; I have entrusted the whole society (of the disciples) to the bosom of the timeless, divine 
male. After me you shall everywhere mind the book of the Granth-sahib as your Guru ; whatever 
you shall ask it, it will Bhow to you. Whoever be my disciple, he shall consider the Granth as 
the form of the Guru, and whichever disciple wishes to have an interview with me, he shall 
make for one Eupee and a quarter, or for as much as he is able, Karah parsad ; 2 then opening the 
book and bowing his head he will obtain a reward equal to an interview with me." Having given 
them some other directions the Guru soon after became senseless. Meantime the disciples heaped 
up a pyre of sandal-wood and kept every other thing ready. One hour before he expired he 
said to the disciples: "Bathe me and put on me new clothes and give me all my weapons; when 
my breath departs, do not take off these clothes, but burn me with them and with all my 
weapons!" 3 He then sat himself down upon the funeral pyre, and having meditated on the 
Supreme Lord, he uttered with his mouth and with love the following Savaiya: 

Since I seized thy feet, I brought nothing else under (my) eye. 

0 merciful Earn, the Puranas and the Qur'an teach various systems, I did not mind one 
(of them). 

The Smriti, the Shastras and the Vedas, all teach many modifications, I did not recognize 
one (of them). 

0 disposer of happiness, bestow mercy (on me) ! I did not say " I," all I recognized as " Thee." 4 

is committed, it being stated, that Nadir Shah sent his own physician from Dilli to look after the wounds of 
Govind Singh. Nadir Shah invaded India in 1738, whereas Govind Singh died in 1708. In the Sakhi quoted 
it is stated, that Lakha Singh ran after the boy and cut off his head. 

1 Nader is a town in the valley of the Godavery. 

2 ojfj M tfcRTTCj the offering up of of ^10 (a kind of sweetmeat, made of flour, ghl and sugar) to a 
holy person (as, for instance, the Guru), and then distributing it among the worshippers. 

3 This is confirmed by the SakhT quoted : see p. 201. 

4 The original is (Sikh! de raj di vithia, p. 81): 

VTfe 3TTT % % nrN T^fi *HT7& I 

<nft*r VcJttj ttt?j nffer t5t nffe? t; *rr?^ i 
firfaj^ w %z sr9 xm ^ 7; tttt^ i 

^mHin75 = Sausk. ij^f^lfW, he who holds happiness in his hands, an epithet of Vishnu. 


Having uttered these verses he closed his eyes and expired a.d. 1708. All the Sikhs and saints, 
who from many parts were assembled there, raised the shout of Jaikar (Yictory !) and sang a 
beautiful song and the eyes of many people were filled with tears on account of the separation of 
the Guru. Beautiful edifices were erected there, and in the midst of them all the shrine of the 
Guru, and round this some Dharm-salas, in which the Granth-sahib was deposited. To the town 
of Nader they gave the name of Abcal-nagar. 1 They put up many swords, shields, spears and 
steel discuses in that shrine, and the Sikh people, who go there on pilgrimage, worship those 
weapons, as they believe that they belonged to Guru Govind Singh. 

The object of his life Govind Singh could not carry out, though he tried to secure it even 
by a human sacrifice, and he died broken-hearted and weary of life far from the scenes of his 
exploits; hut he has contributed a good share to the destruction of the Muhammadan power in 
India by his bloody struggles, inuring his Sikhs to a continual warfare, and moulding them by his 
new ordinances into a distinct nation of fanatical soldiers, the Khalsa. A body containing such 
elements could not remain quiet; their course was prescribed to them, and they had indeed 
no other choice but to conquer or to be conquered. "We need therefore not wonder that the 
Sikhs, though repeatedly repulsed, soon succeeded in erecting their own sway on the ruins of the 
declining Muhammadan Empire. 

1 *h tmw AJId » the immovable city; nj U <6&> = *tf fi|ti<S6 , Sansk. ^rfcf <?l . MacGregor (vol.i. p. 101) 
states that the Sikhs call it Aphullanuggur, a strange mistranscription; Cunningham, History of the Sikhs, 
p. 394, writes it similarly Upchullunuggur. 





The religious system of the Sikhs has heen touched already by different writers, but in such 
general terms, that but little can be gathered from them. Even H. H. Wilson, in his "Sketch of 
the Beligious Sects of the Hindus," has very cautiously handled this matter, and contented himself 
with offering a few short, though pertinent, remarks about it. All these authors had not read the 
Granth themselves, but received the information they gave from second hand; it is therefore partly 
defective, partly labouring under mistakes. 

Nanak himself was not a speculative philosopher, who built up a concise system on scientific 
principles; he had not received a regular school- training, and uttered therefore his thoughts in 
a loose way, which are now scattered through the Granth, and must first be patiently searched 
out and collected into a whole, before we can form an idea of his tenets. 

Nanak himself was by no means an independent thinker, neither had he any idea of starting 
a new religious sect : he followed in all essential points the common Hindu philosophy of those 
days, 1 and especially his predecessor Kabir> who was at that time already a popular man in India, 
and whose writings, which were composed in the vulgar tongue, were y accessible to the unlearned 
masses. This obligation, which Nanak and the following Sikh Gurus owe- to Kablr, is acknow- 
ledged by the reception of a great portion of the verses of Kablr into the Sikh, Granth itself. 
That also the writings of other famous Bhagats were known to and used by the Sikh Gurus, is 
sufficiently attested by the Granth, into which they were partly incorporated and thereby saved 
from oblivion. 

The doctrines once uttered by Baba Nanak were taken up by the following Sikh Gurus 
without any perceptible deviation; and after the volume of the Granth had been collected by Guru 
Arjun, they were never called into question, the Granth being held sacred as an immediate divine 

The tenth Guru, Govind Singh, relapsed in many points again into Hinduism, he being a 
special votary of Durga; but notwithstanding this he always asserted the unity of the Supreme, 
and the innovations he introduced were not so much touching the doctrine as the practical 
course of life. 

We need therefore in the following sketch of the Sikh religion not anxiously distinguish 
between the words of Baba Nanak and those 'of the following Gurus, as none of them excelled 
by any originality of thought, every succeeding Guru being content to expatiate on the few ideas 
handed down to him by his predecessors. 

The chief point in Nanak's doctrine was the unity of the Supreme Being, though the Hindu 

1 Particularly the system laid down in the Bhagavad-gita, which was very popular .among the Bhagats. 



mind was already more or less familiarized with this idea, it having been asserted long before , 
Eanak by most of the Hindu philosophical systems and popularized by the Bhagats, especially 
the ingenious Kabir. 

That the Supreme is One and that there is no, other, is frequently inculcated. Thus says Nanak : 

" Whom shall I call the second ? there is none. 
In all is that One Spotless one (= the Supreme). 1 

That on this point there is full concord between Hindus and Musalmans, is openly conceded. 
Nanak says : 

" Know, that there are two ways {i.e. of Hindus and Musalmans), but only one Lord." 3 

The same is also conceded with reference to the Hindu sects of those days, which, though wearing 
different garbs, acknowledge the One Supreme. Nanak says of them : 

" There are six houses, six Gurus, six (methods of) instruction. 
The Guru of the Gurus is One, the garbs many." 3 

This Supreme Being is (according to the nomenclature of the Yaishnava sect, to which nearly all 
the Ehagats belonged) called by different names, such as : JBrahm, the Supreme Brahm^ Paramesur 
(the Supreme Lord), and especially Hart, Ram, Govznd. 

This Being is alone really existing (Tfij or *rf5)» uncreated (*HiiAl^J)j endless (JJffef), timeless 
eternal (*H<^J|^) 5 it contains in itself all qualities and is at the same time without 
qualities. 4 It is therefore inaccessible (?H3TO *>WI**d)> invisible, incomprehensible (even to the 
gods) and indescribable — qualities which are frequently dwelt upon in the Granth. 6 

It is the ground or root (3J?5) of all things, the source, from which all have sprung, the primary 
cause (5 IdAo^dA); in this sense it is called the creator (37J3TT or o^d^ l<T)- But we must not mis- 
understand this appellation, for no creation out of nothing is thereby intended. When the Absolute 
Being is styled ttie creator, the expansion of the same into a plurality of forms is thereby meant; 
creation is therefore in some places plainly called \f*n<JT» expansion. Arjun says (Transl. p. 400, 6): 
"He himself is One and he himself is many;" and p. 421, 5: "From that Lord all the creation 
(has sprung). If it pleases him, he makes an expansion. If it pleases him, he is of one form 

1 Gauri, Mali. I., Astp. V., Pause (Transl. p. 320): 

^tTT S7TT T^ft ^ || 

Other passages, see Transl. p. 17, vv. 5; 2; p. 414, 8. 

2 Gauri, Mah. I., Astp. V., 8 (Transl. p. 321) : 

See also Transl. p. 482, 5. 

3 Asa, Mah. I., Sabd XXX., 1 (Transl. p. 505). 

4 Majli, Mah. V., XXI., 3 (Transl. p. 143) : 

3 TAdJjcN +1dJ]cS *Ttf II 

See also Transl. p. 416, XXL, Slok. 

5 See Transl. p. 431, III., Pauri; p. 457, XX., Pauri; p. 493, L, 1, 2. 



(only)." 1 Everywhere and in all things and beings the One is diffused, he is filling all places. 
Thus says Namdev (Transl. p. 665, II., 4) : 

" Here is Bithal, there is Bithal, without Bithal the world is not. 
In every place, says Nama, in afL thou art fully contained. " 3 

Yea the whole universe and all things therein are identified with the Supreme. Namdev says 
(Transl. p. 665, Pause, 2) : 

" All is Govind, all is Govind, without Govind there is no other. 
As in one string there are seven thousand beads, (so) is that Lord lengthwise and crosswise. 
A wave of water, froth and bubble do not become separate from the water. 
This world is the sport of the Supreme Brahm, playing about he does not become another." 3 

All the finite created beings have therefore no separate existence apart from the Absolute, they 
are only its various forms and appearances, its frolics. Nanak says (Transl. p. 329, XVI., 5): "In 
all living creatures the One sports," and (p. 652, XXIY., Slok I.): "By himself the vessels 
are formed, he himself also fills, them," All oreatures are therefore alike with the only difference 
that the Absolute becomes self-conscious in man.. Kabir says (Transl. p. 682, 204) : 

Kabir in saying : " thou, thou," has become " thou," " I " has not remained in me. 
When my own self, (which is) another^, has been effaced, (then) where I look, there 
(art) "thou."* 

It is owing to the Maya (deception), which the Absolute has spread out over the whole universe, 
that the creatures are led to consider themselves as individual beings, distinct from the Supreme, 
and fall thereby into the error of egotism (^Nrf?* the idea of individual existence) and duality. 
Nanak says (Japji, 27, Transl. p. 10): "By whom, a t Itaya of various colours, kinds and sorts is 
produced." And Kablr says (Transl. p. 127) : 

" One is wonderful, hear, 0 Pandit ! now nothing, can be said ; 
By whom the Gods, Ganas and (Jandharvas are deluded, (by whom) a rope is applied to the 
three worlds." 

1 The original is r 

f3Tj st% 31 fefara II 

Similar is the expression, GaurT, Sukhmam XXII., Sl5k (Transl. p. 418):. 

7TT?S? V*rf<PHT ^tTT ^ V^RZTB II 

2 Thei;e are a great many passages of this kind in the Granth; compare Transl. p. 133, VII., 2. 

3 Thesajne idea is also holdly expressed by Ravidas (Transl. p. 130, 

3TS\ Sfcft 3^ >H3? sftrr II 
5rf^ tT*5 33?T %*TT H 

^ Between thee and me, me and thee, what is the difference ? 
Like gold and the bracelet (made of it), like water and a wave." 

We now prefer this rendering of the first line. Cf. also Transl. p. 116, VIT.> Pauri. 

4 The original is : 

sjrfta f # srerr f trnrr ^ffer btt t> 3 ii 

tTET nfTVT ST fafe ^fsWT tT3 w@ 53 i II 



The world is therefore in fact nothing but a play or sport (^5) of the Absolute Being, 1 which is 
expanding or contracting itself, as it pleases ; Hari establishes and disestablishes, vivifies and destroys 
ad libitum. An infinite number of worlds is stated to be produced by him, which, like a plaything, 
appear and disappear. Thus says Eam-das : 

"By thyself all the creation is produced, by thyself, having created, the whole is caused 
to disappear (again)." 2 

No teleological principle whatever is assigned for the production or destruction of the created beings; 
they are cosmogonic revolutions, which could not be accounted for and were therefore referred to a 
sporting propensity of the Absolute. "We need hardly remark, that this whole definition and 
description of the Supreme is altogether pantheistic. The Hindu way of thinking comprehends in 
the Absolute both spirit and matter, as the creation of material bodies out of nothing is totally 
incomprehensible to the Hindu mind ; to him the material essence is therefore co-eternal with the 
spirit (inrfcT). The matter put in the Absolute is however not the gross, sensible matter (frrfVT *HT = 
f^TTSl), but purely atomic (*J"bR = *T^0 , which by the expansion of the Absolute receives the 
grosser, sensible form by the conjunction of infinite atoms. God is therefore the absolute vital 
substance, the all-filling world-soul (WnTfe)» as ne * s frequently called. 

We can distinguish in the Granth a grosser and a finer kind of Pantheism. The grosser 
Pantheism identifies all things with the Absolute, the universe in its various forms being considered 
the expansion of it ; 3 the finer Pantheism on the other hand distinguishes between the Absolute 
and the finite beings and borders frequently on Theism. Though God is producing all things out 
of himself and is filling all, yet he remains distinct from the creatines and is not contaminated by 
the Maya, 4 as a lotus in a pond of water remains distinct from the water surrounding it. The 

1 See: Transl. p. 17, II., 2. 

2 The original is (S3 Purkhu, Mah. IV., I., 5, Transl. p. 17) s 

As to the innumerability of the worlds, see Transl. p. 6, v. 19 ; p, 397, v. 7, where Arjun says : "Many times 
the expanse of the world was spread out. Many orores (of worlds) of many kinds were made. From the 
Lord they emanated and in the Lord they are absorbed." 

3 This kind of Pantheism, which, according to the expressions used, borders occasionally on Materialism, 
is chiefly represented by the Bhagats Namdev and Ravidas. See p. xcix, note 3. 

4 Kablr says (Transl. p. 474, IJI., 2): 

« Whose body the universe is, he is not in it, the creator is not in it. 
Who is putting (the things) together, he is always aloof from them." 
And Arjun says (TransL p. 148, XXXV., 2): 

" In every body he dwells near. 
The dunor of the living beings is always distinct (from them).* 
Cf. also Transl. p. 151, XL!., 3, with note 2. In order to understand the words of Kabir and Arjun more 
fully, we must compare what is said of the Supreme Being in the Bhagavad-gita, Chap. XIII., Shlok 14 sqq. 
"It is existing both apart from and within existing things, it is animate and also inanimate. 
It cannot he recognized on account of its subtilty, and it exists both far and near. 
Not distributed among beings and yet existing as if distributed," 
And in Chap. XIII., Shlok 12, it is said : 

"It is called the Supreme Brahm, without beginning, neither existent nor non-existent." 
The sense of this line is, that it has and has not a real existence, i.e. that it is spirit and matter. 



Supreme is in its essence y{f3 (light, the all-energizing vital power), which, , though diffused into 
all creatures, remains distinct from them; the material hodics are dissolved again into atoms, 
whereas the emanated light is re-absorbed into the fountain of light. In this finer shade of Pantheism 
creation assumes the form of emanation from the Supreme (as in the system of the Sufis); the 
atomic matter is either likewise considered co-eternal with the Absolute and immanent in it, 
becoming moulded into various, distinct forms by the energizing vigour of the absolute y{f3; or 
the reality of matter is more or less denied (as by the Sufis, who call it the ^Si, to fir) ov), so 
that the divine yffs is the only real essence in all; this last view borders on Idealism. 

That an Absolute Being, thus defined, cannot he a self-conscious spirit, endowed with a free 
will and acting according to teleological principles, seems never to have struck their minds. For 
after the strongest pantheistic expressions, the Supreme is again addressed as a self-conscious per- 
sonality, who governs all things and takes care of all creatures and with whom man endeavours 
to enter into personal relations. Contradictory sentences of this kind we find a great many in the 
Granth. 1 

To this personification of the Supreme it is owing, that intellectual and moral qualities are 
frequently ascribed to him, though, strictly speaking, there is no room for them in this system. 
He is called very wise (*FHT^> T<nft)» acquainted with the secrets of the hearts or the inward 
governor (3H31TR"Rft)> not deceivable etc., kind to his devotees (^Jld^M 1 )) merciful, 

just, etc. In other places qualities are again attributed to him, which are contradictory to each 
other, and which clearly show that they are to be taken in a pantheistic sense. Thus says ISanak 
(Transl. p. 35, XXV., 1): 

"He himself is enjoying pleasure, he himself is the pleasure, he himself is amusing (others) 
with pleasure. 

He himself is the petticoat ( = the woman), he himself is the husband of the bed." 2 

We should be wrong in assuming that iNanak forbade the worship of other gods on the ground of 
the unity of the Supreme. Far from doing so, he took over the whole Hindu Pantheon, with all 
its mythological background, with the only difference that the whole was subordinated to the 
Supreme Brahm. The position of the popular gods was thereby, though not openly attacked, 
naturally lowered, and their service must needs appear less important, yea even useless for the 
attainment of the highest object of mankind. The folly of idolatry is occasionally ridiculed in the 
Granth, especially by Kabir. He says (T>ansl. p. 657, L, 1^3) : 

" The female gardener breaks off leaves, in the leaves, in the leaves (there is) life. 
The stone, for the sake of which she breaks off the leaves, is lifeless. 
A stone is shaped by the hammer and formed into an image, giving it a breast and feet. 
If this image be true, then it will eat the hammerer."- 

And, Transl. p. 678 (v. 136), he says: 

" Kablr (says) : a stone is made the kord, the whole world worships it. 
Who remains in reliance on this, is drowned in the black stream/' 

It is a mistake, if Nanak is represented as having- endeavoured to unite the Hindu and Muhammadan 
idea about God. Kanak remained a thorough Hindu, according to all his views, and if he had 
communionship with Musalmans and many of these even became his disciples, it was owing to 
the fact that Sufism, which all these Muhammadans were professing, was in reality nothing but 

1 See such addresses to the Supreme, Transl. p. 143, XXL, and p. 144, XX? V\, XXV, 

2 In a similar sense Arjun says (Transl. p. 143, XXL, 3); 

" Thou art perfectly composed, sensual and given tu pleasure." 



a Pantheism, derived directly from Hindu sources, and only outwardly adapted to the forms of 
the Islam. Hindu and Muslim Pantheists could well unite together, as they entertained essentially 
the same ideas about the Supreme; 1 the Hindu mythology was not pressed on the Musalmans, 
as the Hindu philosophers themselves laid no particular stress upon it — the belief in the minor gods, 
the transient manifestations of the Supreme, being with them a matter of choice. On these grounds 
tolerance between Hindus and Turks is often advocated in the Granth and intolerance on the part 
of the Turks rebuked. 2 

Our next question is : What is the relation of man to. the Supreme ? 

The human soul is represented as being light (rTfi?) f rom ligHt, a scintilla aminae divinae, 
which has emanated from the Absolute and is by itself immortal. 3 

According to the popular belief of the Hindus, which is occasionally alluded to in the Granth, 
four Lakhs of souls have once for all emanated from the fountain of light, their number neither 
increasing nor decreasing. 4 The human souls form only a small part , of the creation, which is 
limited to eighty-four Lakhs of forms of existence, viz.: nine Lakhs*of aquatic animals (-H<V6xJ<j), 
seventeen Lakhs of immovable creatures (*H*T^T^<J = such as trees, etc.), eleven Lakhs 

of creeping animals (fsnW = irflT), ten Lakhs of feathered animals ("trtft), twenty-three Lakhs of 
quadrupeds (tKnts^HT), am * four Lakhs of men (^T^tf)- 

It is the aim and object of the individual soul as a divine spark to be reunited with the 
fountain of light, from which it has emanated, and to be re-absorbed in it. As long as it has not 
reached this goal, it is unhappy, being separated from its source,, the Supreme. Why the soul 
has emanated and what for, is nowhere stated in the Granth ; we must therefore look also on this 
process as a sport of the Absolute (?fS5). But the return of the individual soul to the eternal fountain 
of light is cut off in consequence of works practised whilst in the body, and by its impurity, 
contracted by second love (^tTT ^T@) or duality (^f%RT = ^f%*2T), which subject the soul to 
metempsychosis, the coming and going (»WT<c l J l<cA). 

This leads us to the question : if the individual soul is light, how did it happen, that it fell 
into impurity or sin? 

That the world is actually under the dominion of sin, JSanak could and would not deny; he 
declared himself, that the object of his mission was, to show to mankind the way, by which it 
could be saved from this state of misery. 

According to the pantheistic premises, as stated above, sin cannot be the free, deliberate act 

1 Kabir says (Rag Asa, XUI., 4, Transl. p. 657) : 

fS% 3tt WiHIcjG II 

2 See a passaged this kind in Rag Asa, Kabir VIII., 2 (Transl. p. 655), where he wittingly says: 

3 Arjun says* Sir! Rag, Mah. V., Sabd XIV., 1 (Transl. p. 66): 

* Compare with this what the Bhagavad-glta says> Chap. XV., Shlok 7 : 

*T^rbft ^t^fr^i sfcnjcr i 

" An eternal portion of me only having become endowed with life in the world of life, attracts the mind and 
the five senses, which belong to nature." 



of man ; it must have on the contrary its origin in the Absolute Eeing itself, as all creatures are 
said to be subject to an absolute destiny (%^, f^S). This is plainly taught in the Granth. 

Eavidas says (Transl. p. 666, I., 3) : 

"As far as living creatures are, they are subject to destiny.'' 
On the forehead of every man his lot is written from the beginning, which cannot be effaced, 
though one try to do so. Nanak says (Gauri, Mah. I., Sabd X., 1, Transl., p. 217): 

" The lot has fallen, none effaces it. 
"What do I know, wbat will happen in future ? 
"What has pleased him, that has come to pass. 
None other is acting (but he)." 1 

There are consequently numbers of passages in the Granth which pointedly deny the liberum 
arbitrium in man; man comes and goes according to the pleasure of Hari; be acts, speaks, etc. 
as he is caused to do. Arjun says (Transl. p. 398, v. 5) : 

" The power of this one is not in this one's hand. 
The cause of causes is the Lord of all. 
The creature is helpless and must obey. 
What pleases to that one, that will be." 

Yery pointed is the expression of Arjun (Transl. p. 399, XI., 7), that man like a mimic shows many 
appearances, and that the Lord makes him dance as it pleases him. Man is naturally impelled 
to actions by the three qualities (^T^)* which penetrate every created being, even the gods them- 
selves. These three qualities are the (^pr^T, the quality of goodness), the (^5f^, the 
quality of passion) and the (([Tf^. the quality of darkness) ; they are innate in every body, but 
not in equipoise, the one or the other being predominant. The actions of all men are consequently 
determined by the quality that has a ruling influence on them. 

To this must be added, that the Supreme has spread the Maya, (deception) over the whole universe, 
the gods not excepted, by which the created beings are deluded into egotism and duality. 2 The 
wise and the fool, the good and the bad, are therefore alike, they cannot be considered responsible 
for what they think, say or do, as they are acting under influences and impulses which are not 
under their control. 3 This is now and then keenly felt and acknowledged. Thus Arjun (Transl. 
p. 418, v. 7) asks : 

" When by himself the form of the world is created, 
And laid out in the three qualities : 
Then religious demerit and merit, what is it? " 

The original is : 

ftt3 IffSWT I 

fen w fanrr nntt ^fs i 

2 The Brahman Trilocan says (see Transl. p. l£7, II.) : 

*TTfWT *3TT §5f*T Tiixft tT7?H ^ZlfzG *HTO*ftnfT II 

8 Amar-das says plainly : 

fefw 5*z^t * ttt£ ii 

See Transl. p. 154, II., 3. Folly and error, produced in man by the Maya, is directly ascribed to a divine 
causality. See Transl. p. 126, Kabir I., Pause; p. 494, III., 3. 



And Ravidas boldly asks (Transl. p. 130, I., Pause): 

" If I would not commit sins, 0 Endless one ! 
How would be thy name ' purifier of the sinners 5 ? " 

With reference to the delusion of the Maya, Kabir says (Transl. p. 470, XXXIX.) openly: 


"Hari, the deceiver, has practised deceit on the world. 
In separation from Hari how shall I live, 0 my mother? 

(2) . Say, who is a man, who is a woman ? 
Eeflect on this truth in thy body ! 

(3) . Kabir says : my mind is reconciled with the deceiver. 
The deceit is gone, the deceiver is known (by me)." 

Under the influence of the three qualities and the delusion of the Maya man commits acts, 1 which 
subject the soul to transmigration. 

According to common Hindu notions every action carries with itself its fruit or reward. If 
one, under the influence of the quality of goodness, has done here meritorious acts (l?75, ygT), he 
is after his death admitted into heaven or paradise, where he is allowed to enjoy the fruits of his 
works, till they are exhausted ; then he is turned back again into a womb and born on earth in 
a high caste and in a pious family, to commence anew the old course, which may end, according 
to his actions, to his advantage or disadvantage. If he has acted under the impulse of the quality 
ef passion, he is reborn after his death in the house of worldly-minded men. But if he has acted 
under the influence of the quality of darkness and heaped up demerits, he is variously punished 
by Yama (or Dharm-rai), and then born in the body of some animal, 3 or even thrown into hell 
(/>d<^); when his punishment there is over, he is then born in some vile animal body and has to 
go through various transmigrations, till he be born again in a low human womb. 3 There is a 
great latitude in these popular views concerning future rewards and punishments, and we ' find 
many allusions to them in the Grranth, partly couched in melancholy, partly in jocose terms. 

Every soul is supposed to have migrated through the eighty-four Lakhs of forms of existence, 

1 I find it nowhere stated in the Granth, if the soul itself is considered inactive, as in the system of the 
theistic Sakhya (and the Bhagavad-glta), where the three qualities are represented as exercising their 
influence through the medium of matter, which transmits the good or bad impressions to the seat of sensibility 
(*!«l*0» tnis a g ain forwards them to consciousness (^f^^TT^ and this to the intellect OgfiT), which conveys 
them to the soul, who takes cognizance of them. 

2 Kabir says (v. 108, Transl. p. 676): 

Tifz sn firH^F srfet nniFt 3T§ Trrfo i 

" Having given up the remembrance of Hari the woman keeps the Ahoi(-fast). 
Having become a jenny-ass she is born again and carries a load of four maunds." 

3 Ravidas says (Asa, I., 2, Transl. p. 666) : 

fcjro ^fe nf%5 vtt> \mr nr^e 1 

*H^TTC f3Tft #JTft vfe II 

" The thoughtless one is produced in the womb of a reptile, (he who is) indifferent to religious merit (or) demerit. 
The human birth is hard to obtain, in that (human) society also he is low." 



before it reached the human birth ; 1 the human birth is therefore considered so valuable, as final 
emancipation can only be worked out in it. 

No man is thus able to work out his final emancipation, as even in the best case, when he 
is under the influence of the quality of goodness accumulating meritorious works, which hold out 
to him future rewards, the Maya sticks to him, who deludes him into the error of duality, and so 
long as he is not freed from this error of duality, he cannot reach the gate of salvation (iffcf ■OTfnf)* 2 
as only light, purified from all earthly desires, can be re-absorbed in the eternal light. 

"We need hardly remark, that this whole system is contradictory to itself; for on the one hand 
it is asserted, that the lot of every man is written from the beginning on his forehead, that he acts 
under the influence of the three qualities, and is in addition deluded by the Maya into error, and 
on the other hand be is made accountable for his works and rewarded or punished accordingly, 
and after all subject to the trouble of transmigrations. 

The Hindu mind was not unaware of these contradictions, but transmigration was considered 
necessary in order to account for the different lot of man in this world, which they were at a 
loss how to account for otherwise. Why are some high, honoured, rich, happy, etc., and why are 
others low, poor, crippled, etc., and this so frequently without any apparent merit or fault of their 
own? The only ans'wer, which the pantheistic philosophers could give, that this was all the sport 
of the Supreme, 3 could not satisfy the popular mind, which instinctively felt that there must be 
some causal connexion between the actions of man and the evil in this world. It was therefore 
supposed that the lot of man in this present life depended on actions done by him in a former 
birth, though he had no longer any remembrance of them. The philosophers had to reckon 
with this popular idea, and took it up, though unconnected with their system and contradictory 
to it. 

The transmigration of the soul, which has in India so firmly and universally laid hold of the 
popular mind, appears to the Hindu (and so likewise to the Sikh) the greatest of evils, and the 
question, which occupies all the thoughts of bis mind, is, how to be freed from it? His aim is 
not heaven nor paradise, 4 for he is not allowed to remain there for ever; his aim is, as held out 
to him by the Bhagats and their followers, the Sikh Gurus, the total dissolution of individual existence 

1 Kabir says (Gaun, XIX., Transl. p. 480) : 

*3*r eHTHfa Tftnr ^fc *rfc f*r3 ifc w § i 

" Wandering about in the womb of the eighty-four Lakhs of creatures Nand became much worn out, O dear ! " 

2 The Maya produces spiritual blindness or infatuation (ifcr), the consequence of which is regeneration. 
Nanak says (Asa, Mali. I., Sabd XXIII., 4, Transl. p. 503): 

$ftj fefo VTflT I ^ *5T3TT TWffo TfTftT II 

" In this spiritual blindness one falls again into the womb. 
Who clings to spiritual blindness goes to the city of Yama." 
8 This answer is frequently given in the Granth. Compare Japji 17, 18, Transl. p. 6; Transl. p. 509, V. 
4 Nanak says (Asa, Mali. I., Sabd XXXVIIL, 3, Transl. p. 509): 

are sft *mft nrfip "ETTctft iftereft nd^i<A ^f^nn 11 

"The discourse of the Guru is a nectar-speech, who drinks it becomes acceptable. 
Who is very fond of the sight of the gate (of God) becomes emancipated, what shall he do in paradise?" 




hj the re-ahorption of the soul in the fountain of light. 1 His aim is, in one word, the Nirlan (fvf^l'UT)' 
the total cessation of individual consciousness and reunion with the Vacuum (ifc, 

If there could he any douht on the pantheistic character of the tenets of the Sikh Gurus 
regarding the Supreme, it would he dissolved hy their doctrine of the Nirban. Where no personal 
God is taught or believed in, man cannot aspire to a final personal communion with him, his aim 
can only be absorption in the Absolute Substance, i.e. individual annihilation. We find therefore 
no allusion to the joys of a future life in the Granth, as heaven or paradise, though supposed to 
exist, is not considered a desirable object. The immortality of the soul is only taught so far as 
the doctrine of transmigration requires it ; but when the soul has reached its highest object, it is 
no more mentioned, because it no longer exists as individual soul. 2 

The Nirhan, as is well known, was the grand object which Buddha in his preaching held 
out to the poor people. From his atheistic point of view he could look out for nothing else; 
personal existence, with all the concomitant evils of this life, which are not counterbalanced by 
corresponding pleasures, necessarily appeared to him as the greatest evil. His whole aim was there- 
fore to counteract the troubles and pain of this existence by a stoical indifference to pleasure and 
pain, and to stop individual consciousness to its utmost limit in order to escape at the point of death 
from the dreaded transmigration, which he also, even on his atheistic ground, had not ventured 
to reject. Buddhism is therefore in reality, like Sikhism, nothing but unrestricted Pessimism, 
unable to hold out to man any solace, except that of annihilation. 

In progress of time Buddhism has been expelled from India, but the restored Brahmanism with 
its confused cosmological legends and gorgeous mythology of the Puranas was equally unable 
to satisfy the thinking minds. It is therefore very remarkable, that Buddhism in its highest 
object, the Nirban, soon emerges again in the popular teachings of the mediaeval reformatory 
movements. INamdev, Trilocan, Kabir, Ravidas, etc., and after these Mnak, take upon themselves 
to show the way to the Mrban, as Buddha in his time had promised, and find eager listeners; the 
difference is only in the means which these Bhagats propose, for obtaining the desired end. 

In the Kali-yuga, announces Nanak, as well as the popular saints before him, is the name of 
Hari the only means of obtaining final emancipation (^T^f^T). 3 

1 Kabir exemplifies this process by the words : 

"A drop is mixed with a drop. 
A drop cannot be separated from a drop. 5 ' 
See Transl. p. 484, v. 29. Compare also tbe next following verse. 

2 Kabir expresses this very forcibly (Gauri, Kabir XXI., 1, Transl. p. 481) : 

u§ Tmft iinra ^nr ^nr ?rnft 11 
nra 3v uftr 3? vsWnft n 

" When I was, thou (wast) not. Now art thou and I am not. 
Now I and thou have become One, my mind is assured seeing One (only)." 

3 Amar-das says (Gauri, Astp. I., 7, 8, Transl. p. 331): 

TFT 7TR *nrc TfteTfa II 

^T7^ 3TWffcf TRTfS" II 

« In the four Yugas the name is the highest (thing) ; having reflected on the word (of the Guru), 
The disciple will cross over (the water of existence) in the Kali-yug. 
(When) the true (disciple) dies, he does not come nor go (again). 
Nanak (says): the disciple remains absorbed (in the Supreme)." 
There are innumerable passages of this kind in the Granth. 



Austerities (3Xf), renunciation of the world and its pleasures (Q*IW), bathing at holy watering- 
places (3^^), the giving of alms fcTTS), are not denied to be meritorious acts; but they are by 
no means sufficient for gaining complete emancipation, 1 as they are not powerful enough to clear 
away egotism. 2 This can only the name ^f Hari effect, which washes away in a miraculous manner 
all the filth of sins, 3 liberates from all further transmigrations and reunites with Hari. The name 
of Hari is the universal medicine for mankind ; 4 whoever mutters it, is saved in a moment. 

This muttering of the name of Hari (tTU) seems to be a very easy way of salvation; the Sikh 
Gurus however took good care, lest it should be made too easy, so that they themselves might be con- 
sidered more or less superfluous guides. They taught therefore, that nobody was able to take the 
name of Hari by himself; any attempt of this kind was loudly declaimed against and severely con- 
demned. 6 The name of Hari can only be obtained from the true Guru (TJ3* 3HJ), who alone can 
bestow the right initiation and communicate the mantra of the name of Hari. 6 

The Guru on his part again gives the name of Hari only to those on whose forehead this lot 
is written from the beginning. 7 Wq meet here again with the decretum aeternum; salvation by 
the name is by no means universal, but restricted to the elect ; 0 they are chosen, not according 
to their meritorious works, but according to the pleasure of Hari, the leading principles of which 

1 Nanak says (Japji, 21, Trail si. p. 7) : 

" Tirthas, austerity, mercy, gifts given ; if one obtain (their merit), it is the honour of a sesam-seed." 

2 Nanak says (Sin Rag, Astp. XIV., 4, Transl. p. 86) : 

" Though I give (in charity) castles of gold and present many excellent horses and elephants. 
Though I give land and many cows, yet (there is) egotism within (me)." 

3 Nanak says (Japji, 20, Transl. p. 7): 

TTS II VT^V ^ Q36*\ §TT I) 

Vf3 "MTMT t 3f3T II -§TJ ^ ? 3f?T II 

" If hand, foot, hody, trunk become defiled : By washing with water the dust will be removed. 
If the cloth be polluted by urine : By applying soap it will be washed. 
If the intellect be defiled with sins : It is washed by the dye of the name." 
* See Gauri, Sukhmani IX., 5, Transl. p. 394. 

5 Nanak says (Gauri, Mah. I., Astp. XII., 5, Transl. p. 326): 

fEJ7> ^ $ 7Zj\ THZ II f%T?> Tffrm TO 7Z?\ ^TC II 

t%T? ^% "HZ WTfZ .11 Of. Transl. p. 337, XXVIII., 4. 

6 See Gauri, Mah. I., Astp. XV., 4, Transl. p. 328. 

7 Arjun says (Gauri, Mah. V., Sukhmani IX., 5, Transl. p. 394): 

" The praising of the Beautiful one and the singing of (his) excellences 

Is not obtained by any skill nor by any religious practice. 

Nanak (says) : he obtains it, to whom it is decreed hy destiny itself." 
It is nowhere hinted at, how the Guru knows, or finds out, to whom this lot has been decreed. The meeting 
of the disciple with the Guru, or vice versd, of the Guru with the disciple, is therefore ascribed to a providential 
act of the Supreme, so that the disciple has in this very fact the badge of his salvation. Nanak says (Asa, 
Mah. I., Sabd XVIIL, 4, Transl. p. 501): 

T^fn snr 5T *rfar ar? 11 ^^fs *w ^ tt^ 3t w 

8 Amar-das says (Majh, Mah. III., Astp. I., 1, Transl. p. 153) : 

U% *rf3 3TB" fWT§ II 

" (Whose) destiny it is, (him) the true Guru unites (with Hari)." 



are nowhere hinted at, so that also the emancipation of the elect necessarily falls under the 
category of "sport." This is occasionally expressed in very decisive terms. Thus says Arjun 
(Transl. p. 397, XI., 2): "If it please the Lord, man obtains salvation. If it please the Lord, he 
makes a stone cross. If it please the Lord, he rescues a sinner. He himself acts, he himself 
reflects. The inward governor sports and expands. What pleases him, that work he causes to 
be done." 

But on the other hand it was felt that such a doctrine, if strictly carried out, would naturally 
render men thoroughly indifferent to their salvation, if nothing depended on their own exertion. We 
find it therefore stated in other passages of the Granth, that those, who are seeking the Lord, obtain 
him in their own heart; that with those, who are thirsting for the sight of the Lord, he will meet; 1 
the people are frequently exhorted to come to the true Guru (Transl. p. 464, XVIII., 2) and to 
receive meekly his instruction, which necessarily presupposes in them a free decision for good or 
evil. The disciple is even warned not to come to the Guru for the sake of food, 2 as a mere 
bodily intercourse with the Guru will not save him (see Transl. p. 495, IV., 2-4). 

We might naturally expect that Nanak would bring forward some proof that he himself really 
was the true Guru, sent and confirmed by the Supreme Lord. In the old Janam-Sakhl there is 
a tradition to this purport, that Nanak was called to the threshold of God and solemnly installed 
as Guru (see p. xi); but in the Granth itself we find no trace of it and Nanak never alludes 
to anything of this kind. It is everywhere presupposed as self-evident that he is the true Guru, 
and he never takes the slightest pains to prove it. The following Gurus in their turn appeal to 
Nanak, that he had instituted a successive initiation into the Guruship, and dispense therefore with 
every proof. 

The Granth is full of the praise of the Guru, who in every way is extolled and magnified. 3 
The Guru is the only infallible guide to complete emancipation (Transl. p. 95, VII., 1); he is the 
mediator (fi^tJMl) between Hari and mankind, without whom nobody can become acceptable at 
the divine threshold; he is the boat (yfo tj), that carries men over the water of existence (3^ tT35);* 
yea, he is the very fulness of Hari himself. 6 

The disciple has therefore to submit to the direction of the Guru unconditionally; mind and 
body he has to surrender to him, for his salvation depends entirely on the favour and mercy of 
the Guru, who freely disposes of the treasures of Hari. Baba Nanak says (Transl. p. 209, XXV., 
Pauri): "If the true Guru become merciful, then (one's) wish is fulfilled. If the true Guru 
become merciful, the nine treasures are obtained. If the true Guru become merciful, then one is 
absorbed in the True one." Whatever the Guru does, is approved by Hari; whom the Guru 
unites with Hari, he remains united with him. The Guru is even possessed of a magic power: 
like as the philosopher's stone (VTcOT) turns everything, that it is touching, into gold, so the Guru 

1 See Transl. p. 306, 6. 

2 The Gurus used to keep up a large cooking establishment to feed their disciples, no small attraction for 
a lazy hungry population. This was already the practice at the time of Baba Nanak; see p. lxxv, 1. 17. Cf. 
Transl. p. 699, VII. ; p. 704, III. 

3 See a passage of this kind, Transl. p. 377, LV., last Slok. 

i Nanak says (Sirl Rag, Mah. I., Sabd IX., 3, Transl. p. 26): 

3TH ^\ ire JT? 5^77 TSfd 7tT& || 

% fS* 3T% -frrsft ^ TTT^ tTT§ II 

5 Arjun says (Sirl Rag, Mah. V., Sahd IX., 4, Transl. p. 64): 

VTH 1£TH %q ^rTT 7TRft i?fs: || 

Jrfo \rt wr nfsnn rrfu tuts? wr 11 



totally changes all, who come into contact with him. The saving power of the Guru is so extensive, 
that not only the greatest sinners are purified by him, but also his disciples become in their turn 
(apparently by some magical process) 1 the means of salvation to their respective families. This 
is taught in numberless passages of the (franth (see Transl. p. 43, Y., 3 ; p. 390, 5). 

That, which the Guru teaches the disciple for the sake of effecting his final emancipation, is, 
if we may trust the Granth, contained in a few. meagre sentences. 

The Guru gives the name of Sari to the disciple, which he is enjoined to mutter continually. 
He is required to repeat and sing the qualities (3T^) of Hari, to meditate on them continually and 
never to forget them one moment from his mind. Then he is taught to clear away his own "I" 
and to consider himself identical with Brahm. This is the highest degree of knowledge, which is 
often alluded to, but nowhere more fully detailed. The Guru strives hard to surround himself with 
some mysterious halo, but in reality he has nothing to teach the disciple but the pantheistic sentence : 
" S6 ham" i.e. I am that, I am identical with the Supreme. 3 This knowledge and its effects are 
frequently described in glowing colours; the disciple gets thereby uncontaminated from the world 
and remains without any blemish, becomes purer than pure ; darkness is' dispelled and light diffused 
in his mind; he looks on all things as the same, pleasure and pain, friend and enemy; he is 
patient towards all, kind to all, he stops his running mind, destroys his egotism, in fact he is the 
Supreme Lord himself. 3 

To a disciple, who has reached this fourth 4 or highest step of the soul, religious works are 
no longer obligatory, as he is free from the Maya and duality, and whatever he does, he must 
do with an indifferent mind, without any desire for future rewards. 6 The disciple must overcome 
all his desires and wishes, which are not directed on Hari, so completely, that he becomes totally 
hopeless ((AcMT) i Q the world, that he dies, whilst living, being merged in meditation on Hari; 
thus he becomes emancipated whilst being as yet in the body, and when he dies, he does not 
come again. 6 

From the foregoing remarks it is plain enough, that in a religion, where the highest object 

1 Amar-das (Sirl Rag, Mah. III., Sabd III., 4, Transl. p. 42) says expressly : 

vrafir varfir^ vtsw sfg ^ ^3 *wrfa 11 

2 Nanak says (Sir! Rag, Astp. XL, 8, Transl. p. 84) : 

* T? WfTV Wrefrt WZFZ %fk VTtoflfe II 
atTOTfk nnv WT^t^ *H^3 ft sf? WZTfZ II 

3 See Transl. p. 391, VIII., Astp. 1-6; p. 263, XXXIII., XXXIV. 

4 See about this fourth step (xjQbft ITQ^j ^GfcU or 3<ft*HT)> Transl. p. 157, note 3 ; p. 522, 
II., 2, where a popular description of the four steps is given. 

fi Arjun says (Gauri, Sukhmanl, IX., Astp. 2, Transl. p. 393): 

^ f?m fvfe w{$7; ii ftro* sft ^ifwr t ^ fix 11 

STTvT^sft fe^T 7ZT\ Tnt II B^lfS 41<WA 3 fa cFT% II 

6 Amar-das says (Gauri, Mah. III., Astp. I., 8, Transl. p. 331): 

*ttbt * nrr% rrrfe 11 ttt?^ ^jftr ^ ^wrfe 11 

Ibidem Astp. VII. 3, Transl. p. 335: 

f7vdH& II *rcr% *rrf^ II 


of life is the extinction of individual existence, there can be no room for a system of moral duties ; 
we need therefore hardly point out, how wrong the statement of some authors is, that Sikhism is 
a moralizing Deism* 

We have already noticed that the chief duty of the disciple is blind obedience. to his Guru, 
and in the second place service to the saints. This latter point is considered quite essential to 
salvation and therefore frequently enjoined; the disciple should become the dust of the feet of 
the pious (*nT|), he should wash their feet and drink the water used in so doing; he should offer 
up his life to the pious and become their sacrifice. The society of the saints is the greatest blessing ; 
for in their society all filth is removed, true knowledge of Brahm is obtained and the jewel of the 
name found, so that the gate of Hari (i.e. final emancipation) is naturally reached. 1 The other duties 
are summed up in the triad: fiJ*iAl?S, i-e. remembering the name, giving alms and 

practising ablutions; hut the two latter duties, as in fact all, except the muttering of the name, 
are no longer required, when the highest step, the knowledge of Brahm, is obtained. Other 
duties are occasionally inculcated, as far as they tend towards the burning of egotism and the 
removal of duality, such as abstaining from falsehood and slander, 'not looking on another's wife, 
purifying the heart from the five vices, STHT (lust), ^Xf (wrath),; &3 (greediness), ifr (infatuation 
or spiritual blindness) and nTvfsn<£ (egotism). 3 

Charity to animal life is frequently inculcated in the Granth on pantheistic grounds (all 
creatures being considered alike), and in consequence abstinence from animal food ; 3 but this injunc- 
tion, which went right against the habits of the Jat population of the Panjab, was never observed 
and therefore silently dropped afterwards; only the killing of the cow was in later times interdicted 
as sacrilegious, though in the Granth itself no trace of a peculiar sanctity of the cow is to be found. 

Eemarkable it is, but quite in accordance with the pantheistic principles of the system, that 
prayer to the Supreme is hardly ever mentioned in the Granth/ whereas prayer to the Guru is 
frequently enjoined. 5 

The high position, which the Guru claimed for himself, naturally led to a deification of the same, 
and though Nanak spoke modestly of himself and confessed himself unlearned and the lowest of sinners, 6 

1 Compare Gauri, Mah. V., Sukhmam, XV., 6, Transl. p. 406, and VII., 1-8, Transl. p. 389. 

2 See Gauri, Mah. V., Sukhmani, IX., 1, Transl. p. 393. 

3 Kablr says (Transl. p. 682, v. 199) : 

4 And even when prayer to the Supreme is mentioned, no object or contents of it are detailed, so tbat it 
seems to be a mere accommodation to popular notions. Arjun says (Transl. p. 387, V. 8): 

sref" vtt^pj TTf ii nfVTrr sfWr nnvftr 11 

And Transl. p. 502, XXI., 2: 

5 Nanak says (Sirl Rag, Mah. I., Astp. IV., 5, Transl. p. 77): 

6 Nanak says humbly of himself (Asa, Mah. I., Sabd XXIX., 2, Transl. p. 505): 

*t xr@ irft *rft T^Tft vfkniT tort ^fwr 11 

It is incomprehensible, how the later tradition, in the face of confessions of this kind, could deem Nanak to be 
an Avatar. 

sketch: of the religion of THE SIKHS. 


the following Gurus soon commenced, owing to the abject flattery of their adherents, to identify 
the Guru with the Supreme himself. 1 The consequence was such a deification of man as has hardly 
eyer been heard of elsewhere. Life, property and honour were sacrificed to the Guru in a way, 
which is often revolting to our moral feelings. It was therefore a very fortunate event for the 
more free and moral development of the Sikh community, that, with the tenth Guru Govind Singh, 
the Guruship was altogether abolished. 

"With precepts of this kind the disciples of Nanak would have sunk into a state of dull apathy 
to the world around them, or they would have led a contemplative life in monasteries, as the 
Buddhists did, if Nanak, cautioned by his many disputes and contentions with the Jogis, and 
convinced by practical experience of the wickedness and hypocrisy of the erratic PaqTrs, had not 
enjoined to them, to remain in their secular occupation and not to leave the world. It is owing 
to this sound principle, that the Sikhs have not become a narrow-minded sect of Eaqlrs, but that 
they developed themselves by degrees into a political commonwealth. 

Nanak and his followers taught, that the state of a householder (fJUjj^) was equally acceptable 
to Hari as retirement from the world, 2 and that secular business was no obstacle to the attainment 
of final emancipation. Salvation does not depend on outward circumstances, neither on the per- 
formance of austerities, 3 but on the inward state of the mind, which even amongst the daily business of 
life may remain absorbed in meditation on Hari (this kind of devotion is called TTtT^T or HTtTTStRT). 
The evil practices of the mendicant Faqlrs as well as the rogueries of the Brahmans are therefore 
frequently exposed in the Granth and severely censured. By such pious tricks transmigration cannot 
be overcome, but the soul gets on the contrary still more sullied and depraved. 

The institution of caste was not directly assailed by Nanak, though he and the other Bhagats did 
not put any stress upon it. He expresses his mind on this point very clearly by saying (Transl. 
p. 494, III., Pause): "Thou (0 God) acknowledgest the light (that is in him) and dost not ask after 
(his) caste. For in the other world there is no caste" (of. also Transl. p. 114, III., Slok I.). 
Kabir even occasionally ridicules it, as well as the Brahman and the Mulla. Emancipation is not 
confined to the higher castes, but made accessible to all men, even to the Candal. 4 Different stories 
are therefore cited in the Granth, that even the lowest men attained to salvation by muttering 
the name. 5 Nanak received all men as his disciples without any regard to caste, recognizing in 

1 Guru Arjun, who oversteps all bounds in the praise of the Guru, says for instance (Sir! Rag, Mah. V., 
Sabd XXIX., 2, Transl. p. 73): 

are wreg nfvrar arre ^srnft ^<wa ^fg it 
are nRTOT feswsT arre nr^ 7> £fir 11 

That really the Guru (not the Supreme) is meant by these words, is clearly seen from v. 3, where he says : 

3T7 ^T5T TTfij ^frjt ifWT3 II 

2 Arjun says (Asa, Mah. V., Sabd CLVII., 2, Transl. p. 573): 

f^3 fere f^5 ftra ;ri ii^ fajTT *w*rfo rri n 
W3fo w fire ni ii irrefH *w5fc7 qftrrt 11 

dl-H<VH3T srfBTTt II SO f*rf 7>3 fWTfe U7 II 

3 Kablr ridicules occasionally outward austerities; he says (Transl. p. 664, IV., 2): 

W ? WTfc % 3Tfe ^% f?>3 T7>3 Al^fo II 

%*t*fe? f % #fe ?re f%fr fefo ytx\ no^ftr 11 

4 See Transl. p. 430, XVII., Pauri. 

5 See Transl. p. 489, Namdev. 



all the dignity of the human birth, and laid thus the foundation of a popular religion, and it 
was quite in accordance with these principles, that Guru Govind Singh finally abolished caste 
altogether in the Xhalsa, though the deeply-rooted prejudices of the higher castes refused to 
submit to it. 

The dignity of the Brahmans as family priests, etc., was likewise left untouched, and of nearly 
all the Gurus it is reported, that they had their family priests, though the teaching of the Brahmans, 
as well as the authority of the Yedas and Puranas, is often reproved. 1 It was the last Guru, Govind 
Singh, who positively prohibited the employment of Brahmans in any capacity, and introduced a 
new ritual partly taken from the Granth, and partly from his own compositions. 

From the foregoing sketch of the Sikh religion, as laid down iu the Granth, we must well dis- 
tinguish the popular notions of the masses. The vulgar are nowhere given to lofty metaphysical 
speculations; their ideas are concrete and adapted to their every-day wants. Pantheism has never 
been the religion of a whole nation, or of any large body of men, not even in India, the home of 
Pantheism. In spite of all the definitions of the Granth, the common people constructed for 
themselves a God such as they required for their outward and inward wants. The teaching 
of the Granth gradually disaccustomed them from idolatry and the worship of the inferior deities, 
and impressed them with the idea of One Supreme Lord, whom however they could not realize 
under the abstract notion of an Absolute Substance, but only as a personal, self-conscious Supreme 
Being, who created all and governs and disposes all according to his will. It is not improbable, 
that the Islam had a great share in working silently these changes, which are directly opposed to 
the teaching of their Gurus. The mass of the Sikh population is now at all events thoroughly 
imbued with these deistic notions and even educated Sikhs were quite astonished, when I proved 
to them the contrary from the Granth. I met only a very few devotees, who, being fairly read 
in the Granth, knew about "the secret." 

Guru Govind Singh did not and could not essentially change the teaching of his predecessors. 
He describes the Supreme Being nearly in the same terms in his JapjT,' as the Adi Granth does, 
though he was personally addicted to the worship of the goddess Durga; he made the worship of 
the One Supreme obligatory, though the adoration of the minor deities, as we are taught by his 
own Granth, was by no means rejected. 2 

The changes and additions he made in Sikhism concerned chiefly the ceremonial and social 
duties of his adherents ; as he received men of all castes and creeds into the Khalsa and endeavoured 

1 Nanak says (Asa, Mah. I., Sabd XXI., 4, Transl. p. 502) : 

W3 ftns 7; Trfe ii *rraT -3fk tRpht i{3 irfe 11 

2 The Rahit-namas go in this respect much farther, condemning all other worship but that of the One 
Supreme. The Rahit-nama of Prahlad-rai says, v. 13: 

The worship of idols is also positively forbidden in the Rahit-namas; see Prahlad-rai, v. 14: 

^ to fAdJjdr wn mfznn wrcfa 11 

" Who adores a stone and bows his head to any one but a Sikh : 
He is a Sakat (and) without a Guru, he is always cursed by the Lord of the world." 



to weld them into one religious and political body, he set up a number of new ordinances binding 
on all. v These injunctions are laid down in a number of so-called Rahit-namas or books of conduct, 1 
which all pretend to be dictated by the Guru himself, but none of which appear to be genuine, 
as they vary very greatly, and were, as may be easily proved, all composed after the death of the 
Guru, some of them even as late as the end of the last century. They cannot therefore be adduced 
as a direct testimony of what GSvind Singh himself ordained and introduced into the Khalsa, but 
only as an evidence of the later development of Sikhism. 

The initiatory rite into the Khalsa is the Pahul, which, has already been described (p. xo). 
It is generally administered by five Sikhs and not before the attainment of years of discretion ; 
its administration is considered very meritorious, and by instructing a disciple in the doctrines of 
the Guru, one will get final emancipation even whilst living. 2 

Every Sikh is enjoined to read the Granth for his devotion, especially the JapjT of Nanak and 
the Japji of Govind Singh; these two he should always read when taking his meals. 3 In the 
morning he is to repeat some portion of the Granth, and when beginning any work he is to say 
an Ardas (WcTCTfifj prayer, supplication). 4 In the evening, when taking his food, he is to read 
the Eahiras (dfddlfif, supplication), 6 consisting of selections from the Adi Granth (see Transl. 
p. 14, So daru, note I), to which in later times also some portions from the Granth of Govind 
Singh were added. As these religious duties took up a great deal of time, they were seldom 
observed by the vulgar, and are now generally neglected. They content themselves with uttering 
the ground-mantra (inPT "tffaT): *rf3 WTR* ^ • 

1 Two of these Ralrit-namas have lately been published in an English translation by Sirdar Attar Singh 
of Bhadour; but it is a pity that he has not given the Gurmukhi text also. The translation is very free and 
gives only the sense generally, not verbally. Fortunately I brought the original text of the Rahit-nama of 
Prahlad-rai with me, so that I am enabled, for the sake of accuracy, to quote it, where it may seem necessary. 
The title of Sirdar Attar Singh's publication is : " The Rayhit Nama of Pralad Rai, or the excellent conversa- 
tion of the Daswan Padsha, and Nand Lai's Rayhit Nama, or rules for the guidance of the Sikhs in religious 
matters." Lahore, printed at the Albert Press, 1876. , 

2 Prahlad-rai says, v. 28 : 

fin* ^ firw ^ nrfip €teT 11 *h*wt trt ^ *£teT 11 

3 Prahlad-rai, v. 10 : 

f%T?> ^TV TfTTVr ^ f^T rl" ^%l£*Tf*; II ^ fSTRZT STT f^T uft ^ 3T3Tfe# TUT? II 

This injunction would presuppose, that every Sikh should be able to read, hut this was never the case and no 
means whatever were taken to secure this end. 

4 According to a note of Sirdar Attar Singh to Nand LaPs Rahit-nama, p. 5, the Sikhs read as Ardas the 
first verses from Govind Singh's story of Bhagavati, called rjjft ^ ^TcJ> the first lines of which run thus : 
" The goddess Bhagavati was first worshipped by Guru Nanak ; then by Gurus Angad* Amar-das and Ram- 
das, and to them she was propitious. Then followed Gurus Arjun, Har-rai, Har-govind and Teg-bahadur, and 
they also rose to the highest honours. Guru Govind Singh was also assisted by her." 

6 UfvTcTrfiT (thus it is written in the Granth, see Rag Asa, Mah. IV., IV., Pause, Transl. p. 15) signifies 
prayer, supplication; its derivation is not known. It is frequently now spelt dOdlfa) hence the transcrip- 
tion of Sirdar Attar Singh "Row Rass." He details in the Rahit-nama of Nand Lai, p. 4, note *, the com- 
ponent parts of the Ardas as now in use among the Sikhs. In reference to the morning and evening prayer 
the following verse is contained in Prahlad-rai's Rahit-nama (u. 12): 

3TcJ Jft3 3TT% II ^Rjdl*f fsjTST "^TR ^ MT% II 
WUTOft fW f&3 yri% II ^33* f3* fafWT II 




Temples, shrines and burning places are not to be worshipped, nor are other religions to be 
praised. 1 The Vedas, Shastras, Puranas and the Qur'an are not to be minded, neither the Pandit 
nor the Mulla. All Hindu and Musalman rites are to be discontinued; the Hindu ceremonies at 
the time of birth, marriage and death should not be observed; no Shradh should be performed, 
and if it be performed, the words of the Granth should be used. No Tilak should be applied to 
the forehead, nor should the sacred cord (-riXQ) nor a rosary (*n*5T) be worn; circumcision should 
not be practised. 

A Sikh is never to wear a cap (^ift), nor to shave his head or beard, nor to wear red clothes. 2 
He should bathe in cold water, comb his hair twice every day and bind his turban after adjusting 
the tresses ; he is never to take off his turban whilst taking his food. He is to clean his teeth 
every day with a tooth-stick. He should always wear breeches (3"^, the Hindu Dhoti being a 
forbidden article), and have steel about his person, especially a sword. 

The use of tobacco in any shape is prohibited. 3 Gambling, especially the play of Caupar 
(^©T-T^, a kind of chess), and visiting prostitutes, deserve severe punishment. 

A Sikh should never buy meat from a butcher, but eat only the flesh of such animals whose 
head was severed by a Sikh with one stroke of the sword ; this kind of slaughtering animals is 
called 3£^J. Beef is not even so much as mentioned in the Itahit-namas, as its use was altogether 
considered abominable. To eat of the leavings of the meal of another entails the pain of death. 

Especial attention is paid to the making and distributing of the Karah Prasad (o^M \£*?T7)j 
wbich in some way resembles the Communion Service of Christians, the Earah Prasad being con- 
secrated to the Guru and in his name given to eat to the assembled votaries. It should be made 
of equal quantities of ghT, flour and sugar. The cooking-place should first be swept clean and then 
plastered with cow-dung; the cooking utensils should likewise be well washed. The Sikh, who 
prepares the Prasad, should enter the cooking-place after bathing and purifying himself, and only 
utter: vah Guru! He should fill *a new jar with water, drawn from a well with an iron bucket, 
and place it at his side. "When the Karah Prasad is ready, it should be put on a stand, and ths 
people should sit round it praying {i.e. saying: vah Guru!). It should be distributed to all in 
equal portions. 4 

The disciple is strictly to obey the orders of the Guru and never to forsake him; apostacy 
is visited with the severest punishments; he is also to. minister to his brother Sikhs. 5 He is to 
pay taxes, if demanded by the Guru; 6 the withholding of the customary offerings of the tenth 

1 Prahlad-rai says, v. 20 : 

^ MW5 firtf ar? srr ?rnft 11 srfir xrfa^ Trcft 11 

2 The custom of wearing blue clothes (in remembrance of Govind Singh making his escape in blue 
clothes) soon fell into disuse ; only the Akalis preserved this custom. See p. cxviii, note 2. 

8 Prahlad-rai says, v. 9 : 

4 The Karah Prasad and its preparation is described in Nand Lai's Rahit-nama, p. i, 8. 
6 Prahlad-rai says, v. 8 : 

5^ TTtm 3Svft W$ 35 fire sft ^ || ^ ^3tT £ vprf? §^ || 

6 - Prahlad-rai says, o. 7: 

TRV WTd HT§ II JTV fafWT *Tfcf ST§ II 

3tu %z Atzs grrt ii ftn* an 7*5\ st% ii 

"Who, having seen the order (of the Guru), does not pay taxes. Who, having hid the money-box (in which the 


part of his income, the defrauding of the Khalsa and others deputed by the Guru, is severely- 
censured. He should consider only the precepts of the Guru as true and all others as false. 1 The 
Granth is to be minded like the Guru, and the Khalsa like the Guru, as it is the visible body of 
the Guru, (and in consequence) the visible* body of the Timeless one. 2 The persons, to whom the 
Guru gives authority (or a Hukm-nama), should be equally obeyed, and those, who set themselves 
up as rivals with them, should be burnt with their families. 3 

With regard to his family the Sikh is enjoined to dispose suitably of his daughter (or sister) 
and not to take any money for her hand. 4 The killing of daughters is strictly forbidden. 

Among the moral duties truthfulness and kindness to the poor are especially inculcated ; false- 
hood, dealing fraudulently, stealing, slandering and fornication, are branded as deadly sins. A Sikh 
should earnestly strive to subdue the five passions : lust (S?7H)i wrath (sfa), greediness infatua- 
tion (*JU)j and pride (tJ^TcJ)- 

The injunctions regarding the intercourse with people of other creeds evince already a narrow- 
minded bigotry and a deep fanatical hatred. 

A Sikh is not even to salute one, who is not a Sikh, otherwise he is an apostate and accursed 
by God. "Who bows his head to one, who wears a cap {i.e. a Muhammadan) or shaves his head 
{i.e. a Hindu), is doubtless worthy of hell. 6 He is not even to place a piece of cloth or any- 
thing belonging to a Muhammadan on his head, otherwise he will suffer many deaths. 6 A true 
Sikh should always be engaged in war with the Muhammadans and slay them, fighting them face 
to face; it i» his duty to destroy the enemies of his faith, 7 and to help in the diffusion of the 

money, set aside for the Guru, is put), talks falsehood with his montb. Who, acknowledging 1 the vow of an 
offering of taxes, steals (them) ; such a disciple is not pleasing to the Guru." Compare also Nand Lai's Rahit- 
nama, p. 3, 24. 

1 The Rahit-nama of Nand Lai (p. 6, 46) has the further injunction : " Do not listen to any calumny 
respecting the Guru, and he who speaks ill of the Guru, must be killed with a sword." Iu this way the 
infallibility of the Guru could easily be kept up. 

3 Prahlad-rai says,, u. 21 : 

^ ^ fi**5^ M^T fvx *rfrj Sftr ii 

"The Khalsa should be minded as the Guru, it is the manifest body of the Guru. 
Who desires to meet with me, he having 1 searched finds me in them." 
And in v. 24 he says : 

nrsnw pi sft vzn 11 ^Tfz n&m w&m $tjt h 

"This one is the shape of the timeless divine male. The Khalsa is the visible body of the Timeless one." 
3 Prahlad-rai says, v. 15 : 

z?ft •ettvtst tcr sft nn£ utw ii f3?> sft wrote ^ *t ^fo v& ii 

* See Nand Lai's Rahit-nama,, p. 3, 16, 17. 

5 Prahlad-rai says, 20 : 

6 See Nand Lai's Rahit-nama, p. 2, 9. 

7 These duties are frequently inculcated. See Nand Lai's Rahit-nama, p. 7, 62, 64 ; p. 9, 73, 77, 79. 



Sikh religion. 1 No confidence whatever should be placed in Jogis (who are contemptuously called 
ZfT7> 3ZT> ear-cropt) and Turks. 3 

Towards the Sikh sectarians the same implacable hatred is evinced. A true Sikh should 
abstain from all intercourse with the following people, who are accursed (excommunicated) by the 
Guru: (1) the Mine ftftS), the progeny of Pirthimall; 3 (2) the Dhirmallle (lftaH5?t§)> the 
progeny of Dhlrmall (see p. lxxxii, note); (3) the Ramraie (TR^TFtll), the disciples of Eam-rai, 
the son of Guru Har-rai (see p. lxxvi, 1. 27 sqq.); (4) the Masands, the former deputies of the 
Guru (see p. xciii, last line and note 2); (5) the head-plucked ones (faddj^ the Jainas, who 
are now called in the Panjab TTJT^ft or /> T *jfe°J > atheists). To these are added as equally heinous 
(6) those who kill their daughters (T-jfafTcJ)- 4 

There are some other injunctions of minor importance, which are hardly worth mentioning, 
such as : not to blow out a lamp with the mouth ; not to extinguish fire with water, from which 
one has been drinking; not to remain naked from the waist downwards at night; not to bathe 
without a Sjgf (or breeches) ; not to distribute food without being fully dressed, etc. 

We see from these minute ordinances, that the Sikh reformatory movement soon ended again 
in a new bondage, which was quite as tiresome as that which they had thrown off. By precepts 
of this kind the Sikhs, the majority of whom consisted of rude and ignorant Jats, could morally 
but -little be improved, as no provision whatever was made to raise them to a higher standard of 
education and culture, Guru Govind Singh being only intent on rendering them subservient to his 
will and on kindling their martial valour and hatred against the Muhammadans. "We need there- 
fore not he surprised, that they soon surpassed their fellow-countrymen in all sorts of vices and 
debauchery, to which they added a rapacious and overbearing conduct, so that they became a regular 
scourge to the country, after they had succeeded in overthrowing the Muhammadan power. They 
could easily destroy by their martial fury an old weak establishment, but were not able to erect 
a new solid fabric upon its ruins, as they had not in themselves the necessary moral and intellectual 

In conclusion we have to notice some denominations, which sprang up in the bosom of the 
Sikh community. 

(1). The Uddsls. This body was founded by Sin Cand, the eldest son of Nanak. There are 
four subdivisions amongst them, who only differ from each other by some outward signs. They no 
more marry, after they have given up their household (f?[f3'T3') and turned Udasis [i.e. indifferent 

1 See Nand Lai's Rahit-nama, p. 9, 80. The spreading of Sikhism by force of arms is here clearly 
enjoined. No wonder therefore, if the Sikhs became gradually more fanatical than the Muhammadans. 

2 Prahlad-rai says, v. 22 : 

5TT7> 3$ *HcJ 3^7 31 W$ ^5 f^RlftT II ^ f*W *F fU3 7TT ?t 7>ZR ^ TTTfe II 

" He should by no means put any confidence.™ an ear-cropt one and in a Turk. 
Who does not entertain love with a Sikh, goes to hell." 

3 We have stated p. lxxx, note 1, that it was not quite clear, if Ram-das had two or three sons. But 
from the Sikha de raj di vithia, p. 57, 1. 15 sqq., and a note of Sirdar Attar Singh to his translation of the 
Rahit-iiaina of Prahlad-rai, p. 1, we find that be had three sons. The name of the eldest son was Pirthimall, 
that of the second Arjun, and that of the third Dhirmall. The Mine are therefore not the disciples of Dhlr- 
mall, as supposed on p. lxxxii, note 2, but the descendants of Pirthimall, who had tried to poison his younger 
brother Arjun, on whom the Gurnship had been conferred, and who was therefore called by his father ^ffeT 
^3, a contemptible thief. 

4 Prahlad-rai says, v. 18: 

#w 3i sn y*nfk 11 ^ ^ 5 xrm sn tttto 3t^t% *nfc 11 



to the world) ; they are therefore a society of monks, though they do not live together in monasteries; 
Some of them do not cut their hair, like the regular Sikhs, some have short-cut hair ( Tft% jfo fi), 
some wear long tufted hair (^f), and some shave head and face. They practise the Hindu 
rites concerning birth, death, 1 marriage a«d Shradh, as all the old Sikhs did. They wear clothes 
dyed with red ochre (fTOWt) and apply to their forehead a high Tilak. Their sacred book is the 
Adi Granth, whereas they reject the Granth of Govind Singh. Formerly they were very strict 
in their religious duties and led an ascetic life, subsisting on coarse bread, baked on live coals 
(*nj«fdt)» which they begged. As they obstinately advocated a mode of life, which was irreconcil- 
able with secular occupations, and as they refused to submit to the authority of the established 
Gurus, Guru Amar-das eliminated them from the Sikh community and they were thence no longer 
acknowledged as Sikhs, though they themselves never gave np this claim. The TJdasis have set up 
a Guruship of their own, and after the death of a Guru some disciple, whom the Guru has elected, 
assumes the spiritual authority; they address each other by the title of ~3Tg\ (brother). Their devotional 
service is very simple ; in the morning and evening they play a violin or a rebeck and sing a song 
of praise (e7^B3?^) to the Supreme Lord, which is mostly taken from the Granth, imitating iu this 
way the simple worship of Baba Nanak. 

The TJdasis were always a small body, as their principles found no favour with the population. 
Now-a-days they have much deviated from their former ascetic habits and have for the greater part 
taken to secular occupations, differing only by some outward tokens from other people. Some of 
them bore a hole through their privities and insert a large ring of iron or brass to prevent them 
from fornioation (ffc(£feMd). 

(2) . The Suthre (Sing. Tr^UT* pure). Their founder is said to have been a Brahman, named 
Suca (TfxJT); they took their origin under Guru Har-rai. 2 This body, which is still to be found 
in nearly every town of the Panjab, has greatly degenerated; they are notorious for their drunken- 
ness and debauchery, so that they have become a by-word in the Panjab, being just the contrary 
of what their name implies. It is stated, that they obtained from one of the former Emperors 
a written order, that every shopkeeper should give them one Paisa as alms; they wander there- 
fore continually about the Bazars, begging and clashing together two staves (3$5T)- On their 
head and neck they wear a rope of black wool and keep two staves in their hand; to their fore- 
head they apply a Tilak of black colour. They perform the usual Hindu rites, make Shradhs and 
erect tombs over the ashes of a burnt corpse of a member of their order ; the bones they collect and 
throw into the Ganga. With meditation and worship they do not trouble themselves very much ; they 
recite the verses of !Nanak, which they partly learn by heart, and sing some praises in honour of the 
Devi. They visit the Dehras (shrines) of the ten Gurus and make offerings there. They all add the 
title of "Shah" (literally King) to their names, as Kavll-shah, etc. They have a Guruship of their own 
and receive novices (%35T), but there is no order nor regular discipline among them; now mostly 
profligates and vagabonds join them. They are a public nuisance, like so many other mendicant 
orders, and disavowed by the Sikhs. 

(3) . The Bivane Sddh (ft^T?5 THTj the mad saints). They keep their hair uncut, like the 
Sikhs, and wear on their neck a necklace of shells (*}tf ^ *TR5T) and on their turban a very large 
feather (oJ66J|T); they consist for the greater part of Jats and tanners (^HT<J)- Their devotional 
service consists in muttering the true name (fft 7>m)- Most of them are married, but some few 
remain also unmarried. In their other habits they are like the Sikhs and acknowledge the Adi 
Granth as their sacred book. 

1 They burn their dead, but always erect a tomb (JPTP?) over tne ^ r ashes, like the Jogis and Sanyasis. 

2 Wilson, Religious Sects of the Hindus, p. 177, states, that they look up to Teg-bahadur as their 
founder. What authority he had for this statement is not mentioned by him. 



(4) . The Nirmale Sddhu (the pure saints). These people were originally strict Sikhs and 
followed exclusively the Granth and the regulations of Govind Singh; they stood in high esteem 
with the Sikh community and exercised great influence on the people. Formerly they used 
to wear white clothes and dwelt at Amritsar, Mukt-sar and other places, which are sacred to the 
Sikhs (as Damdama, etc.), but in the course of time they gradually relapsed into Hinduism by 
applying their mind to the Shastras and especially the Yedanta. In consequence of this internal 
change of mind their outward habits also underwent some changes; they deposed their white robes 
and adopted the common garb of the Hindu Eaqlrs, consisting of reddish -yellow clothes. They 
also now visit the holy watering-places on the Ganga and Jamna and conform to nearly all the 
Hindu rites. At the time of birth and death they perform the Yedic ceremonies and burn their 
dead, but do not use the Hindu mantras at weddings. They are now in a state of transition and 
deeply tinged with Hindu - notions, so that they can no longer be considered as regular Sikhs. 
They live mostly together in separate societies under a Guru and choose celibacy; there is some 
learning cultivated among them and even Sanskrit studies are to some extent attended to. They 
do not beg, but live on the offerings of the people; they receive men of all castes into their 
society, as within the brotherhood no caste is acknowledged. They have a large establishment at 
Amritsar, where they are much respected by the people for the purity of their morals. 1 

(5) . The Akalis (the worshippers of the THSTTSSj or Timeless Being). This body is said to 
have been instituted by Guru Govind Singh himself. They were the zealots among the Sikhs, who 
watched over the purity of their religion and withstood firmly the innovations, 2 which the BairagI 
Banda, who after the death of Govind Singh assumed the leadership among the Sikhs in the 
Panjab, endeavoured to introduce into Sikhism. They wear blue chequered clothes and bangles or 
bracelets of steel round their wrists and frequently also a discus of steel en their turban. They 
established themselves in great numbers at Amritsar, where they assumed the direction of the 
religions ceremonies and acted the parts of defenders of the faith in the days of Sikh independency, 
as they assumed the right of convoking a Gur-mata (a national council, literally : the Guru's advice) 
and directing its consultations. Thus they became a formidable body, which was dreaded even by 
the Sikh chiefs, as they were always ripe for a fanatical outbreak. They lived en the offerings of 
the people, which they often extorted by force. As they were in fact more a political than a 
religious body, their influence ceased with the destruction of the Sikh community, and now-a-days 
they are hardly taken notice of; they are gradually dwindling away like Sikhism itself, in whose 
bosom of late even an atheistic or materialistic sect has sprung up, that of the Gulah-dasu, who deny 
every creation and the existence of any Supreme Being. The old tough Hinduism has therefore 
every prospect of outliving also this reformatory movement, which was impeded in its course and 
eventually rendered baneful by being made subservient to political interests, 

1 One Ninnala Sadhii of the Amritsar establishment, Atma Singh, was for a considerable time my 

2 These innovations did not concern the doctrinal parts, but only some outward forms and customs of 
Sikhism. He endeavoured to induce the Sikhs to abandon their blue dress, to abstain from drinking liquors 
and Bhang (to which even Govind Singh had been addicted) and from eating flesh. He tried also to make 
them exclaim : XJ^T sft T§ (victory to religion !), *16*\*> sfl" T§ (victory to the (Sikh) system 1), instead of 
the exclamation ordered by Guru Govind Singh: ^XU ajjrft sft ^ (bravo, victory to the Guru !), 
VfTT^TPrft' Sft ^3 (bravo, victory to the Khalsa !). As the bigoted Banda insisted on these innovations, many 
Sikhs, especially the Akalis, who refused to comply with them, were put to death. After the defeat and cruel 
execution of Banda all these innovations were put aside again, except the blue dress, which only the fanatical 
Akalis retained. 




The Adi Granth in its present state was collected by Guru Arjun, as stated on p. lxxxi ; after 
Arjun the yerses of Teg-bahadur were added and one single Dohra of bis son, Guru Govind Singh, 
in answer to some Dohras of bis father. ¥e have no further information, bow the writings of the 
predecessors of Arjun had been collected and preserved, and we must wholly depend for their authen- 
ticity on the testimony of Arjun himself. 

Besides the writings of the Sikh Gurus, considerable extracts from the writings of famous 
Bhagats were also inserted in the Granth ; the works of Kabir are still extant in India, as they 
were preserved by bis disciples, the Kablr-panthTs, who have a considerable establishment at Benares, 
but hitherto few selections only have been published of them, though they are far superior in form 
as well as in origiuality of thought to the versifications of the Sikh Gurus. The writings of the 
other Bhagats seem to be lost, as I was never able, in spite of manifold researches, to detect a trace 
of tbem ; perhaps one piece or another may yet be found in progress of time. 

Nearly all the panegyrics of the Bhatts were composed for the occasion and are abject flatteries, 
without any intrinsic value whatever; they were apparently all added by Guru Arjun himself. 

The authors of the Granth are therefore the following: 

(A) . Sikh Gurus.— -(1). Baba Nanak (Mah. L). (2). Angad (Mab. II.). (3). Amar-das (Mah.IIL). 
(4). Ram-das (Mah. IV.). (5). Arjun (Mah. Y.). (6). Teg-bahadur (Mah. IX.). (7). Govind Singh 
(Mab. X.; only one Dohra. See Transl. p. 70S). 1 

(B) . Bhagats.— (1). Beni. 2 (2). Bhikan. 3 (3). Dhanna. 3 (4). Farld (Shekb). 4 (5). Jaidev. 5 
(6). Kabir.* (7). Namdev. 7 (8). Pipa. 8 (9). Ramanand. 9 (10). Ravidas. 10 (11). Sadbna. 11 (12). Sainu. 12 
(13). Surdas. 13 (14). Trilocan. 14 

1 In many cnpies Mab. X. is not added to this Dohra, though good copies testify to it. 

2 About Beni (^5^") and Bhikan (lfW?5) no particulars are known. 

8 Dhanna (T^TTT) is said to have been a cultivator (Jat). See Transl. p. 668, note 2. He became a disciple 
of Ramanand. See Price, Hindi Selections, p. 124. 4 About Shekh Farid see Transl. p. 685, note 4. 

5 Jaidev (ft%^) = Sansk. SpEf^^, the well-known author of the Gita-govinda. 

6 See about Kabir, Transl. p. 126, note 1; p. 93, note 1. 

7 Namdev (7TRT^^> frequently ODly TTT^TT) was a calico-printer (sPfTTT)) a famous Bhagat, who is con- 
sidered the first Marathi writer; his verses are therefore particularly interesting in a linguistic point of view. 
See about him Transl. p. 93, note 1. 

8 Pipa, Raja of the fort of Gangaraun (*N^«f TT^TT)> as ne is styled by the Bhakta-mala (see 
Price, Hindi Selections, p. 87), was first a votary of the Devi, but became afterwards a disciple of Ramanand. 

8 Ramanand (about A.D. 1400), a disciple of Ramanuj. Twelve disciples of Ramanand are mentioned, 
among them Kabir, Ravidas, Pipa, Dhanna, etc. Ramanand received men of all castes as his disciples, 
and declared that the knowledge of Brahm made a man free from all social bonds. 
30 See about Ravidas, Transl. p. 130, note 3. 

11 Sadhna was a butcher (c?*ny\). Nothing particular is known about him, if we abstract from the two 
wonderful stories related about hiin in the Bhakta-mala. 

12 Sainu is said to have been a barber (Al@)« He is also enumerated among the twelve disciples of 
Ramanand, whom he himself quotes (Rag Dhanasari, Sainu). 

13 Surdas, a Brahman, was first an Amin (commissioner) of the Emperor, but squandered the money of the 
district treasury on saints. He fled then to the forest of Vrindavan and became himself a Bhagat. 

14 About Trilocan see Transl. p. 126, note 4; p. cxxiiJ. 



(C). Bhatts.—(l). Bhalhau. (2). Bhika. (3). Das (Dasu). (4). Ganga. (5). Haribans. (6). Jalan. 
(7). Jalap. (8). Kal (Kalu, Kalhu). (9). Kalasu. (10). Kalasahar. (11). Klratu. (12). Mathura. 
(13). jSTal. (14). Bad. (15). Sal (Salh). 

The Bhatt Kalasu eulogized Baba Nanak ; Kalasahar and Kalu : Guru Angad ; Kalu, Jalap, Kiratu, 
Bhika, Sal and Bhalhau: Guru Amar-das; Kalu, Kalasahar, M, Bad, Daau, Jalan, Ganga, Mathura, 
Klratu and Sal: GuruBamdas; Kalu, Kalasahar, Mathura and Haribana : Guru Arjun. Thence it would 
appear, that the Bhatt Kalasu lived towards the close of the life of Nanak or under Guru Angad; 
Jalap, Bhika and Bhalhau under Guru Amar-das; Kiratu, Nal, Bad, Dasu, Jalan, Ganga and Sal 
under Guru Bam-das; and Kalu, Kalasahar, Mathura and Haribans under Guru Arjun. The panegyric 
of Angad was composed under Guru Arjun, very likely to fill up the gap. 
The Granth itself consists of the following portions : 
I. The Jap (or Japji), an introductory chapter, by Nanak. 

II. The So dar^ consisting of extracts from Bag Asa and Bag Gujri, used by the Sikhs aa 
evening prayer (dfOd IT) together with : 
III. So purkhu, consisting of extracts from Bag Asa. 

IY. Sohild, consisting of extracts from the Bags Gaun, Asa, and DhanasarT, used as a prayer 
before retiring to rest. 

These pieces were intended for devotional purposes and therefore put at the beginning of the Granth. 
Then follow : 

Y. The Rags, which form the body of the Granth. 


Sin Bag (firet cTPTJ- 


Bag Gaud (TPJ 313). 


Bag Majh (OTq w*)- 


Bag BamkalT dl^»l)- 


Bag Gaun (3T3J 3T@wY)- 


Bag Natnarain (*3T3TJ AiAldlHiA). 


Bag Asa (THT *HTTT)- 


Bag MalTgaura ^TR^JlG^T). 


Bag Gujn (THT JJ-H<ft). 


Bag Maru ("JT3J *TT?)- 


Bag Devgandharl (g-RT 3<^<HMI<ft)- 


Bag TukharT (TRT 3¥T^)- 


Bag Bihagra ("ETW ffcWJUMl). 


Bag Kedara ("J[3j 3^TcJT)- 


Bag Yadhansu ("3T3T CcaJO*})- 


Bag Bhairau BcjG). 


Bag Sorathi (BTJJ £|<jf3)- 


Bag Basantu (BPT 


Bag DhanasarT 


Bag Sarang (THT TT^T)- 


Bag Jaitsiri (TRT %3fiTTt)- 


Rag Malar (UT3T >4*6ld)- 


Bag Todi (TRT 


Bag Kanara (TT3T oMAffO- 


Bag Bairan (TPT d V?f\)* 


Bag Kalian (TPT 3~fe*HT^X 


Bag Tilang (^tjt f3*?J|). 


Bag Prabhata ("3T3J V3T3T)- 


Bag Suhl C3T3T ^jrfV). 


Bag Jaijavanti (TTJT Tltu^aW 


Bag Bilavalu (^T3T fattl^*). 

The verses 

of the different Gurus have been distributed into 

theae fore-mentioned Bags, apparently 

without any leading principle, as hardly any verse ia internally connected with another. The name 
of the Bag is therefore a mere auperscription, without any reference to ita contents. At the con- 
clusion of a Bag frequently some sayings of one or more Bbagats are added, which seem to have 
been selected in the same arbitrary way as chance might offer them. No syatem nor order is there- 
fore to be looked for in any of the Bags. In the first four Bags the moat important matter waa 

1 There were originally only thirty Rags; the last, Rag Jaijavanti, was composed by Teg-bahadur, and 
contains only four verses. 


collected and they are therefore also comparatively of tlie largest compass ; the following minor 
Bags seem to be a second gathering or gleaning, as materials offered themselves, no attention being 
paid to the contents, but only to the bulky size of the Granth. By thus jumbling together what- 
ever came to hand, without any judicious*selection, the Granth has become an extremely incoherent 
and wearisome book, the few thoughts and ideas, that it contains, being repeated in endless variations, 
which are for the greatest part nothing but a mere jingling of words. 

VI. The so-called BMg or conclusion of the Granth. This portion contains : 

(1) . Some Sloks (four in number) by Nanak, and (sixty-seven) by Arjun. 1 

(2) , Three small pieces by Arjun (^XMTj qpsf? and tjGfc|&). 

(3) . Sloks of Kablr. 

(4) . Sloks of Shekh Fand. 

(5) . Savayye (Savaie) of Arjun. 

(6) . Savayye of the Bhatts (or Bhats) : 

(a). Panegyric of Guru Baba Nanak. 
(5). Panegyric of Guru Angad. 
(<?). Panegyric of Guru Amar-das. 

(d) . Panegyric of Guru Ram-das. 

(e) . Panegyric of Guru Arjun. 

(7) . Sloks in excess of the Yars, by Nanak. 

(8) . Sloks by Amar-das. 

(9) . Sloks by Bam-das. 

(10) . Sloks by Arjun. 

(11) . Sloks by Teg-bahadur. 

(12) . A piece called MundavanT (H-£l«£c^) by Arjun, consisting of two Sloks. 2 

(13) . Bag-mala (an enumeration of the Bags with the Baginis) by an unknown author. 

1 They are called in the Granth ^^0? SftJJTfapl'j whence some rashly concluded, that they were really 
Sanskrit Shloks. But this is a great mistake. Neither Nanak nor Arjun understood anything of Sanskrit, 
and these verses are therefore composed in the usual Panjabi of those days. What is meant by ^TvTHfc£^> 
see p. exxxiii, Remark. 

2 Some. copies of the Granth insert before or after the Mundavani some Sloks of Nanak (Mah. I., which 
Cunningham, p. 371? strangely interprets by : " Hymn of the first woman or slave") ; a Ratan-mala (or rosary 
of gems) belonging- to the Rag Ramkali, by Nanak ; and a short story (in prose) of Rah-mukam Siv-nabh, 
Raja (of Ceylon), by an unknown author* 





Fhom the foregoing survey of the various contributors to the Granth it may be easily inferred, that 
the idiom of the Granth is not the same throughout; it varies considerably according to the time 
or the province in which the author lived. Though the Granth, as regards its contents, is perhaps 
the most shallow and empty hook that exists, in proportion to its size, it is, on the other hand, in 
a linguistic point of view, of the greatest interest to us, as it is a real treasury of the old Hindu! 
dialects, specimens of which have been preserved therein which are not to be found anywhere else. 
The Granth contains sufficient materials, which will enable us to investigate those old and now 
obsolete dialects, from which the modern idioms have had their origin, so that the gap, which 
hitherto existed between the older Prakrit dialects and the modern languages of the Arian stock, 
may, by a careful comparative study of the same, be fairly filled up. It is to be regretted, that the 
oldest and therefore most interesting specimens of the language of mediaeval India are comparatively 
few in number. 

Very likely the oldest writer in the collection of the Granth is JVamdev, who is alse considered 
the oldest MarathI poet; he lived about the fourteenth century of our era, though we have no materials 
at hand, by which we might be enabled to fix his time more accurately. We know from the Bhakta- 
mala, that he was a native of the Dekhan and lived in the town of Pandharpur (in the Bhakta-mala 
written T^^TT^ and *T^T*JT)> ce i Q g the illegitimate child of a daughter of Yamdev and by pro- 
fession a calico-printer (not a tailor, as Molesworth will have it). The peculiarities of the modern 
MarathI are already visible in his compositions, though not in such a degree as in the verses cited 
by Molesworth in his Marathl-English Dictionary, Introduction, p. xxvi, so that the suspicion arises, 
that either the verse3 of Namdev, as far as received into the Granth, were adapted to the Hindu!, 
or that the verses cited by Molesworth were adapted to the modern MarathI. In order to illustrate 
his style and its peculiar grammatical features, we subjoin here a few lines taken from Bag Gauri 
(Transl. p. 489) : 

VTTT7> 3TTtoTO II TR TO 7^5% II ^JT@ II 

3TTt & afferr fro ?fwr ftmnfa niiro srator^ h 
&3t; TiftR tT7? t@ wfe 3§ ii t@ Trfe ^ffo to tto ^ 11 ^ 


"By God stones are caused to swim. How should not men by the order of Ram cross? 
(1). Seizing the raft the whore, the hump-hacked woman without beauty, the hunter and Ajamal 
were brought across. 

The man who struck the feet (of Krishna) became emancipated. I am a sacrifice to the man, (who) 
utters : liam! " 

"We have perhaps in the inflectional a of MarathI nouns of the first declension, but the Instrumental 
case-affix % is not yet added (nor is it in Hindul), the Formative as such serving as Instrumental, 



the same as in SindhT. is the MarathT efi^f , how? In 3T<jt*Hf^ we have a participle past 
passive, formed by the affix z-ale, the conjunctive vowel i of the modern MarathT being lengthened 
to l } and at the same time a short «-sound added = cfxf^%; but by the side of such formations 
we find also the regular Hindu! form of*tho participle past, like The pronoun of the first 

person singular is XJ%, hau, and not as now in Marathi. Nearly all the postpositions are still 
wanting, so that pieces of this kind are extremely difficult to translate. 

About the same time lived the Brahman Trilocan, who was likewise an inhabitant of the 
Dekhan, as may be safely concluded from the peculiarities of his style, which resembles very 
closely that of Namdev. We subjoin here a sample of the same taken from the Sir! Rag (Transl. 
p. 127, III. IV.): 

WfS*HT ^IT TST frrofa' z\fVJHl Tit TTtftnf^ II 3 

3vT W3 ^55 ttfa TUTJTZ&t fS7> nfRRSt "3TT^ 7> ^nfe II 8 

(3) . On a difficult, terrible road thou must go, 0 man, (whither) sun and moon do not penetrate. 
The infatuation of the Maya is then forgotten (by thee), when thou hast left behind the world. 

(4) . To-day he has become manifest in my mind, Dharm-rau has been seen. 
His very strong hands break in pieces (men), before him I cannot abide. 

We meet here likewise with the forms 3TftttR5> VM^H^ by the side of ^fs*HT> which we have 
noticed in Namdev. 

Jaidev (Jayadeva), though the time in which he lived has hitherto not yet been fixed with 
certainty, belongs in all likelihood also to the fourteenth century. Wilson, who enumerates him 
with the disciples of Ramanand, is apparently mistaken, as the Bhakta-mala nowhere states that 
Jaidev was a disciple of Ramanand, which it certainly would have done if any tradition to this 
purport had been current among the Yaishnavas. But we consider it equally wrong, if Lassen (Gita- 
govinda, Prolegomena, p. iv.) is inclined to date back the Gita-govinda to the twelfth century of 
our era (about 1150); against such a supposition his own Prakrit verses, as preserved in the Granth, 
speak too strongly, which decidedly bear the stamp of a later age. Only the following piece of 
Jaidev, which is a curious mixture of Sanskrit and the vulgar tongue, is contained in the Granth 
(Rag Gujrl, Sri Jaidev) : 

xre^Tft *^fvpr ^fs nrrft: st^ -33 11 

TR 7TW -*7y3$ II Xlf;r nffij3 33Vf&ti II 

7; *kfs tT * tTtto wift sfsnf 11 btt^ ii 

ffe^f*? Wft ifHT^ tTH ^3 fsj3 « 

^ f3 *nrf^w vh*t fire 11 * 
&3Tft f^Frfs varfip tt ftf^ft wrens 11 

Tjfir S3T3 f^tr fAo3^wi fn^ sra^f^r wtt ii 

Wt* f# Wt* f$ fi? 3W II 8 

atflfc atf^SIS rrfV 7^ WF& f^Tfq if* II 
%^ WTffff" *tf £ 3^ f5 *TTO *T3 II M 



(1) . The primeval Spirit (is) incomparable, 1 first, steeped in love. 
Joyful, 2 far from nature, though in thought penetrating all. 


Only the name of Ham is beautiful. Utter (the name) consisting of the essence of nectar ! 
By the remembrance of which 3 there is no burning 4 (in the heart), neither fear of birth, the 
trouble of old age (and) death. 

(2) . (If) thou desirest the discomfiture 5 of Tama and the others, (know) : fame (and) welfare (are to) 

the doer of meritorious works. 
In the present, past and future time he is equally continuing, 6 he is extremely propitious and 

(3) . Greediness and the other (vices), looking upon another's wife (and) what (is) twofold conduct 

( = duality). 

Having given up all bad works flee to the asylum of the discus-holder, 0 foolish one ! 

(4) . Devotion to Hari (must be) (in one's) heart only; what is the use of works (and) words? of 

Tog, of sacrifice, of alms and austerity ? 

(5) . Mutter : " G-ovind, Govind," 0 man ! this is the step to every perfection. 

Jaidev (says) : the coming 7 of that (man) is fruitful, 8 all (his) regeneration is gone. 

Of Rumanand also, who lived towards the end of the fourteenth or the beginning of the fifteenth 
century, one piece only is contained in the Granth. It is found in the Hag Easant and runs thus: 

W5 tTTC^ ^ uffa sib ii 5tht f^5 x^y?; 3fsr§ ifar 11 ^rrrf 11 

^7 *fe^TT W> SV\ II Wf*r #275 WTT W TOR || 

T£T*r Trfe ii * -s^m wrf^ zrz vt>x\ *rrfir 11 q 
W ^T^tnt 3TT to w?J II 3" vfo Tftr§ t t?^ fmrx II 

VHT* ^¥ ^fS II "f ^JT T@ -y\TZ\nt tT# ^JT * uft II ^ 
*rf3 TO H "^feUT^ 3H II frit?? fz&& 5TTt II 

ftto&z; ^r3 ii ara srr srrt sfe 11 3 

"Where shall it be gone, Sir? colour is applied to (my) house (= body). 
My reasoning faculty does not move, my mind has become lame. 

1 All the MSS. read : ^fLf^ but there must be some mistake or another in this word; very likely it 
is miswrttten for: *H7TfifH (Sansk. ^I«rq*f, u changing with o, and a with i, as iu many other instances). 

2 VcHTC W5, being excessive joy ; ^3 is shortened from 

3 must here (as in v. 3) be separated from TOTH^J; it is the Prakrit relative neuter tJ, but the 
Anusvara is very frequently not written in the Granth. 

4 instead of ^f3> from the Sansk. root ^, ^ftf^T> intransitively used here. 

5 WT^T, discomfiture = Sansk. Tr^T*R> v beiug frequently exchanged for the semi-vowel y. 

6 TOjfspH (sam-abya) = Sansk. ^ and ^r^j, in later Hindu! ^ff. 

" nnfS^" ( = *HTfe*HT) , the participle past used as a substantive : the coming. 

a *TfZ= Sansk. blown, budded (like a flower) - fruitful, bearing its fruit. It is an idiomatic 

expression: "the destiny of a man buds," i.e. it comes to its fuIGlmeut. 



(1) . One day excessive joy has sprung up (in my) mind, 
Having rubbed very fragrant sandal-perfume 1 (on my body). 
The Brahm, (which) I go 2 to worship, 3 

That Brahm was shown (to me) by the«Guru (as being) in (my) very mind. 

(2) . "Where one goes, 4 there (in) water (and) stone 
Thou art remaining brimful, being contained in all. 
All the Yedas (and) Puranas I have searched tbrough. 5 
One should go there, if he is not here, (they say). 

(3) . 0 true Guru, I am thy sacrifice, 

By whom all my restless 0 errors were cut off. 

The Lord of Bamanand, Brahm, is sporting (in all). 

The word of the Guru cuts off crores of works. 

The idiom of Bamanand is already that of the old Hindu! and in no particular differing from the style 
of Kabir and his co-disciples, who in their numerous writings have delivered to us the language 
spoken in tbose days in the valley of the Gauges. 

Nanak and his successors in the Guruship were all Panjabis, but it is remarkable, tbat their 
idiom does not differ so much from the Hindui of those days in a grammatical point of view, as the 
modern PanjabI does from the Hindi. 7 But we must not rashly conclude from this fact, that the 
PanjabI of those days was essentially the same as the Hindui, and that the peculiar grammatical 
forms of the PanjabI were developed in a later period, for such an assumption is disproved by the 
old Janam-Sakhl of Baba Nanak, which is written in the regular Panjabi, a dialect which differs 
considerably from the Hindui, as it uses pronominal suffixes and other grammatical forms, which 
are quite unknown in Hindui and only to be found in the cognate Sindhi, to which it approaches 
far more than to the Hindui. It is therefore almost certain, that Kanak and his successors employed 
in their writings purposely the Hindui idiom, following the example of Kabir and the other Bhagats, 
who had raised the Hindui to a kind of standard for religious compositions, and by employing which 
they could make themselves understood to nearly all the devotees of India, whereas the proper 

1 ^*X7 ( or ^^TT)> a perfume, made of sandal-wood, therefore generally; tj^,A ^*HT- 

2 ^IC^> first person of the present tense: I go or use to go ; the older form of the verb is tMC&cM j later 

3 IJ-HA ^P>T <nf2' i|Py is an old Hindui Dative-postfix (shortened from ^Tf%)j identical with the 
modern cf^ or rTT^- 

4 rl iyl*>N the old Prakrit passive, which is still in frequent use in the old Hindui. 

5 ^rfej participle past conjunctive of ^fgcVT (Hindi *TT)> to out f° r * 

6 ffcWW) Sansk. f%c^; in Hindui fi|^66 has the sense of "uneasy, restless" (not of "imperfect, 
deficient," as in Sanskrit). 

7 In order to prevent any mistake as to the nomenclature, we add here, that we understand by the old 
Hindui the idiom of the old Bhagats, such as Kabir and his contemporaries ; by Hindui the later Hindui of the 
times of Govind Singh and thereabout, as this idiom differs already in many essential points from the old 
Hindui. By Hindi we mean the modern idiom since the beginning of our century and as spoken at present. 
There is of course no essential difference between Hindui and Hindi as regards the signification of the two 
adjectives, "hindui" being derived from " hindu" a Hindu, and "Jiindi" from the Arabic noun "hind" 
India, but the two adjectives are very convenient to designate different periods of the development of the 
language of the Hindus in Hindustan proper. Where we do not find it necessary to distinguish between the 
older and later Hindui, we comprehend the language of both periods under the general term Hindui, in con- 
tradistinction to the modern Hindi. 



Panjab! was only intelligible to tbe people of the Panjab. The idiom of the Sikh Gurus however 
is not the pure Hindu!, but a sort of mixture of both dialects, as they frequently introduce pro- 
vincialisms, which give a peculiar colouring to their diction, but at the same time bring it nearer 
home to the understanding of their countrymen. The Grranth of Govind Singh is composed in pure 
Hindul, as he received his early education in Hindustan, but it has thereby become nearly unintelligible 
to the Sikhs of the Panjab, to whom it must be translated, if anything is to be explained to them 
from it. 

It would exceed the limits of these remarks, were we to enter more fully into the peculiarities 
of the idiom of the Granth, which can only be treated in a grammatical analysis of the same. A few 
hints, which in a great measure also refer to the old Hindu!, may suffice here. The general impression, 
which we receive from the study of the Granth, is, that the grammatical forms of the language are not 
yet firmly fixed, but are rather in a state of transition, the genius of the language apparently endeavour- 
ing to build up a new structure out of the ruins of the Prakrit, which had gone to pieces. We find 
therefore a number of forms promiscuously employed, as usage had not yet decided for a few select 
ones. This is manifest not only in the inflexion of the nouns, for which a new way had to be 
found out, the old Prakrit terminations having almost totally been lost in the progress of time, 
but also in that of the verbs. 

As regards the declensional process of the nouns, most of them have still a vocalic termination 
(w, 6", i), which is very closely to be attended to, as the right understanding of a sentence frequently 
depends on the vocalic termination of the noun or nouns. In later MSS. the final vowels are 
frequently dropped, as the copyists had no longer a right understanding of their grammatical relation, 
or carelessly exchanged, so that a sentence becomes easily confused thereby. This is especially the 
case with the Locative singular, whioh ends in i (if the noun in the Nominative terminate in «), and 
the Ablative singular, which may likewise end in i (in the modern Panjab! in l), where the final vowel 
in inferior copies is not seldom either dropped altogether or confounded with " w," which represents 
the Nominative. The Nominative plural is variously formed and in like manner the Formative 
singular and plural, the details of which we must forego here. 

The case-affixes and postpositions 1 are manifold, as may be expected at the time of the recon- 
struction of a shattered language. In the Genitive we find the affixes fn* hi and Jtffif which 
are peculiar to the old Hindu!, and the infleoted affixes 57T ha, ^t3T herd, ^Jf ed, y{\ Jd, f[ rd (also 
jff r")j the Panjab! da, and even the Sindh! \ sandd. In the Dative the postpositions SJ"© 1 kau t 
o? ho, 5 hu (M), hahu, 37J hah, t$ hai, 2 ?f hhe (as in Sindh!), <TTfjJ thai, bjl'fA thdni, % thai; 
special Panjab! forms are nan, 5 nu (wS), 7? no; the Genitive oase-affix ft" hi is, as in 

Prakrit, also used for the Dative, and peouliar to the old Hindul. Tho Aecusative is either identical 
with the Nominative or expressed by the Dative case-signs. In the Ablative we find the affixes 
ftj hi, 7J hu, 7[ hu } "& 6, *K an, fg i, TjY i, and the postpositions fspHTT k'ahu, ^ du, M I'c^O thdvahu, 
Ejf tho (=tho), % tax, if so (=s§), etc. In the Locative singular we meet with the affix i, in the 

1 Case-affixes we call those remnants of the old Prakrit case-terminations, which are still usually con- 
nected with the noun itself; postpositions we call those adverbial nouns, which are now employed to make up 
for the cases and which are still written separately. To the affixes we must also add k& an d its deriva- 
tives, though they are now always written as separate words, as they are originally an affix (Sansk. ^) and 
inflected (for they turn the noun, which they follow, properly into an adjective). Under " case-signs" we com- 
prehend both affixes and postpositions. 

2 That the Hindi and Hindustani he (^ ^) is really a Dative-postposition, is sufficiently borne out by the 
Hindu!; some disputed points in Hindustani grammar are to be settled accordingly, irrespectively of the 
decisions of the RIaulavis, who have no idea of the old llindui. 



Looaiive plural with the affix I (now pronounced !), or the Locative is expressed by means of 
postpositions, as : ^ mai, *rrfvT mahi, f%f^J vici, etc. The Instrumental is generally expressed by 
the Formative (without a case-sign) or by the affix which outwardly coincides with the Ablative. 
But the postpositions and the case-signs generally are as yet very sparingly used, the noun is usually 
put in the Formative, and the reader has to find out for himself its grammatical connexion ; in many 
sentences not a single case-sign is to be met with, so that the translation can only be made according to 
conjecture. This unsettled state of the language often occasions very great perplexities. 

The verb is as yet very little developed. Generally three tenses only are in use : the Present 
(in the later Hindu! the Present indefinite and in Hindi the Subjunctive), 1 the Preterite, and the 
Future. Of the Imperfect I have found only a few curious forms; the Perfect and Pluperfect, 
which very seldom occur, are compound tenses. 

The Present tense offers a great variety of personal terminations, many of which coincide, the 
Anusvara being generally dropped in the writing of the Granth, so that the person can in many 
instances only be found out by the context. The Future offers two forms, one of which is made up 
by the terminations *TT, STfa, etc., corresponding to the Prakrit terminations WTpTj Wf^[> 
etc., and the other of which is a compound tense, as now used in Hindi and Hindustani (see my 
Sindhi Grammar, p. 291, annotation). 

The Preterite is made up either by means of the participle past alone or by personal termina- 
tions added to it (as in Sindhi). 

There is still a regular passive voice for the Present, Imperative, Future, and partly also for 
the Preterite, which has been lost already (with a few exceptions) in the later Hindu!, which shows 
the first attempts to make up for it by having recourse to a composition. 

There is not only a participle present active, formed by the terminations t( anto" " ant" " atu" 
u aty y "ta" or " dd," but also a participle present passive, formed by the termination "tatu," 
"tatP The participle past offers still the older form " t a " (to iau); many are also directly taken 
over from the Prakrit without any further assimilation. * To this must be added, that pronominal 
suffixes are not unfrequently connected with the verb, especially in the Preterite, more rarely so with 
the noun. In Sindhi this is still very common and quite a peculiar feature of this idiom, but in 
the later Hindu! only a few traces of it are to be met with, and in Hind! and Hindustan! it is 
altogether unknown. 

From these few remarks it may be inferred, that the idiom of the Granth is well worth a closer 
investigation, as we shall thereby get a clearer insight into the formation of the modern North-Indian 
vernaculars, the peculiarities of which cannot be fully laid open without going back to the source 
from which they have sprung, and which has fortunately been preserved to us in the Granth. 

The whole Granth is written in verses, as the Hindus have very little taste for prose-compositions. 
The artificial measures of Sanskrit poetry are all discarded ; the metres that are used in the Granth, 
are either old Prakrit metres or later inventions, perhaps of the poets themselves. There are 
two leading principles in Hindu! poetry, viz.: the verses are measured by quantity only, i.e. by the 

1 This mood (though originally the Present tense) is in our modern Hindi and Hindustani grammars 
generally called the Aorist, which is quite an inappropriate appellation. In native Hindustani grammars it is 
designated by ^JJj*, as it in some way corresponds to the Arabic which De Sacy translated by 

Aorist. Thence it was applied also to the Hindi and Hindustani. But it was quite lost sight of that the 
technical terms of Arabic grammar cannot be properly applied to the Hindustani verb, which in its conjuga- 
tion is totally different from the Arabic verb ; and if the Maulavis term this tense or rather mood (as it is 
now) gjLoi, the Arabic not offering a more suitable appellation, we at any rate must not render it by 
"Aorist," as this term conveys a different meaning altogether. 



the number of moras (not by number of syllables or fixed feet), and they must rhyme together; the 
metres are therefore all so-called matra chandas (regulated by quantity), as they are intended for 
singing 1 or a rhythmical recitation. The greatest attention is paid to the rhyme, as in our modern 
poetry; and if the poet cannot command it readily, the last word is tortured into it and thereby 
frequently so disfigured, that its original form is hardly recognisable. 

It cannot be our object here to give a full description of all the metres employed in the Granth, 
as this would carry us beyond the limits of a preliminary discourse ; we must content ourselves with 
laying down here the general rules and giving a survey of the most common metres, which will enable 
the student to find out by scanning those fancy metres of some poets, to which no name has been 
given in the Granth, as very likely no name was known for them, whereas the usual metres are 
always indicated by their appropriate names. The Sikhs themselves seem now to have lost all 
knowledge of the metrical laws of the Granth, for I never met a person who could give me the 
least clue to them, and the learned Brahmans disdain to read the Granth. 

The length of the syllables is determined by allotting to a short syllable one matra or kala, 
i.e. mora, and to a long syllable two matras. A syllable is long either by nature (as a, % u f e, 5, 
ai, au) or by position (when a naturally short vowel is followed either by a double or a conjunct 
consonant); but if the second part of a conjunct consonant be a semi-vowel, a Jc, p i b or h } the pre- 
ceding vowel may remain short, if the metre requires it. On the other hand, a single consonant 
may be doubled, in order to gain a long syllable; this is especially the case, if it be originally 
doubled in Prakrit; for instance f3*T tisu may also be pronounced tissu (Prakrit f?JW)- To tnis cir - 
cumstance especial attention must be paid, as the doubling of a consonant is never indicated in. 
the writing of the Granth, not even in such cases where in common pronunciation it is still doubled. 

A diphthong may again be severed into two short syllables, as ai = a-i, au = a-u, wherever 
required by the metre. A naturally long vowel may be pronounced short ; this is especially the 
case with e and 6, which may be considered as anceps, as in Prakrit ; even the diphthongs ai and au 
may be rendered short under the pressure of the metre. On the other hand, the poets take the 
liberty of lengthening a short vowel, whenever necessary for the sake of the metre, not only at 
the end of a verse or hemistich, but also in the midst of a verse, though this is comparatively 
seldom the case. Two vowels may be contracted into one, especially % with a following vowel, * 
being changed in this case into the semi-vowel y, as iu = yu ; even a short and a long vowel may 
be contracted, as ax to ai (short or long, as the metre may require it). 

Another point, which must well be attended to, is, that the pronunciation of the Hindu! differs 
greatly in poetry from that usual in prose. In prose the consonants are now frequently mute, and 
so always a final cousonant containing short a ; but in scanning a verse, no vowel is, as a rule, to 
be passed over; even a conjunct consonant must now and then be separated into its constituent 
parts (by the insertion of i or a), in order to gain the necessary number of matras. 


The Dohra, which is comparatively little used in the Granth, is a distich, the two verses of 
which rhyme at the end. Each verse consists of twenty-four matras, which are distributed into 
feet of 6 + 4 + 3 and 6 + 4 + 1 matras respectively, there being a caesura at the end of every 

1 In the Granth the key-note (ur^) is therefore generally added, as the verses of the Granth are still 
sung in the public worship of the Sikhs, especially in the Har-mandar at Amritsar, accompanied by stringed 
musical instruments. 

2 Sanskrit f^qsfjj Prakrit q[tfT; dohara (usually now pronounced dohra) is the diminutive of it. The 
Doha is an old Prakrit metre, as it is already found in Kalidasa's VikramorvasI (edited by Bollensen, 
St. Petersburg, 1846), p. 55 and p. 373. 



first hemistich. The syllables of a whole Dohra may therefore be from forty-eight short ones to 
twenty-three long and two short ones, the final matra- of each verse being always short. We 
subjoin here two Dohras of Teg-bahadur (Transl. p. 708), in order to show their scansion. 

WW WW— — WW W — W — W — W V — w 

bala chutkio | bandana | pare || kachu naho|ta upa|i|| 

sr? tttt^ nnr °%z ufo farf to ^oife 11 

kahu nanaka | aba o|ta hah || gaja jiu ho|hu saha|i || v. 53. 

tffaT w *rf^ 3f=x s?if 7> Ia^RjG *ttw 11 

sangi sakha | sabhi taji | gae || kou na nib|hyo sa|tha || 

WW — wwww www — — w — w w w — w 

kahu nanaka | iha bipa|ti mai || teka eka | raghu na|tha || v. 54. 

The Sorattha is the reverse of the Dohra, the smaller half preceding the longer one; it is very 
seldom met with in the Granth. 

3. — THE DUPADA, 1 

The Dupada is of very frequent occurrence in the Granth ; it consists usually of a distich of 
two verses, which rhyme at the end, each verse containing thirty-four matras, and being divided 
by a caesura into two equal hemistichs. The verse is distributed into feet of 2x6 + 4 + 5 + 2 Kalas, 
the last syllable always being long. We subjoin an example taken from Bag Gaurl, Mah. V., Sabd 115, 2 
(Transl. p. 291): 

din a na|tha ana|tha karuna | mai || sajana mi]ta pita | mahltari|a || 17 + 17 = 34 K. 

W7> ftr& jrftr TXTzn i nwz $3 tnfa #s#torr n 

www W V W — — WW — • W ™ ~ — WW WW ™w ww —*— 

oarana kavala | hirdai | gahi nanajka || bhai sagara | santa pa|ri utarlja || 17 + 17 = 34 K. 

68 K. 

The Dupada presents many varieties. One kind consists of only one verse, the two hemistichs of 
which rhyme together, and are also written as separate verses and counted as such. In this case 
the verse is scanned by 6 + 4 + 5 + 2 || 6+4 + 4 + 2-= 33 Kalas, or by 6 + 4 + 3 + 2 || 6+4 + 4 
+ 2 = 31 Kalas,, the last syllable always being long. Now and then we meet with Dupadas, which 
alternately contain 34, 33 and 31 Kalas. Usually a Eahau also is added, scanned in the same 
way, but counted as a separate verse. We subjoin here an example, taken from Bag Gaurl, Mah. V., 
Sabd 114 (Transl. p. 291): 

FPT 7 TO vp7> -grS\ II 3T§ f^TT 7> fWT$ II 3TTT@ II 

rama ko ba|lu pura|na bha|T || tate britha | na bia|pai ka|I || 
6+4+3 + 2 || 6 + 4 + 4 + 2= 15 + 16= 31 K. 

1 Sanskrit f^M^l . Colebrooke, Miscellaneous Essays, ed. Go well, vol. ii. p. 85, note 1, states, that the 
Dwipadika has in each verse twenty-eight matras ; but such a metre is not to be found in the Granth. 




£ £ t^5% TP? Trf3 WV\ II * * TOT iHTftT ^TFt II 

j5 ]5 eita|vai dl|su han mi\l || s5 so kar|ta a]pi kara|I || 
6 + 4 + 5 + 2 || 6 + 4 + 4 + 2= 17 + 16 = 33 K. 

fife? S?t 1{3 Vf3 W&Vt II ^T2W Trf3 II R 

nlndaka k! | prabha pati | gavl|l || nlnaka han | guna nir|bhau ga|I || 
6 + 4+ 3 + 2 || 6 + 4 + 4+ 2=15 + 16 = 31 K. 


The Tipada is essentially the same as the Dupada. It consists, as a rule, of a stanza of three 
distichs, to which generally a Eahau is added ; the rhyme generally varies in every distich. There 
is a considerable variety in the scansion, some distichs being scanned by 6 + 5 + 4 + 2 and 6 + 5 
+ 4 + 2 = 17 + 17 or 34 Kalas, others by 6 + 5 + 4 + 1 and 6 + 5 + 4 + 1 = 16 + 16 or 32 Ealas, 
the last syllable in this case being short. Wc subjoin a Tipada of Kablr, taken from Rag Gaurl, 
Kabir 19 (Transl. p. 464): 

kancana syu pI[Tai na|hi to|li || manu de ra|mu lla | hai mo|li || 

16+ 16 = 32K. 

iwtt vft trt nnf^T srfa rfTftnn 11 ^nffT *srfe 5for wfTwrr 11 3rnf n 

aba m5hi ri|mu apuna | kari jan|ya || sahaji subha|i mora | manu man|ya || 

17 + 17 = 34 E. 

brahamai kathi | kathi antu | na pai|a || rama bhagati | baithe gha|ri ai|a || 

17 + 17 = 34 K. 

srq; 3^fta vfs ftnnaft ii ^rf? ferT ^wt 11 $ 

kahu kabira | cancala ma|ti tia | gi || kevala ra|ma bhagati | nija bha|gl || 

17 + 17 = 34 K. 


The Caupada is in very frequent use in Hindu! poetry, the greatest part of the Granth being 
composed in this metre. In the Eamayan of Tulsi-das the Caupada is usually a stanza of four 
tetrastichs, each of which consists of two distichs, the two verses of each distich again always 
rhyming at the end. Each verse contains sixteen matras, the distich therefore thirty-two. There 
is a caesura in each verse after the sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth or tenth mora; the last syllable 
of a verse is generally long, but it may be also short. 1 We subjoin here a tetrastich from Tulsl-das 
(Hindu! edition of Tulsl-das Eamayan, Medical Hall Press, Benares, 1869), p. 329, last CaupaT: 

1 Colebrooke states, I. c. p. 85, that each verse (i.e. distich) contains thirty moments (seven times 4 + 2) 
and terminated by a long" syllable. This is wrong, as shown by the example quoted from Tulsi-das, the 
Ram ay an of whom he seems not to have examined himself. 



aye bharata | sanga saba loga || krisatanu srl raghu | bira biyoga || 

16 = 32K. 

HW\4 ^f%^ *jf% ^TRT^ II ^ TT*J ^ft *T«PI II 

— W — WW — V W W — W W — — WW WW WW w w — w w 

bamadeva basisbtha | muni nayaka || dekhe prabhu mahi dbari | dhanu sayaka ]| 

16 + 16 = 32 K. 

v t 

In the Granth also the Caupada consists, as a rule, of four tetrastichs, each containing two distichs 
of thirty-two matras severally, one or two Bahaus, consisting of one distich, being usually added 
to the stanza. We subjoin an example taken from Bag Gaurl, Mab. III., 1 (Transl. p. 222) ; 

Trfn faf^t vjfcj ^ ii nm* f3r*5T% 11 

guri miliai | hari mela hoi || ape meli | milavai so! || 16 + 16. 

^ht fHrfxr nn^ tTT§ ii tr^ 5^ wt% ii i 

v — w WWW WW — W ^ — — WW— — — — w w ^ — — 

mera prabhu sabha bidhi | ape janai |j hukanie mele | sabdi pachanai || 16 + 16. 
Trf5 3]? $ 3ffc 3f WrfS II f TT% *H 3f?T IWfe II 3UTf II 

WW WW — WW WW WW — — WW — — WW — w w — — 

Bati gura kai bhai | bhramu bhau jai || bhai rajai saea | rangi samai || 16 + 16. 

jrfH ftM ufn *rf?> 3ft wrfs 11 *jtt ^ 3T3T sftofe vrfs n 

w W WW— WW WW WWW— W WW W W — W — WW WW — w 

guri miliai | hari mani vasai subhai || mera prabbu bhara | klmati nahl pai |] 16 + 16. 

_ v w — www v — w -• w — — V W— W <— WW— w 

sabdi salahai | antu na paravaru || mera prabhu bakhse | bakhsanaharu ]| 16 + 16 K. 

But there are also many . Caupadas in the Granth consisting only of one distich and a half or even 
of one distich with one or two Bahaus added. In this case all the three verses of the tetrastich 
must have the same rhyme. E.g. Bag Gaurl, Mah. V., I. (Transl. p. 246) : 

fe* fqfrj Tf3 HTT 3Tlft II fsrf" VTXptift TTfo <TPT *KJiyl II ^UT@ II 

Hna bidhi kusala | hotu mera bhai || kyu paiai | hari rama sahai || 16 + 16K. 

www w ww V — w w — w— — V n V V — ww —w — 

kusala na grihi | men sabha maia || uee mandara | sundara chaia || 16 + 16 K. 

— o — w y www w — w— 

jhuthe lalaci | janamu gavaia || 16 K. 
Example of a tetrastich consisting only* of one distich, Bag Gauri, Mah. Y., XXIX. (Transl. p. 261) : 

^ n aifaG nrw 11 ^ sfir fs* f*rf ^ ii 9 

—9 y — V~ — — w w, — w w^y ^ — ww ww w ww w ^ w — 

jo paraio | sol apana || *}o taji chodana | tisu syu manu racana || 16 + 16 K. 


The Panjpada oocurs but rarely in the Granth. It consists commonly of five distichs, each 
of which has its own rhyme ; one or two Bahaus may be added to them. Occasionally the stanza 
contains also six distichs with one or two Bahaus in addition. There is a great variety of the 
Panjfpada, as nearly every distich differs from the other in the number of the matras; the distichs 


are scanned by 15 + 15, 16 + 16, 17 + 17, or even 20 + 20 Xalas, there being a caesura in every 
verse after the seventh, eighth, ninth or tenth mora. 

As examples may serve, Bag Asa, Mah. L, XXIII., a Panjpada consisting of six distichs with 
a Rahau after the first distich (Transl. p. 503) : 

Sfr ^STOII W 5^ 3rRJ TOR* %THJ II 1 

— W V — W — WW W — W — W W W W W W w w w v — w 

mohu kutambu | mohu sabha kara || mohu tuma tajahu | sagala vekara || 15 -f- 15 = 30 X. 

htt nra 3rnr ^ 11 *rrg ?mj ^% 11 hut# 11 

mohu aru bharamu | tajahu tuma bira || sacu namu ridai | ravai sarlra || 16 + 16 = 32 X. 

are ^Vfwr & w 3v snnRr ii thwj ?t ?rr ^rfe vt^t 11 m 

gura dlkhia le | japu tapu kamahi || namohu tutai | na thai pahi || 16 + 16 = 32 X. 
Panjpada of Xabir, Hag Gauri, XY. (Transl. p. 462) : 
ftT@ tR5 ^fe yMTd ^fs~§ ^7TT II W^T rTT^T TTf* 3V ^TT TTItTT II ^ 

jyu Jala chodi bahari | bhaio mina || puraba janama hau | tapa ka hina || 17 + 17 = 34 X. 
Panjpada of Kabir, Eag Gauri, L. (Transl. p. 474) : 

WWW V W V ^ — w VI — WW — — — vr — — vr w — w — vi v—— — 

pevakarai dina cari hai | sahurarai jana || andha Ioku na janai | murakha eana || 20 + 20 = 40 X. 


The Astpadl, which is very extensively employed in the Granth, is a stanza consisting usually 
of eight, and occasionally of more distichs, the two verses of each distich rhyming together at the 
end. There are also Astpadis, the strophes of which consist of two distichs or of three verses 
severally, in which latter case all the three verses must have the same end-rhyme. The single verses 
are scanned by 26 or 24 moras, with a caesura after the thirteenth mora, so that a distich contains 
either 50 or 48 Xalas. To every Astpadl one or two Rahaus may be added, which are never 

E.g. Astpadl, consisting of distichs, Sir! Hag, Mah. III., II. (Transl. p. 90) : 
^ SRT^ ^ 33 ^ f37? nnfz l| 

hau mai karma kamavade | jama dandu lagai tina Ii |] 13 + 13 = 26 X. 
fiT TlfS 3HJ ^ft * Qvft I 7jf3 fe^ &lfE || <h 

ji sati guru sevani se ubare | hari sitl Kva ill || 13 + 11 = 24 X. 
^ 50 X. 

WW W W WW — w w — w 

mana re gurmukhi namu dhiai || 13 X, 

53t fefW feST 3THHf3 ^TfiT *THTfE II 3IJTf II 

dhuri purabi kartai likhia | tina gurmati nimi samli || 13 +13 =26 X. 

*rf3 v^tfe t; nn^it 7rrf*r * ^tjt srf 11 

vinu sati gura pratiti na aval | nam! na llg6 bha~u || 13 + 11 = 24 X. 

to* ^ VT^Ft *tRr *t% *wrfe ii ^ 

supanai sukkhu na paval | dukha mahi savai samli || 13 + 11= 24 X. 

48 X. 

1 The CFiapai is not to be found in the Granth, but is much employed by Govind Singh. 



AstpadT consisting of two distichs severally, Sirl Rag, Mah. V., I., 1 (Transl.' p. 96) : 

ja kau muskala ati banai | dkBi koL na dei || 13 + 11= 24 K. 

lagu hoe dusmana | saka bhi bhajji khalle || 13 + 11= 24 X. 

sabbho bhajjai asara | cukai sabbu asarau || 13 + 11 = 24 K. 

citi avai osu parbrahamu | lagai na tatti vau || 13 -f 11 = 24 K. 

96 K. 

7. — THE SLOE. 

The Slok used in the Granth is not to be oonfounded with the epic Sanskrit Shlok consisting 
of 16 + 16 syllables, the word Slok being taken in the Granth in the more general sense of a stanza. 
The Slok of the Granth consists usually of one distich, but also of a triplet, or two or three distichs, 
which rhyme at the end, there being a caesura in each verse after the twelfth mora; the whole 
verse is scanned by 12 + 10 = 22 moras. 

E.g. Slok of Kablr I. (Transl. p. 671) : 

w — w w — w w w — w — — WW — w 

kablra men simaranl | rasna upari ramu || 12 + 10 = 22 JL 

_ v w — w w w y w w — — w w w — w 

adi jugadi sagala bhagta | ta ko sukhu bisramu || 12 + 10 = 22 K. 

44 K. 

Japji, Slok at the end of it (Transl. p. 13) : 

V^cS 3T? VT^ft fU5T W5T TOfe II 

WWW WW — w w — — — — w www _ 

pavanu guru pan! pita | mata dharti mahatu || 12 -|- 10 = 22 K. 

fc<j*i Trf5 ^fe ^TFt ^TfWT TOR* tT^T? II 

www' WW w WW in— — — www ^w w w ^ 

divasu rati dui dal , daya | khelai sagala jagatu || 12 + 10 = 22 K. 

w — w— w — w — — v ^ — w w — w 

oangyala buryala | vauai dharmu haduri || 12 + 10 = 22 K. 

karaml Ipo apnl | ke nerai ke duri || 12 + 10 = 22 K. % 

w — w w— 'W— w— wwww — y 

jini namu dhiaia | gae samakati ghali || 12 + 10 = 22 K. 

ninaka tc mukha ujale | keti chuti nali || 12 + 10 = 22 K. 

132 K. 

Remark. In the Bhog of the Granth (see p. ccxxi) there are some Sloks by Nanak and Arjun 
called M&zJ *<VJ*(f^J t- ^ s they are neither Sanskrit Shloks nor composed in the Shloka metre, 



the question is, what is meant by WTf^V The easiest solution would be to understand 

by it the Sanskriti metre, which is much used in Prakrit. In Prakrit poetry the Sanskriti is a 
stanza consisting of four verses, which together contain the number of 96 moras, each verse averaging 
between 18 and 28 moras. Yery likely by the word *iu+ff^3\ a variation of this metre is intended, 
as those Sloks in the Granth do not contain the same number of moras. 
The Slok of Mah. I. is scanned by 2x5 + 5 + 4 = 28 Kalas, as : 

lrf?f tffWT TTP£ II fa^ TfiTfiT WTR II 

pari pusta|ka sandhia | badam || sila. puja|si bagula sa|madham || 14 + 14 = 28 K. 

*jftr f i ftrfvns ?n5 11 firrc* fsrns* fwra 11 

mukhi jhuthu | bibhukana | saram || traipala | tihala bi|caram || 14+ 14 = 28 K. 
The whole first Slok contains five verses of this kind and consequently 5 X 28 = 140 Ealas. 

The ^frW *ivJ*^f^^ of Mah. Y. are scanned in a different way, as shown by the first Slok, 
which runs thus: 

*TT3T Vife fV3T *ffc3T f^Z WSTJ II 

katanca | mata | katanca | pita || katanca | banita | binoda | sutaha || 4 + 4 + 4 + 3 = 15v o n v 

4 + 4 + 4 + 3 = 15]- dU A " 

fT5 f03 3^ V$B i^T % || 

w — W — w — W y y y w ~ W 14 W — . v v — WW 

katanca | bhrata ] mita hi|ta bandhava || katanca | mohu ku]tamba te |] 4 + 3 + 4 + 4 = 15) 0>7 ir 

4 + 4 + 4 = 12/- 2,1 A * 

ST§H mrc* ^TXTTft -fvj f3WT3rf s&fs II 

katanca | capala ] mohani | rupam || pekhante | tyagam | karoti || 4 + 3 + 4 + 4=15» 9(7ir 

4 + 4 + 4= 12/- z/ 

*3$3 Wl ^JI^IA f^FTO* 7rnW *H^3 3^TT [| 

w — W — W W — W WWWW — WW — T* •— WW www 

rahanta | sanga | bhagvana | simaranu || nanaka | labdhyam | accuta | tanaha || 4 + 3 + 4 + 4 = 15\_ qn jr 

4 + 4 + 4 + 3=15j - dU A ' 

114 K. 

In this Slok the first and fourth, and the second and third verse rhyme together, and have also the 
same number of moras. ^Whatever be therefore understood by ^TJTQ'^I'j so much is evident, 

that they have no uniform metre, as the Sloks also vary considerably in the number of verses. 


The Dakhana is a oouplet of two verses, which rhyme at the end, each verse being divided 
by a caesura into two hemistichs after the twelfth mora, the whole verse containing 12 + 10 = 22 
Kalas, which may be distributed into Ganas of 5 + 4 + 3 || 3 + 4 + 3. As regards the number 
of moras, the Dakhana therefore coincides with the Slok (see sub. 7), the only difference being, 
that tile Dakhana is always restricted to one couplet. In the Granth the Dakhana is always found 
in connexion with the so-called Chant (see the next following metre), which it usually precedes. 

We subjoin two Dakhanas, from Sir! Rag, Chant I., 1, 2, Mah. Y. (Transl. p. 109) : 

*prnr *rr furt fa© ii 

hatha majhahu ma pin | pase km dldaru |] 12 + 10 = 22 K. 
$3 4JdcMift *53^ 7>T7>? T£TO II 

santa saranai labhane ] nanaka prana adhlru || 12 + 10 = 22 K. 

44 K. 



dhurl majanu sadha khe | sal thll knpalu |] 12 + 10 = 22 K. 

laddhe habbhe thokare | nanaka hail dhanu malu || 12 + 10 = 22 X. 

44 K. 

9. — THE CHANT. 

Chant (tt3) is in the Granth the name of a stanza, which consists of three couplets, each 
couplet having its own rhyme. Each verse of the couplet contains 28 moras, being scanned by 
8 + 8 + 8+4, with a caesura after the sixteenth mora, the whole couplet therefore 28 + 28 = 
56 moras. E.g. Sir! Kag, Chant, Mah. V., I. (III.) (Transl. p. 109) : 

f*rf" iftfs 1 $tf3 $3?; ^fc nn^§ ii 

carana kamala siu | piriti rlti || santana mani a|vae jiu || 28 K. \ 

^rffrn srf fmratfe w£\f3 tttt tstt ht^t iftf 11 [ 56 k. 

dutia bhau [ biprlti aniti || dasa naha bha|vae jiu || 28 ]£. ) 

dasa naha bhavae | hinu darsavae |] ika khinu dhiraju | kiu karai || 28 K. \ 

7>m fxTvprr 35 tT** fs^ vw&ft fw® 11 [56 k. 

_ w w — — WW WW — — y W W W V w ^ W — V*i w " 

nama bihuna | tanu manu hina || Jala binu machuli | jiu marai ]| 28 K. 

ww WW W — W —WW— — WW W V WW V W -.WW- ___ 

milu merai piare | prana adhare || guna sadha sangi mili | gavae || 28 K. 

7>[7& $ wrtft trrfn jh^t *rf?> sfo »iff^ wr^r n 

nanaka ke sua|ml dhari anugrahu |] mani tani anki sa|mavae || 28 K. 

168 K. 

10. — THE PAUKL 

The Pauri (V@wt) is on an average a stanza of five verses (though it may also contain more 
or less) which all rhyme together at the end, and are divided by a caesura into two hemistichs. 
In the Grranth the Paun usually follows after one or two Sloks and constitutes in connexion with 
the Slok or Sloks the so-called Far, which is therefore a mixed stanza. The verses of the Pauri 
are therefore, as a rule, scanned in the same way as the Slok, viz. by 12 + 10 moras, which may, 
as in the Dakhana, be distributed into Ganas of 5 + 4 + 3 || 3 + 4 + 3. 

We subjoin a Pauri taken from Sin Kag, Yar I., Mah. III. (Transl. p. 113): 

han ikk5 kartl Ikku |[ ikk6 dlbinu han || 12 + 10 = 22 K 

Tjf3 few i*R? II Tjft f3f3 *f3 II 

han ikkasai dlhai amaru || ikk6 han citti dhari || 12 + 10 = 22 K. 

1 Though the word is written here *\J^f3> "* must be read piriti, for the sake of the metre. 



^rfsr f3* ^Ft Trrftr 35 3# ^fn sfo 11 

han tisu binu k5I nahi ]| daru bhramu bhau duri kari || 12 + 10 = 22 K. 
ban tisai n6 ealahl jfi || tudhu rakhai bahari gbari || 12 + 10 = 22 E. 

tjT? Vtm ?> hfz ^fsww * Tsfs ^rfir 3-f fmn? sfo n 

ban jisa n5 hoi dayilu s5 || ban japi bbau bikhamu tari || 12 + 10 = 22 K. 


But the metre of the Paurl may also differ from that of the Slok, as in fact any metre may be 
optionally employed as well in the Slok as in the Pauri, so that the appellation of Slok and Pauri 
is quite indefinite and by no means implies a fixed or uniform metre. The safest thing is always 
to trace the metre by scanning. "We subjoin here an example of a Slok and Pauri taken from 
Rag Gaurl, Bavanakhn, Mah. V., XXXV. (Transl. p. 370), in order to proye this. The Slok is 
scanned by 25 moras, distributed into Ganas of 4 + 6 + 6 |[ 6 + 3 Kalas, whereas the Pauri is scanned 
by 32 moras, distributed into Ganas of 2x6 + 6 + 4 Kalas. In the PaurT the hemistichs are 
occasionally written separately (as verses) and rhyme then together, the end-rhyme being in this 
case dispensed with. 


7TPJ 7TR tTM TTfWT *W3fd 3f?T II 

nanaka | namu namu | japu japia || antari bahari rangi |[ 4 + 6 + 6 || 6 + 3 = 25 K. 

arrfH "Vft •@V$f*TOfT 7>[fj TTTH ^f?T II 

guri pur|ai npade|sia naraku |] nahi sadha | sangi || 4 + 6 + 6 ]| 6 + 3 = 25 K. 

50 K. 


7tt\ TZZfe Wfir % TTTTfY ll tTT ? ?tf7> 3fe 7>m TRT^ft II 

nanna nara|ki parahi te | nahi || Ja kai mani | tani nama ba|sahl || 2 x 6 + 6 + 4 = 32 K. „ , 

f^XTT^ ap^fk rT ifTVt II f%H* Wlwr VfU 7TT *%fg II 

namu nidha|nu gurmukhi Jo | japate || bikhu maya | mahi na 5i \ khapatl || 2 X 6 + 6,+ 4 = 32K. 

7ttWT3 75 U3T 37 577T II ^ TffH tTT 37T II 

nannaka|ru na hota | ta kahu ][ namu mantra | gun dino | J a kahu || 2x6 + 6 + 4 = 32 K 

fi^T f^TT* Vf3 nff^3 op || 3TT THT^ np^R: 3^ II 

nidha nidhana | hari amrita | pure |] tab a baje | nanaka anhada ] turf [| 2 x 6 + 6 + 4 = 32 K 



The Savayya is a stanza of different length, as it may contain one, two or three couplets, now 
and then even more. On an average the single verse is scanned by 2x8 + 8 + 8 + 8 or 32 moras, 
the caesura dividing the same into two equal hemistichs j but there are also verses of 8 + 8 || 8 + 6, 
8 + 8 || 8 + 5 and 8 + 8 || 8 + 4 moras. We meet also with verses consisting only of 8 + 8 + 8 



or 8 + 8 + 4 moras ; in this case the verse is not divided by a caesura. The couplets composing 
the Savayya have either one common or each their own end-rhyme, occasionally also the hemistichs 
rhyme together, especially when the stanza consists only of one couplet. 

An example of a regular Savayya is tine stanza quoted on page xcv, which we will transcribe 
here in order to show its scansion. 

pai gahe tumare | jabba te tabba [| te kacchu akha | tare 1 nahl anyo || 8 + 8 || 8 + 8 = 32 K. 
rama rahima 2 purana kurana || aneka kahe mata | eka 3 na manyo || 8 + 8 || 8 + 8 = 32 K. 
simrita sastara | veda sabhe bahu || bheda kahe hama | eka na janyo || 8 + 8 H 8 + 8 = 32 K. 

W — — — W w w w w — WW — WW — W W — WW— w 

sir! aspana 4 | kripa tumari kara || mai na kahyo sabha | tohi pachanyo || 8 + 8 || 8 + 8 := 32 K. 

128 K. 

We insert here a Savayya consisting of two couplets, each verse of which contains 8 + 8 || 8 + 6 
and 8 + 8 || 8 + 5 moras respectively. SavaTe referring to Mah. I. (Transl. p. 694) : 

gavau guna parama | guru sukha sagara || durta nivarana | sabda sare || 8 + 8 U 8 + 6 = 30 K. 
3rrefo Ufa fa «t5 ym\ ifaw fWI* xft || 

W ww — — w ww ww— ww — — v _ WW — w w — 

gavahi gambhTra | dhTra mati sagara || jogi jangama | dhyaau dhare || 8 + 8 || 8 + 6 = 30 K. 

gavahi indradi | bhagata prahiladi||ka atma rasu jini | janio || 8 + 8 || 8 + 5 = 29 K. 
srf%T SWT ym JTT^f" 3T3 ?>T7^ TTFT fiffe *Ufe"& II 

WW WWW WW W WW WW — WW — w ^ — w ^* w — w - ■ 

kabi kalasu jfasu ga|vau gura nanaka || raja jogu jini | manio || 8 + 8 |[ 8 + 5 = 29 K . 

118 K. 

12.— THE GATHA. 

The Gatha, of which only a small piece (of 24 stanzas by Arjun) is to be found in the Granth, 
is not the usual Arya metre, consisting of 7£ feet respectively and containing 30 + 27 = 57 Kalas, 
but comprehends a number of the many varieties of that metre, which have come into use in the 
later Prakrit and are destitute of the end-rhyme, for which they substitute an internal rhyme after 
the twelfth mora, though not always. Each stanza must therefore be scanned by itself, in order 
to determine the exact metre. We subjoin here as examples the first two Gathas. 

The first Gatha is a couplet scanned by 29 + 29 = 58 Kalas and called Vigiti, as : 


karpura | puhapa su|gandhl || parsa | manukhya | deham | malinam || 12 + 17 = 29 K. 

Wtu ^ttt Terror nrf%r ajH^ 11 

majji | rudhira dur|gandha" || ninaka | atthi | garbena | agyanano || 12 + 17 = 29 K- 

58 K. B 

1 In the text on p. xcv 3^ has fallen out. 

2 The original has only 7FT\H> but the metre requires ^ft*TT> which is also justified by the grammar, 
as it is the Vocative. 3 Iu the text there is a misprint on p. xcv, as ^ must be read instead of J>fXs7. 

* Though written in the original TffafTrVTTS, an i must here he inserted in the conjunct consonant sr, in 
iu order to get the necessary number of moras. 

5 As regards the distribution of the feet there are always 4 + 4 + 4 in the first Pada, in the second Pada 
we have 3 + 5 + 4 + 5, but in the fourth Pada 4 + 3 + 5+5. 





The second Gatha is a couplet scanned by 27 + 29 and- called Candrikd, as : 

v?iTf5 nuwwu ^Hr &w fir M^TJ II 

pramano | prajanti | akasaha H dipa | loa si | khandanaha || 15 + 12 = 27 K. 

gachena | naina | bharena || nanaka [ bina | sadhu na | sidhyate || 12 + 17 ~ 29 K. 

56 K 

The name of the metre is always added in the G-ranth, where it is a conventional metre, as stated 
already ; where it is not added, it is more or less a fancy metre of the poet. Such stanzas are 
designated by the Sikhs by the general appellation of u Pauri." 



The true name is the creator, the Spirit without fear, without enmity, having a timeless form, not 
produced from the womb. 1 

By the favour of the Guru ! 
JAPU. 3 

At the beginning is the True one, at the beginning of the Yug is the True one. 3 
The True one is, 0 Nanak! and the True one also will be. 


By meditation (and) meditation it (i.e. the knowledge of the True one) is not effected, though I 
meditate a hundred thousand times. 

By silence (and) silence it is not effected, though I keep on a continual absorption of mind. 

The hunger of the hungry does not cease, though I bind together the load of (all) the worlds. 4 

There may be acquired a thousand, a hundred thousand dexterities, not one goes with (at the time 
of death). 

How does one become 5 a man of truth (knowing the True one), how is the embankment of false- 
hood broken ? 

He who walks 6 in his (i.e. God's) order and pleasure, 0 Kanak! (and) with (whom) it is (thus) 

1 *HijAl> free from the womb (the same as JJf^T^), fh§= ^PT^> birth, production. Other forms are : 

2 The Japu is composed by Baba Nanak himself. The Sikh tradition runs thus : AIAqJ ifl' ^ 
afrrfZ f*Tlri Tft^ & Tpfe VcTET? 5 TTVrft tfdtf I \Tg\ ft- Guru Nanak had a con- 
versation with the Siddhs (JogTs) on the mountain Sumeru ; there the discourse of the Japu-ji was made. The 
Japu-ji is composed in so-called lf©fft (ladder), verses of unequal length, within which the rhyme may vary. 

3 Man! Singh comments on this : nftfe 7> 3"@ ^TT^ W5 *Wl tT@ -HJ|d JUfT 3"@ 
>J7TH : when there was as yet no beginning of the world, Brahm was true (existing) ; when the 

world was made, then also Brahm was true. 

4 "Ulftoftj etc. There are said to be fourteen cities, seven celestial and seven sub-terrestrial ones = the 
whole universe. fcJAcSI = fcJ&cM > v.a. to bind together (into a bundle). 

0 is a passive form, properly : it is become, not as the Sikhs now explain it : we become. 

6 ^3WcM is a verbal adjective, walking. 



JAPU 2—5. 


By (his) order are made the forms (of all things), his order (however) cannot be told. 
By his order are made the living beings, by his order greatness is obtained. 
By his order are the high and the low, by bis order pain and pleasure are set down. 
By his order some are pardoned, some are by his order always caused to wander about (in trans- 

Every one is under (within) his order, exempt from his order is no one. 

0 Nanak ! if one understand his order, he will not speak in self-conceit. 


One sings his (i.e. God's) power, if one has power (so to do). Another sings (his) liberality, if he 
knows (bis) sign. 1 

One sings his beautiful qualities and greatnesses. — Another sings a difficult thought of science. 
One sings : having made the body he reduces it to ashes. Another sings : having taken life he gives 
it again. ' 

One sings: he is known (manifest), (but) seen afar off. Another sings : being present he sees in 
the presence. 

There is no end of sayings and tellings. The story, story is told by crores, crores, crores. 2 
He (i.e. God) goes on giving, they taking become tired. For ages and ages they go on eating. 
The Lord goes on executing his order. 0 Nanak ! he expands unconcerned. 


True is the Lord, of a true name, in language his love is infinite. 8 

If they speak and ask, he gives, he gives, the Liberal bestows gifts. 

What shall again be placed before (him), by means of which his court may be seen? 

What speech shall be uttered by the mouth, which having heard he may bestow love ? 

Reflect at early dawn on the greatness of the true name ! 

From the destiny comes clothing, from his (favourable) look the gate of salvation. 
Thus, 0 Nanak ! it is known, that he himself is true in all (things). 4 


He cannot be established, he is not made. He himself is the Supreme Being. 6 

1 7?t*nH s.m. explained in the commentary by lot, destiny. The sense is apparently, that God may 
he known from the gifts he is bestowing. But jffan^ may also be referred to the Sansk. fif^HST = fit *t I H ^ > 
perception: "If he knows the perception (of it), if he is able to perceive it M (i.e. the ^Trf3)- 

2 The sense is : God is praised in various ways by innumerable people. 

3 An old Sikh commentary gives the following explanation of this dark passage : 7^\% V3?ta? 

3 Tre grefe f*T*f3 3TftWT ^fe frTf fFTf nfafo 3Tf ^TCT ^ fef f^f TOTfiT f& 
GfcJ^ tf> "All the other names of God are uttered in praise; as inside (in the heart) love dwells, so they 
praise him." 

4 Explained by the commentator: SfiJ nnfU *HTfV "He himself does and causes to be 
done all." 

fi fodtlA (fV^*0> an epithet of the Supreme Being, free from any stain or contact with the Maya ; 
pure, light. 

JAPU 6—8. 


By whom he is worshipped, by him honour is obtained. 0 Nanak, if the abode of virtues 1 he praised. 
If he be praised, heard, if love (to him) be kept in the mind. He 2 puts away his pain and brings 
comfort to his house. 

From the mouth of the Guru 3 (=Godf is the sound, from the mouth of the Guru is the Veda, in 
the mouth of fhe Guru it is contained (or absorbed). 

The Guru is Isar (Shiva), the Guru is Gorakh (Vishnu), Brahma, the Guru is the mother Parbatl. 
If I would know, would I not tell ? the story cannot be told. 

0 Guru ! let me know the One ! That the one liberal patron of all living beings may not he for- 
gotten by me ! 4 


1 bathe at a Tirtha, if I please him ; without pleasing him, what shall I do with bathing ? 
As much as I see created, what is obtained without destiny, 8 that I may take it ? 

In (thy) advice are gems, jewels and rubies, if I hear the instruction of the one Guru. 
0 Guru ! let me know the One, that the one liberal patron of all living beings may not be for- 
gotten by me ! 


If (one's) life last the four periods (of the world), or become tenfold more. If he he known in 
the nine regions (of the earth), and every one go with (him). 

If having got a good name he obtain renown and fame in the world. If his (God's) merciful sight 
do not come upon him, none will ask a word about him. 

Having made him a worm amongst worms (in hell) he puts the sin on the sinner. 6 . 

0 Kanak ! he who is void of qualities (=God) bestows favour, he grants favour to the virtuous. 

Such a one is not seen, who may bestow some favour on him (God). 


By having heard (his name) the Siddhs, 7 Blrs, Gods and Kaths 8 (have been made). By having 
heard the earth, the white (Bull), 9 the sky. 

_ By having heard the (seven) insular continents, the (seyen) Lokas, the (seven) Patalas. By having 
heard, death cannot affect (them). 

0 ITanak ! (his) worshippers are always happy. By having heard, pain and sins are annihilated. 

1 3T^t "ferr?* , " the abode of virtues or of (all) the qualities" is a frequent epithet of the Supreme Being. 

2 i.e. the ?|<S°? or worshipper. 

3 <JTcJ (or JJra) has in the Granth two meanings ; it may denote God, the Supreme Being (^1|<J ZV3), or 
the Guru (who is always considered as an Avatar or incarnation of the Deity). 

4 Said to be the petition of Angad. 

5 f%<? oTcPTT > without destiny. in the plural denotes the works of a former birth, and is therefore 
equivalent to destiny (the state of a man in this life depending on the works of a former birth). 

^ e The explanation of Man! Singh : sftet tifefz sftz HT3^3TT £*TT5T$ ^ VTVt ffe £ fe*T 
$Cc^5| " He will be made a worm amongst worms, also the sinners will blame hiin," is false, the 
subject being the same (God). 

? About the Siddhas or perfect ones, see Wilson's Vishnu Purana, p. 227. In ihe Granth Siddh denotes 
also a Jogi who has attained to supernatural power. 

8 JHT-f , the nine Naths or great Gurus of the Jogis. 

9 Man! Singh says: qQ& $ "@TTf^ M^3T ^ " Th e white bull stands, having lifted 
up the load of the earth." (*sR*T = ^3^). 


JAPU 9 — 14. 


By having heard (his name) Isar (Shiva), Brahma and Indra (have been made). By having heard, 
they praise with their mouth the mantra. 1 

By having heard, the skill of Jog (and in) their body the secret (of God). 3 
By having heard, the Shastras, the Smriti and the Yedas (are obtained). 

0 Mnak ! (his) worshippers are always bappy. By having heard, pain and sins are annihilated. 


By having heard (his name), truth, contentment and (divine) knowledge (is obtained). By having 
heard, the (merit of the) bathing of the sixty-eight Tirthas. 

By having heard and reading, reading (the name) they obtain honour (at the threshold of God). 
By having heard meditation comes naturally to them. 

0 Mnak ! (his) worshippers are always bappy. By having beard, pain and sins are annihilated. 


By having beard, the songs (stories) of the Avatars 3 (have been made). By having heard, (they 
have become) Shekhs, Pirs and Kings. 

By having heard, the blind find the road. By having heard, the unfordable (water or river) 
(becomes) fordable. 4 

0 Mnak ! (his) worshippers are always bappy. By having beard, pain and sins are annihilated. 


The state of him, by whom (the name) is minded, 6 cannot be told. If one tells it, he repents of it 

There is no paper, pen nor writer (to describe it). Sitting they reflect (on him, by whom the 
name) is minded. 

Such' is the name of the Supreme Being. If one mind it, he knows it in his heart. 


If one mind (the name), understanding and wisdom is obtained in the heart. If he mind (it), the 
knowledge of the whole world. 

If he mind (it), he is not struck in the face. If he mind (it), he does not go with Yama. 
Suoh is the name of the Supreme Being. If one mind it, he knows it in bis heart, 


If he mind (it), he is not hindered on the road. If he mind (it), he becomes manifest with honour. 8 

1 *rftf *?*6I0<5 "They sing or recite (in his praise) the mantra," i.e the iTJT^ft. 

2 Man! Singh says : 37? f^xJ *@7>T 3> V^T^cJ %^ *HlfSWT 9 " in t° their body the secret of 
God has come." 

a N]cN = Hindi ^n^pl (Sansk. ^fef^nST)) possessing all qualities, an epithet for an Avatar. J\JQ »- 
Sansk. *TTO, a song. 

4 WRJTTvT adj- unfordable (Sansk. *% + ^JTT^). 

5 eft 3Tf3"> a verv short expression. It must be thus constructed; TZjQ $ 3^ sft ^rfST) tne state 
of the name being minded. 

* i.e. at the threshold of God. 

JAPTJ 15, 16. 


If he mind (it), he does not anxiously go his way. 1 If he mind (it), he has connexion with piety. 
Such is the name of the Supreme Being. If one mind it, he knows it in his heart. 


If he mind (it), he obtains the gate of salvation. If he mind (it), he brings about the salvation of 
his families. 

If be mind (it), be is saved, and saves the disciples of (his) Guru. If he mind it, 0 Nanak ! he 
does not wander about in begging. 

Such is the name of the Supreme Being. If one mind it, he knows it in his heart. 


The saints (or pious) are chosen, the saints are foremost. The saints obtain honour at the threshold 
(of God). 2 

The Guru is the one object of meditation to the saints. The saints are lustrous at the gate of 
the Xing. 

If one tell (it), he may reflect. There is no counting of the works of the Creator. 
The Dhaul (white bull) is Dharm (religious and civil law), the son of Daya (mercy), by whom the 
rule of contentment is fixed. 3 

If one understand this, be becomes truthful (knowing the truth). 

How much is the load upon the Dhaul ? There is another earth and beyond another, another. Upon 
him what load is there and under him what power ? 

The (different) kinds of living beings, the names of the colours; the destiny of all, (in which) the 
pen (of God) has moved on. 

If one know to write this account, how much will be the written account ? 

How much is (his = God's) power, his beautiful forms? how much his bountifulness ? who knows 
the food (he is bestowing) ? 

The expansion (of the universe) is made from one tank. 4 From this Lakhs of rivers have been 

1 3pT 7* iJW* The Sikhs explain it in different ways. Man! Singh is altogether silent on this 
point ; hut another old commentary says : IHlSt ^ ^ffe flJ? ifa ^ ^ *J tfTT W57> #faf "©"Iffe 
tjftf 75T\ft "On the journey onwards there is a very heavy (difficult) road, on which one cannot 

ascend." But this is rather a Musalman idea. Hffl signifies also (in Sansk. "anxious/' and this seems to 
be required by the context. 

3 The commentaries explain the word "ife in different ways (understanding by it the jive elements, etc.). 
But it is certain, from other passages of the Granth, that \!pg signifies a holy, pious man. 

3 It is not quite clear what is meant hy this. Mani Singh says : x!t&> ^ *T3*T fi ^fSW Vcf 9 
VUtt *f^l=f "@M? ^TfWfT & W VZ3i ^g&T § 5 M°l-l\ ft WZ\ 
*!3"fer «73R!T ff Tf^WTB" "©^ § " The Dhaul is Dharm, the son of Daya, Isar has fixed the rule (line) on 
contentment. The water is tenfold more than the earth, but it cannot dissolve the earth. He who is content is 
truthful." The sense seems to be : The earth is supported, not by a white bull, but by a fixed law and the 
mercy of God, who has ascribed to all limits and bounds. 

4 This word (aJ^lG) is explained differently. Maui Singh says, it signifies "@*lfoJT3 (Om) ; another old 
commentator says, that o/^|6 is equal to ZS7= four masas : ^SJ" HflWf 1|6<A ^q?" H1*TT VTSt fef WTT 
Wffc §3" *TTR T Mdrfl tJTH *TT$ sft§ f3*T °l*£\Q TOTT "One masa of wind, one masa 
of water, one masa of fire, one masa of earth, these four masas were made ; a Kavau is one tank of It. 5 ' This 
best suits the context. 


JAPU 17-19. 

What is (thy) power? what (thy) thought? I cannot be sacrificed (to it) one time (i.e. I cannot 
come up to it). 

What is pleasing to thee, that is a good work. Thou, 0 Formless I 1 art always in safety. 


(There are) innumerable (silent) repetitions (of the name of God), innumerable reverences. 

Innumerable worships, innumerable austerities. 

Recitations of innumerable books and of the Veda with the mouth. 

Innumerable jogs (of those, who) remain secluded in their heart. 

Innumerable devotees, reflecting on the comprehension of his qualities. 

Innumerable truthful ones, innumerable bountiful ones. 

Innumerable heroes, eating iron in the face. 2 

Innumerable apply continual meditation in silence. 

What is (thy) power ? what (thy) thought ? I cannot be sacrificed (to it) one time. 
What is pleasing to thee, that is a good work. Thou art always in safety, 0 Formless ! 


(There are) innumerable fools, stark-blind ones. Innumerable thieves, living on the wages of 

Innumerable rulers, 3 who commit tyranny. Innumerable cut-throats, who commit murder. 
Innumerable sinners, who commit sin. Innumerable liars, who wander about in falsehood. 
Innumerable barbarians, who eat dirt. Innumerable calumniators, who put a load on (their) heads. 
Nanak expresses a low thought. 

I cannot be sacrificed one time (i.e. I cannot reach thee). 

What is pleasing to thee, that is a good work. Thou art always in safety, 0 Formless ! 


(There are) innumerable names,* innumerable places. (There are) innumerable, inaccessible, inac- 
cessible worlds. 

Innumerable speak (his praise), bending the head downwards. 5 

Of letters (consists) the name, of letters the praise (of the name). Of letters (divine) knowledge, 
songs, the metrical recitals of (his) qualities. 

Of letters (consists) writing, speaking, voice. 

In letters is the description of destiny. 6 By whom these (letters) have been written, upon him it 
(i.e. destiny) is not. 

1 Explained by the commentator : ^jr ^ ^rfvTS ^ " Thou art free from form and colour.*' 

2 *jf\T £TbT *TT<J is inverted, for the sake of the rhyme, instead of TIT3" ^tf "iron-eating in the face," 
an idiomatic expression for — exposing one's face bravely to the iron (in battle). 

8 **HTcJ is explained by g~T% rajas ; it may be = ^\ (its broken plur. is \^\). But it may also be 
translated : Innumerable give orders of violence. 
* Names, i.e. of created beings or things. 

6 f+ifdSI<J is adjective, bending the head downwards (and the feet upwards), as some Faqirs do. An old 
commentator (without name) says : fi|dd*6<iT§ Oly? W "With the head downwards they 

praise him." 

6 *i^\<)\ conjunction, instead of ijfifal fJj-^JT conjunction and separation (of the beings) = destiny. 

JAPU 20, 21. 


As lie commands, so, so it falls. As much as is created, so much is the name (of it). 1 
"Without a name there is no place. 

"What is (thy) power ? what (thy) thought ? I cannot be sacrificed one time. 

"What is pleasing to thee, that is a good work. Thou art always in safety, 0 Eormless ! 


If hand, foot, body and trunk become defiled. By washing with water the dust will be removed. 
If the cloth be polluted by urine. By applying soap it will be washed. 
If the intellect be defiled with sins. It is washed in the dye of the name (of God). 
There is no rehearsal of meritorious (or) sinful deeds. 2 Having done a deed, (man) puts it down in 
writing 3 and takes it with him (to Tama). 

He himself having sown will himself eat (the fruit). 0 Nanak ! by order (man) comes and goes.* 


Tlrthas, austerity, mercy, gifts given : if one obtain (their merit), it is the honour of a sesam-seed. 
If (the name of God) be heard, minded and loved in the heart : he bathes inwardly (as) at a Tlrtha. 
All virtues are thine, I have none. Without virtues being practised worship is not made. 
Be blessed ! is the speech of the Brahman. He is pleasing to the True one, (who has) always a 
desire in (his) heart. B 

"What is that season, what the time, what the lunar date, what the week-day? What those 
seasons, what the month, in which the forms have been created ? 

The time is not found out by the Pandits, though it be written out of a Puran. The time is not 
found out by the Kazls, though they write out a document from the Koran. 

The lunar date, the week-day, the Jog! does not know ; the season, the month, nobody (knows). 

"When the creator makes the creations, he himself (only) knows. How shall I tell (him) ? how 
shall I praise (him) ? how shall I describe (him) ? how shall I know (him) ? 

0 Nanak ! from the saying of (others) 6 every one says (it), one is more clever than the other. 
Great is the Lord, of a great name, by whom creation is made. 0 Kanak ! if one thinks (anything 

is made) by himself, he, having gone onwards (to the other world) will not be honoured. 7 

1 The sense is : every created thing has its name and thereby its own destiny. God alone is Hf^Vf , 
i.e. not subject to destiny. 

2 religious merit by good actions ; \fc?\ is the Gen. Plur. 

s The Sikh tradition is, that every man writes down (unknowingly) all his acts and deeds, and will present 
the tablet of them to Dharm-raja (Yama) when dying. 

4 He comes and goes, i.e. man is subjected to transmigration by reason of his former (bad) works. 

6 The Sikh commentaries do not know what to make of these words. The sense seems to be this : — The 
Brahman, when asking for a gift, says *fnff*T5 (^f^0> Blessed I As men give gifts willingly when thns 
addressed by a Brahman, so God is also pleased when there is always desire in the heart to praise him and 
to ask from him. The following verses are not logically connected with the preceding. Nanak is in the 
habit of rambling from one thought to another without any attention to logical coherence. 

6 *HTtrfe *HT^" ; *HTVfe must here he taken as the Ablative Sing. The Sikh commentators, who are 
all totally unacquainted with the grammar of the old Hindui, pass all such words in deep silence, without 
giving the least hint. 

7 Explained thus by the old commentator: 

W\ H B\ 7*T V7% one thinks, that as much as a sesam-seed is made by me, he will not obtain 
honour at the threshold of the creator." 


JAPU 22—25. 


There are Lakhs of nether regions in the nether regions, (Lakhs) of heavens in the heavens. Having 
sought the end, the end, they have become tired, the Vedas say one word. 

The books (of the Musalmans) say : (there are) eighteen thousand (worlds), one single hair out of 
the hairs of a horse. 1 

If there would be an account (of the works of God), it would be written, (but) the account is 
destroyed {i.e. impossible). 0 Nanak! he is'called great, he himself knows his own self. 


That I may praise (him), so much understanding I have not obtained. Rivers and brooks fall into 
the ocean, (but the ocean) is not known 2 (by them). 

Kings and Sultans with rings, with houses, wealth and property, do not become equal to an ant, 
if from its mind he (God) is not forgotten. 3 


There is no end of his praises, in saying (them) there is no end. 
There is no end of his works, in (his) giving there is no end. 
There is no end in seeing (his works), no end in hearing (them). 

No end is known, what counsel is in (his) mind. No end is known, what his form is. No end nor 
limit is known. 

On account of (not getting) his end, how many lament ! His bounds cannot be obtained. This 
end nobody knows. If much be said, much (more) is (to be said). 

Great is the Lord, high his place. Higher than high is his name. 

If one be so high, he may know this high one. 

So great a one, as he himself is, he himself (only) knows. 

0 Nanak ! by his favourable look and by destiny the gift (of knowing his name is obtained). 


His great benevolence cannot be written. He is a great giver, there is not a bit of greediness (in him). 
Some warriors ask boundless (things). Some have no consideration nor thought (to ask anything). 
Some are consumed and broken down by passion. Some having taken (his gifts) deny it. 
Some fools go on eating. Some are always afflicted by pain and hunger. 

This also is thy gift, O bountiful ! Imprisonment (and) release is made by (thy) decree. The other 
(things) no one can tell. 

If one having eaten (his gifts) falls into reviling. He will know, how much he will be struck 
in the face, 4 

1 The Sikhs are in great trouble about the explanation of these words, and give all possible comments. 
But the sense is apparently : the eighteen thousand worlds, which the Musalmans assert to have been created, 
are just as much as a single hair out of the hairs of a horse; i.e. there are innumerable other worlds. W3> 
s.m* signifies — a constituent part of anything ; here, a single hair out of those which constitute the hairs 
of a horse. 

z 7> tI Ic^faffO" "is not known"— must be referred to TT)?^. The other is an adjective (^Pfjs£)> 

having a sealing-ring, the sign of royalty or power. But the whole verse is without any apparent logical 
connexion and the Sikh commentators are totally bewildered about it. 

3 The sense is : if by an ant (a low creature or man) God is not forgotten, wealthy kings will not be 
equal to it. 

4 ^Tt*HT supply g^t, Mows. 

JAPU 26, 27. 


He himself knows, himself having given (the gift). 

This also some, some say. On whom he bestows his praise and land: he, 0 Nanak ! is king of kings. 


Invaluable are his qualities, invaluable the occupation (with them). Invaluable those occupied 
(with them), invaluable the store-rooms. 1 

Invaluable (those who) come (to them), invaluable (those who) take away (i.e. stores from them). 
Invaluable (those who) please (him), invaluable (those who) are absorbed (in him). 

Invaluable (his) justice, invaluable his court (of justice). 

Invaluable (his) balance, invaluable (his) measure. 2 Invaluable (his) bountifulness, invaluable the 
perception (of it). 3 

Invaluable (his) work, invaluable (his) command. 

Any thing more invaluable than invaluable cannot be told. 

They go on telling (them), 4 telling (them) in devotion. They tell them who read the Vedas and 
the Puranas. 

The learned men tell and explain them. The Brahmas and Indras tell thera. 
The Gopis and Govind (Krishna) tell them. Isar (Shiva) and the Siddhs tell them. 
As many as are made Buddhas (sages), tell them. The Devas and Danavas (demons, enemies of 
the Devas) tell them. 

The Gods and Naras B and Munis tell them, having worshipped. Some tell (and some) begin to tell 
them. Some having told, told them, rise and go off. 

So many creatures are made and others (still) he makes. Yet nobody, nobody is able to tell (his 

As great as he pleases, so great he becomes (by self-expansion). 0 iNanak ! that True one (=God) 
knows it. 

If some contentious man tell (it) : he is written down as a fool above fools. 6 


What is that gate, what that house, in which sitting he supports all V 

There are many innumerable musical instruments and sounds ; how many are the players ? 

How many Bags with the Ragiuis are sung and how many are the singers? 

To thee sing wind, water, fire, at (thy) door sings Dharm-raja. 

The Citraguptas sing (to thee), who write down continually, know and weigh the religious deeds. 
(To thee) sings Isar (Shiva), Brahma, the Devi ; having always remembered (thee) they obtain honour. 
At thy gate sings Indra with the gods sitting on Indra's throne. 

1 ^rMTBfafT a trader occupied in any business. These are the pious disciples, who are called in the 
Granth 7TW $ ^T"MT?)§; the &ti\6> ° r store-houses, are the TTPT, or sa mts, from whom the name may 
be obtained. 

2 signifies here "measure " and is the same as Trf^TfJTJf , as proved by other passages of the Granth. 

3 Compare v. 3. 

4 *HTfef3T " *° te'V the qualities or the praises of the name, the greatness of the name. 

B Naras, a kind of centaurs, with the limbs of horses and human bodies. — Wilson, Vishnu Purana, p. 42. 

5 The Sikh commentaries have totally misunderstood the whole verse. 

7 It may also he translated by the second person, "thou supportest, 5 ' as concluded from Sodar (after the 
Jap-ji), where ^ %3J is found. 



JAPU 28. 

(To thee) sing the Siddhs (Jogis) in their deep meditations, 1 the Sadhs (devotees) sing (to thee) 
having reflected. 

(To thee) sing the truthful and contented, (to thee) sing the hardy heroes. (To thee) sing the 
Pandits and Rakhisars (great abstinent men), who read continually with the Yedas (in their hands). 

(To thee) sing the fascinating women, who enchant the mind in the heavens, in the mortal world* 
and in the nether regions. 3 

(To thee) sing the gems, produced hy thee, with the sixty-eight Tlrthas. 

(To thee) sing the heroes very powerful in battle, (to thee) sing the four mines. 4 

(To thee) sing the (nine) regions, the countries, the worlds, 5 which are made and preserved hy thee. 

Those sing to thee, who please thee ; thy worshippers, steeped (in thee) are full of happiness. 
Many others, who sing (to thee), do not come to my mind ; what can Nanak reflect (judge) ? 

He, he is always the real Lord, true, of a true name. He is and wilL he, he will not he destroyed, 
hy whom creation is made. 

By whom a Maya (illusive world) of various colours, kinds and sorts is produced. Having made 
(it), he sees, his own work is, as his greatness is. 

What is pleasing to him, that he will do, no order can he given (to him). 

He is King, Lord of Kings ; Nanak (says) : the order (pleasure) of the Lord abides (firmly). 


(Who) makes contentment the earring, shame the vessel (bowl) and wallet, (who applies to his 
body) ashes of meditation. (Who makes) death his patched quilt, his body a virgin, the use of the staff 
faith. 6 

He is an Aipanth!, 7 (joining) all assemblies; by the heart being overcome the world is overcome. 
Salutation to him, salutation ! Who is first, spotless, 8 without beginning, immortal (not killed), 
having the same dress through all ages. 

1 The difference of ftJJ>ff7S and *nj"[fq is thus stated by Patanjali : " Restraint of the body, retention of 
the mind and meditation exclusively confined to one object, is dhyan ; the idea of identification with the object 
of such meditation, so as if devoid of individual nature, is samadhi" — Visb. Pur. p. 637, note 21. 

z ^T?d "the mortal world" (instead of >TT3> Sansk. TpfSf), commonly called the (*n4^fai)» 
" the world of mortals." 

3 "The fascinating women in heaven and on earth are the Apsarasas, who are of two kinds, <Si>GQ<^ 
(laukik), worldly, who are said to be thirty-four in number, and ^fef^T {daivik), ten in number." — Vish. 
Pur. p. 150, note 21. "In the regions of Patala, the lovely daughters of the Daityas and Danavas wander 
about, fascinating the most austere." — Vish. Pur. p. 204. 

4 The four mines are : *HUtT (what is born or produced from an egg) ; *rj<J*H (what is born from a 
fcetus, Sansk. ; O^^rl (produced hy growing out, as plants, trees and some lower animals, 
Sansk. ^f^^T) ; *S3tT (Sansk. ^f<^5T), produced from sweat (as lice, etc.). 

5 <cd Joil> s.m. — TT3'*{3> Brahma-egg, globe, world; m is first changed to b and then aspirated by 
the influence of the preceding r. 

5 >T3Tf3 sTin signifies here : use of the staff, Sansk. ^M^ijf^F ; all the Sikh explanations are wrong. 
The sense is : be uses faith for the same purposes as he uses his staff. 

7 Amongst the twelve divisions of the Jogis there is one called Aipanthis, of whom Man! Singh says : 

fiSd^d 7jf& <^d^5 TO "They live without enmity with all men." 

8 W\ /TlW "not blue," an epithet of the water = spotless, and thence water generally. But here its original 
signification must be kept fast: spotless. The explanation of the old commentary: af<%7> oTvffaJf 
irT^t "what is called airilu" ? "water," is therefore wrong. 

JAPU 29—32. 



(His) food (is divine) knowledge, mercy the cook, in every body sounds (his conch's) sound. 1 
He himself is the Lord of Lords, wtoose are all the increases and perfections, to the others the 
enjoyment. 2 

Union and separation, both works he sets agoing, (his divine) allotment comes into account. 
Salutation to him, salutation ! Who is first, spotless, without beginning, immortal, having the 
same dress through all ages. 


There is one Maya, 3 who was delivered of "setting agoing," her three servants are chosen. One is 
the creator of the world, one the storekeeper, one keeps the court of justice. 4 

As it is pleasing to him, so he sets agoing, as his order is. He sees, but into their sight he does 
not come, he is very wonderful. 

Salutation to him, salutation! Who is first, spotless, without beginning, having the same dress 
through all ages. 


His seat are the worlds, his storehouses the worlds. Whatever is put down by him (in them), (is 
put down) once (and for ever). Having made (all things) the creator sees (them). 0 Nanak ! the work 
of the True one is true {i.e. real and lasting). 

Salutation to him, salutation I Who is first, spotless, without beginning, immortal, having the same 
dress through all ages. 


If from one tongue a Lakh be made, if (from) a Lakh twenty Lakhs (of tongues) be made. If Lakhs, 
Lakhs of* times the one name of the Lord of the world be uttered. 

Are on this way the steps of fellowship ascended becoming twenty-one (twentieths) ? 5 Having 
heard the words (of the birds) the worms became emulous of the sky {i.e. of flying). 

0 Nanak ! by (his) favourable glance he is- obtained, false is the idle boasting of the false ones. 

1 Very likely an allusion to the vital breath. — signifies also in Hindi and PanjabI the conch itself, 
not only its sound. 

2 fcrf*? f*rf^T ma y generally signify v prosperity and success ; here not the perfections, which are obtained 
by the practice of the Jog, of which eight are enumerated (see Wilson's Vish. Pur. p. 45, note 5), elsewhere 
eighteen ; see Gujri V. mafi. 1, 4. 

3 HTff^ = Maya. In the Bhagavata Purana the divine will, contemplating its expansion into manifoldness, 
is made to denote a female deity, coequal and coeternal with the First Cause, whose name is Maya. By her the 
Lord made the universe. This (originally poetical) personification of the divine will is also adopted here. — See 
Vish. Pur. p. 21, note 1. 

4 *f*U jl> the worldly or creator of the world, is Brahma; the ^tsfTcftj or storekeeper, is Vishnu (the 
preserver), and the judge, Shiva (the destroyer). 

fi We have preferred to give the whole sentence as interrogative. Whom Nanak impugns here is not 
known. Iff^T H^rf|i>ff, the steps of fellowship are said to mean 3j<^f^ , final emancipation ; vrf3"= Tjflff. 
vHvl f^W%» "twenty twentieths" is a PanjabI expression implying the whole, certainty. One above it means 
absolute truth, and it is therefore explained by the commentators by Q$+{ V^> the highest degree or 
S<Tl*H ({jrfaf)> the fourth state of the soul, as absolute identity with the Supreme Being, by abstraction 
from without. 


JAPU 33—36. 


In uttering (the name) there is no power, in silence there is no power. There is no power 
in begging, in giving there is no power. 

There is no power in living, in dying there is no power. There is no power in dominion and 
wealth, (by it is) uproar in the mind. 

There is no power in intelligence, divine knowledge and reflection. There is no power in clever- 
ness, (by which) the world may be liberated. 

In whose hand the power (of liberation) is, he, having created, sees. 0 Nanak ! no one is high or low. 1 


There (are) nights, seasons, lunar dates, week-days (made by him). Wind, water, fire, the nether region. 

In the midst of it the earth is placed as a Dharmsala (Karavan-serai). On it (the earth) are different 
kinds of living beings and of practices. 

Their names are many and endless. (Their) actions, actions 2 are taken into consideration (by God). 

He himself is true and true is his darbar. There obtain honour the pious and the chosen. 

(According to his) glance (and their) work, the sign (=lot of the creatures) is put down. The raw 
ones obtain ripeness there. 0 ISanak ! after one has gone (there), the place is seen. 


This is the practice of the Dharm-Khand 3 (region of justice, as told in the last verse). Tell now the 
works of Gian-Khand (the region of divine knowledge). 

(There are) many winds, waters, fires, many Kans (Krishnas) and Mahgs (Shivas). Many Brahmas, 
(by whom) creation is formed, and dresses (disguises) of forms and colours. 

Many regions of works, 4 many Merus, many Dhruvas and instructions (of Narada). 5 

Many Indras, many moons, suns, many orbs and regions. 

Many Siddhs, many Buddhs and Naths (Jogls), many disguises of the Devi. Many Devas, many 
Danavas, many Munis, many gems and oceans. 

Many mines, many voices, 6 many Lords and kings. Many Yedas, many worshippers ; 0 Nanak ! 
there is no end of the account. 


In Gian-Khand divine knowledge is very strong. There are sounds (of music), pastimes, pleasures 
and joys. 

The character (sign) of Sharm-Khand (the region of happiness 7 ) is beauty. There is shaped a very 
incomparable form (shape). 

Its words cannot be told. If one tell them he afterwards repents of it. 

There is formed discernment, intelligence and wisdom in the mind. There is formed the know- 
ledge of the Gods and Siddhs. 

1 We have deviated from the common explanations of the Sikhs, which are mostly ludicrous and pass in 
silence whatever offers particular difficulties. 

2 oTcpft is the Formative Plur. dependent on c^ltUd . 

3 The Sikhs identify TfiJ*T¥3 w * tn Brahma-loka, 

* The 5f*f is on this world, according to the Puranas ; Vish. Parana, p. 212. 

5 His name the Sikh commentators expressly add. On his instruction see Vish. Purana, p. 117. 

6 tfT^ the four mines (of production); TTl^\ signifies the (four) stages of voice from the stirring 
of the breath unto articulate utterance. 

7 TWj the Sansk. (n.) joy, happiness (not the Pers. *Jt>). 

JAPU 37, 38. 



The character of the region of works (Karm-Khand) is power. There is none else. 

There are heroes very powerful in battle^. In them Earn (God) remains quite brimful (or filling them). 

There Sita 1 is cool (happy) in greatness. Their beauties cannot be told. 

They do not die nor are they deceived. In whose heart Earn dwells. 

There dwell some communities of Bhagats (devotees). They are joyful, (for) that True one is in 
their heart. 

In Sac-Khand 2 dwells the Supreme Being (the formless). Having created he sees it and is happy 
by the sight. 3 

There are regions, orbs and w6rlds. If one would enumerate them, there is no end of the account. 
There are worlds and worlds and forms. As his order is, so is the work (done). 
He sees and expands, having reflected. 
0 Nanak ! the telling (of it) is hard iron. 


Continence is the work-shop, 4 patience the goldsmith. Understanding the anvil, the Veda the tool. 
Fear the bellows, the heat of austerities the fire. The vessel is love, in this melt Amrita (nectar). 
(Then) the sabd is formed 5 in the true mint. 6 This is the work of those, on whom his look and the 
destiny is (fixed). 

0 Nanak ! the looker on is happy by the sight. 

One 8l6h 

"Wind* is the Guru, water the father, the great earth the mother. Day and night, the two are 
female and male-nurse ; the whole world sports. 

Dharm-raja rehearses the good and bad works in the presence (of God). By their own actions some 
are near and some are afar off (from God). 

By whom the name (of God) has been meditated upon, they are gone (to the other world) having 
cast off their labour. 

0 Nanak I their faces are bright, and with them (after them) how many people are saved (liberated) ! 8 

{End of the Jap-ji). 

1 Sita, the wife of Rama. *ft^*j cool, refreshed, happy, an allusion to her name Sita. 

2 The corresponds to the ^I^fai) the habitation of Brahma. 

3 The Sikh commentaries explain A^fd fAvU*6 by : frTTf ST@ 7&$B 3fcJ $M3T ft" ^ "fevTIW 
^J3T ^ "whom he looks at, he becomes happy ;" but there is no indication of the change of the subject. 

* inrm is the workshop of a goldsmith. 

5 3RTT^j the sabd or word of the Guru, the instruction of the Guru concentrated in the name of God. 
ur=f^lft may also be translated as Imperative or Jussive : should be formed. 

6 TOjt the true mint is explained by : ifarf^Tj the assembly of the true or pious ; in this 
assembly the true instruction is obtained, as shown by the following verse i for those, on whom his look and 
mercy is, are the *nTf Sadhs. 

1 With reference to the wind or breath being the Guru (of all) the Sikhs relate : when Brahma created 
the human body, all the limbs, etc., quarrelled, which should be the most important ; then Brahma decided 
that breath was the greatest, without which the whole body could not live. 

" 5?<ft <5Tf?5» supply: Trfcffif?) how much creation or people, a common omission in the 


S5 DAKU, I. II. 

Om ! By the favour of the true Guru. 
Rag Asa; mahala I. 1 

What is that thy gate, what thy house, where sitting thou supportest all? Thy musical instruments 
and sounds are many and innumerahle, many are thy musicians. 

Many Rags of thine with the Raginls are sung, many are thy singers. To thee sing wind, water, 
fire, to thee sings Dharm-raja at thy gate. 

To thee sing the Citraguptas, who write down continually, know and weigh the religious deeds. To 
thee sing Isar, Brahma, the Devi, having always remembered thee they obtain honour. 

At (thy) gate sings Indra with the Gods sitting on Indira's seat. To thee sing the Siddhs in their 
deep meditations, to thee sing the Sadhs (saints) having reflected. 

To thee sing the chaste, the truthful, the contented, to thee sing the hardy heroes. To thee sing the 
Pandits and Rakhisars, who read continually with the Vedas (in their hands). 

To thee sing the fascinating women, who enchant the mind in heaven, on earth and in the nether 
region. To thee sing the gems, created by thee, with the sixty-eight Tirthas. 

To thee sing the heroes very powerful in battle, to thee sing the four mines. To thee sing the 
regions, the countries (orbs), the worlds, which are made and preserved by thee. 

Those sing to thee, who please thee ; thy worshippers, steeped (in thy love) are full of happiness. 
Many others, who sing to thee, do not come to my mind ; what can Nanak judge ? 

He, he is always the true Lord, true, of a true name. He is and will be, he will not cease to be, by 
whom creation is made. 

By whom a Maya of various colours, kinds and sorts is produced. Having made it he sees, his own 
work is as his greatness is. 

What is pleasing to him, that he will do, his order cannot be reversed. He is King, Lord of Kings ; 
Eanak (says) : the order of the Lord abides. 3 

Asa ; mahala I. 

(1) . Having heard (it) every one calls him great. How great he is, has it been seen? 
His value cannot be obtained nor told. The expounders (of it) remain absorbed in thee ! 4 

1. Pause. 

0 my great Lord, 0 deep and profound one L 0 abode of qualities ! Nobody knows, how much and 
great thy attire is ! 

(2) . All intelligent ones have met and worked up their intelligence. All valuers have met and put 
down his value. 

1 So dar, the words* with which the following Sabd begins* They are taken from Rag Asa and inserted 
here, because they are used for evening prayer by the Sikhs. We find them already in the Jap-ji (with some 
few alterations), v. 27. 

2 Mahala ( = mahalla) always denotes the authorship of a piece, as mahala pahila, the first quarter 
= Bab a Nanak ; mahala duja = Angad, etc. 

3 These and the like verses, without a fixed number of lines, are called by the Sikhs sabds (words). 
* This is a Caupada (a verse consisting of four couplets). 



By the men endowed with divine knowledge and the Gurus of the Gurus. 1 Not a bit can his 
greatness be told. 

(3) . All truths, all austerities, all good^ actions. The greatnesses of the Siddhs (Jogis). 
Without thee perfections have been obtained by none. By destiny they are obtained and not prevented. 

(4) . What is the helpless praiser (of thy name) ? "With praises thy store-rooms are filled. 

To whom thou givest, what means has he (to refuse, it) ? 0 Nanak ! the True one is upholding (him). 

Asa; mahala I. 

(1) . If I praise (the name), I live ; if it be forgotten, I die. Praising the true name is difficult. 
If one has hunger after the true name. He removes his pain by that hunger. 2 

1. Pause. 

"Why is he forgotten, 0 my mother? True is the Lord, of a true name. 

(2) . Having told a little of the greatness of the name, they have become tired, its value was not 
found. If all having met begin to tell it : it does not become greater nor smaller. 

(3) . He does not die nor become sorrowful. He keeps on giving and does not take food (himself). 
This is his quality, there is no other. Nor has there been^another, nor will there be another. 

(4) . As great as thou thyself art, so great is thy gift. By whom day and night has been made. 
Those, who forget the Lord, are low caste people. 0 Nanak ! without the name they are low (mean) 

people. 3 

Ragu Gujrt ; mahala IV. 4 

(1) . 0 people of Hari, 0 true men of the true Guru, make supplication to (=near) the Guru ! 
We low worms are in the asylum of the true Guru ; mercifully manifest (to us) the name ! 

1. Tame. 

0 my friend, 0 Gur-dev! manifest to me the name of Bam! The name taught by the Guru is my 
soul's friend, the glory of Hari is my prayer (i.e. I desire). 

(2) . Very great are the fortunes of the people of Hari, who have faith in Hari, Hari, thirst after Hari. 
If the name of Hari, Hari is obtained, they are satiated, having joined the society (of the saints) 

they manifest his qualities (i.e. praise him). 

(3) . By whom the taste (flavour) of the name of Hari, Hari has not been obtained, they are luckless 
with Yama. 

Those, who have not come into the asylum of the true Guru and into the society (of the saints), in 
curse (misery 6 ) they have lived, in curse they will live. 

(4) . By which people of Hari the society of the true Guru is obtained, on their forehead from the 
beginning (this) decree was written. . 

Blessed, blessed is the society of the saints, (in) which the taste of Hari has been obtained ! the 
pious people, 0 Nanak! 6 having met, disclose the name. 

1 JjdJjdvJ I^T1 > the In strum. Phir. 

3 Literally : It is gone (by him) Laving eaten his pain by that hunger. 

3 ^4 AlTri is the Arab, e^cu*? , art, trade ; equal to low-born people. 

4 The fourth mahala is Guru Ramdas. 

6 fTpj = f%jg; (r is an addition in old Hindu!), fie! for shame! but in Hindu! it has also the meaning 
of curse, misery. 

6 All the Sikh Gurus call themselves Nanak, because they consider themselves as incarnations of Baba 
Nanak, as will be seen in the course of the Granth. 



Ragu Gujri; mahala V. 1 

(1) . "Why, 0 my heart, excogitatest thou an effort, in the completion of which Hari is engaged? 
In rock and stone are beings produced, their daily food is placed before them. 

1. Pause. 

0 my Madhava, he who falls in with the society of the saints, is saved. By the favour of the Guru 
the highest degree is obtained, dry wood is (made) green. 

(2) . Mother, father, (household) people, son, wife — none is in the protection (support) of the other. 2 
On every head the Lord provides the daily food; why, 0 my heart, hast thou been afraid? 

(3) Flying, flying a hundred kos it (i.e. the crane) comes, behind it its young ones are left. 
"Who feeds them, who nourishes them ? he (God) in his mind has remembered them. 3 

(4) . All the (nine) treasures, the eighteen perfections 4 the Lord has put on the palm of his hand. 
0 humble Nanak! though one become always a sacrifice, a sacrifice, a sacrifice, there is no end nor 
limit of thine (found). 


Ruga Asa ; mahala IV. 

Om ! by the favour of the true Guru ! 

(1) . That Supreme Being is Hari, Hari is the Supreme Being, unattainable, unattainable, infinite. 
All meditate, all meditate on thee, 0 Hari, 0 true creator ! 

All creatures are thine, thou art the provider of the creatures. 

0 saints ! meditate on Hari, who causes to forget all pains ! 

Hari himself is the Lord, he himself is the worshipper, what is, 0 Nanak ! the helpless being? 

(2) . Thou, 0 Hari! the one Supreme Being, art unintermittingly contained in every body. 
Some are donors, some are beggars, all are thy wonderful shows. 

Thou thyself art the donor, thou thyself the enjoyer, without thee I do not know another, Sir! 
Thou art the Supreme Brahm, 6 endless, endless, what can I tell and explain thy qualities? 
Who serve, who serve thee, Sir, their sacrifice is humble Nanak. 

(3) . Who meditate on thee, 0 Hari! who meditate on thee, 0 Hari! those people live comfortably 
in the world. 

Those have become liberated, those have become liberated, by whom Hari has been meditated upon, 
the noose of Yama has broken away from them. 

1 Mahala V. = Arjun. 

2 , TftWT = , Tft ) s.f. protection, prop, support; nfT is meaningless, and only added to make up the 
rhyme ; similarly VTTr^TfcWT instead of Arjun's poetry is distinguished by such violence ; he 
often spoils the words at the end of a verse so, that they are hardly recognizable. 

3 Srf^HT might, in Arjun's poetry, also be taken for srf^T; then the translation would run thus : having 
remembered them in his mind. 

4 fetJTTJ and fifqT7> = f^TJ f*W7> £ (Accus. Plur.). We find in the Granth also eighteen siddhis 

6 *Mld*jO*T> Sansk. W^nHT» tne farthest limit of Brahma, beyond Brahma, whom Brahma even cannot 
reach ; or perhaps more simply = TJX^T, the Supreme Brahm. 



By whom the fearless, by whom the fearless Hari has been meditated upon, all tbeir fear will go, Sir ! 1 
By whom my Hari is worshipped, they will be absorbed in the form of Hari, Hari. 
Those are blessed, those are blessed, by^whom Hari is meditated upon, bumble Nanak will be tbeir 

(4) . With thy worship, with thy worship (thy) store-houses are filled, 0 endless, endless one ! 
Thy worshippers, thy worshippers praise thee, 0 manifold, manifold, endless Hari ! 

They offer to thee manifold, manifold adoration, Sir ! they practise to thee austerities, they mutter 
(thy name), 0 endless one ! 

They read many different, different Smritis and Shastras of thine, 2 they practise the Kriya and the 
six works. 3 

Those are Bhagats, those are good Bhagats, who please my Lord Hari. 

(5) . Thou art the first Being (male), boundless, 4 the creator, like thee there is no other. 

Thou art in all ages the (only) one ; always, always thou art One, thou art that immoveable creator. 
What is pleasing to thyself, that exists ; what thou thyself dost, that is made. 
By thyself all the creation is produced ; by thyself all (the creation) is made and caused to disappear. 
Humble Nanak sings the praises of the creator, who knows all. 

Asa ; mahala IV. 
1. Pause. 

Thou art the creator, true, my Lord. 

What is pleasing to thee, that will he done; what thou givest, that I obtain. 

(1) . All is thine, thou art meditated upon by all. 

On whom thou bestowest mercy, he obtains the gem of (thy) name. 

By the disciple of the Guru it is obtained, by the self-willed it is lost. 6 

By thyself (one) is separated (from thee), by thyself one is united (with thee). 

(2) . Thou art the ocean, all is iu thee. 
Without thee there is none other. 
The living creatures are thy sport. 

Having fallen in with separation, they are separated, with union — there is union. 6 

(3) . Whom thou lettest know, that man knows (them). 
He always tells and explains the qualities of Hari. 

1 JI^ITft may be pause instead of 3[<^*ft> will go, or causal : he will remove. 

2 might also be translated : to thee, instead of being taken for an adjective. 

3 fsrfcWT= Sansk. f§fRTT may be taken generally as a holy action (as sacrifice) or specially as obsequies. 
The six works or duties are now : fJTfcfT (Sansk. ftr*s(T)> 3J3> "H?>0 , *TTC5T> IdWaJ, i.e. the lock of 
hair on the crown of the head, the toothpick, the Dhoti, the Brahmanical thread, the rosary and tilak ; these 
are binding on the Khatri (cf. Siri Rag, Astp. 26, 5). 

4 *>TM^V3' : = Hindi ^JtpfTJT?;, Sansk. ^IIHMIT;, the limit of that which is illimitable, an epithet of 
Vishnu ; identical with JHVtTMTcJ* which is also found in the Granth. 

5 3T<WfM> he who turns his face towards the Guru, a disciple of the Guru, and *J7S*jfVf , he who turns 
his face towards his own mind, self-willed, not attending to the Guru's instruction. 

6 f*f66cM > to fall in with, is constructed with the Locative (f^Tf^T) J ThfT^Tt > s likewise the Locative, 
but with lengthened final i (*Hrf3T fiffe)- But TNjft mav aIso ue taken as an a djective, united; then the 
construction would be : TpFTjft 5 5^5 Where all case-signs are left out, the construction is more or less 
a mere conjecture. The sense, however, is plain : when thou separatest them (from thee, by transmigration), 
they are separated; when thou unitest them, they are united (absorbed in thee). 




Ey whom Hari is worshipped, he ohtains comfort. 
He is easily (naturally) absorhed in the name of Hari. 
(4). Thou thyself art the creator, all is made by thee. 
Without thee there is no other one. 
Thou, having created, created, seest and knowest it. 

0 humble Nanak! the disciple of the Guru will become manifest (at the threshold). 

Asa ; mahala I. 

(1) . In that pond his dwellings are made ; water and fire are made by him. 

In mud, which is spiritual blindness, the foot does not (= cannot) go; we looked, they were sub- 
mersed in it. 1 

1. Pause. 

0 heart, 0 foolish heart ! dost thou not think of the One ? 
By Hari being forgotten thy virtues are wasted. 

(2) . I am not chaste, nor truthful, nor read, foolish and ignorant I am born. 
Nanak says : I am in the asylum of those, by whom thou art not forgotten. 

Asa; mahala V. 

(1) . The body of man has been received (by thee), this is thy opportunity to be united with Govind. 
Other works are of no use to thee. Join the soeiety of the Sadhs (saints) ! Adore only the name ! 

1. Pause. 

Acquire the means of crossing the waters of existence ! 

Thy birth (life) goes for nothing in the enjoyment of the Maya. 

(2) . Eepetition (of the name), austerity, continence, religious works have not been practised (by me), 
0 King Hari ! 

Nanak says : I have done mean actions ! Keep the honour of him, who has fallen on thy asylum ! 

Rdgu Ganri Dipahi ; mahala I. 
Om ! Ey the favour of the true Guru ! 

(1). In which house praise is said and the creator thought of. 
In that house sing a song of praise and remember the creator ! 

1. Pause. 

Sing thou a song of praise of my fearless one ! 

1 am a sacrifice to that song of praise, by which always comfort is obtained. 

1 This verse is generally misunderstood by the Sikhs. First, the text of nearly all the MSS. is wrong; 
they write: VRtT ^vT> but it must be written ifa tT . iJ^tT does not signify, as the Sikhs will have 
it, mud, this is ifo. If we write ifo ^7J, the sense is quite plain. The first line alludes to Vishnu 
sleeping on the ocean (Vish. Pur. p. 634). Nanak says: he, in whom is ifa", cannot approach him, he is 
drowned in the mud. 

2 **Rj<ttl m. is a song of praise, generally sung at marriages (in honour of the bride and bridegroom), 
but also in honour of God. The Sohila is now used as a prayer, which is said before retiring to rest at night. 



(2) . Day by day the creatures are supported, the giver will see (to their support). 
The value of thy gifts is not obtained (found out) ; what is the estimate of that donor? 

(3) . The year and day for the wedding is written, having met apply oil (to the bride and bridegroom) ! 
Give, 0 friend ! a blessing, by which 1 union with the Lord may be effected ! 

(4) . To every house (comes) this invitatory letter, these calls are always made. 
If the caller be remembered, those days, 0 Nanak ! will come. 

Rdgu Asa ; maJiald L 

(1) . There are six houses, six Gurus> six doctrines. 2 
The Guru of the Gurus is one, the dresses different. 3 

1. Pause. 

0 father ! 4 in which house praise is said to the creator. 
That house keep, it is thy greatness. 

(2) . Of seconds, minutes, gharis, watches, 5 lunar dates, week-days, a month is made up. 
The sun is the same, the seasons many. 0 Nanak ! many are the dresses of the creator. 

Rdgu Lhandsan ; mahald I. 

(1) . The dish is made of the sky, 6 the sun and moon are made the lamps, the orbs of stars are, so 
to say, the pearls. 

The wind is incense-grinding, the wind swings the fly-brush, the whole blooming wood is the 
flames (of the lamps). 

1. Pause. 

"What an illumination is made ! 7 In the region of existence (world) there is no (such) illumination 
(made) to thee. The kettle-drum sounds an unbeaten sound. 8 

(2) . Thousands are thy eyes, and (yet) thou hast no eye ; thousands are thy forms, and (yet) thou 
hast not one. 

Thousands are thy pure feet, and (yet) not one foot is without odour ; thousands are thy odours, 
thus walkest thou, 0 enchanting one ! 

1 ^-g- j s hgj-g t jj e Ablative, by which, JH^Tl^^l'HT (dim.) may be Sing, or Plur. 

2 The six religious (and philosophical) systems of the Hindus are ; (1) Vedanta, (2) Sankhya, (3) Yoga, 
(4) Mimansa, (5) Nyaya, (6) Vaisesika. 

3 %T is the dress worn by the devotees (or faqirs) of the different sects, 
* ETTm is an endearing address to a junior (even to a girl). 

5 fcJT*WT> a twentieth part of time; corresponds more to our minute. The ur^ 1 (^rf^^T) has 
only twenty-four minutes. The whole day and night is divided into eight watches (VvTB", Sansk. TT^^), each 
consisting of three hours (or about eight gharis). 

6 5| = Sansk. JTO, made of,, consisting of (elsewhere written ^rfff). 

7 *KT<nfY (Sansk. ^ifjf^^i), a religious ceremony. A platter (q ics) containing lamps (^V3"), 
incense (XJV) and flowers (and, as it seems,, even pearls) is moved circularly round the head of the image, 
accompanied with the beating of the kettle-drum (and with ringing of bells). 

8 *H75\J37 T^T^j an unbeaten sound, i.e. a sound not produced by beating, an expression which will be 
frequently met with in the Granth, and which has reference to the practice of the Jog, as will be explained in 
its proper place. The explanation of the Sikhs, that tyJAUd I means "endless/' is wrong and a mere guess. 



(3) . In all (creatures) is light, he is the light. From his light, light is made in all. 

By the testimony of the Guru the light becomes manifest. What is pleasing to him, that becomes 
an Art! (illumination). 

(4) . (My) mind is longing after the nectar of the lotus of the foot of Hari, daily I am thirsting 
after it. 

Give water of mercy to the deer Nanak, by which dwelling may be made in thy name. 1 

Rdgu Gauri Purli ; mahala IV. 

(1) . With lust and wrath the town is much filled; a Sadhu having come breaks (them) to pieces. 2 
The Guru being obtained by an original decree (of God) causes in the heart devotion to Hari to be 

excited in the country. 3 

1. Pause. 

Make to the Sadhu joining of hands, 4 it is a great religious merit. 
Make (to him) prostration, 6 it is a great religious merit. 

(2) . By the Sakats 6 the relish of the enjoyment of Hari is not known ; in their heart is the thorn of 

As, as they walk, they are pierced, they are pained, they suffer death, on their head is punishment. 

(3) . The people of Hari are absorbed in the name of Hari, Hari; the pain of birth and the fear of 
death are broken. 

The eternal Supreme Being, the Lord is obtained (by them), great is their splendour in the world 
and universe. 

(4) . We poor and wretched, 0 Lord ! are thine ; 0 Hari ! protect, protect us ! thou art very great. 
To humble Nanak the name is support and defence ; even in the name of Hari is the pith of comfort. 

Rdgu Gauri Purli ; mahald V. 

(1). I make supplications, hear, 0 my friend! it is (here) the time to render service to the saints. 
Here (in this world) having obtained the gain of Hari, depart ! in the world to come (further on) * t 
thy dwelling (will be) easy. 

1 The words must be thus separated: ^jfg tTT %> etc., by which (water of mercy) I may dwell in 
thy name. 

* "thj?5 "tteTvT, he causes (them, i.e. ^T*T to be broken to pieces, 

3 *rf?5; Trfn fe^ ^335 ^feTvlj the construction of these words is difficult; the subject is the Guru, 
who causes to be excited (^fe^T = *felftr or Al5>T§) fe^ ^ffe devotion in the heart ( = hearty devotion) 
iu the country (H3$? must be taken as Locative). 

4 JVpffSfV (Sansk. ^^f%), joining the palms of the hands and lifting them up to the forehead in token 
of reverential salutation. 

0 oJojG 3) s.f. prostration, in which the hands are placed on the ground and the breast brought almost in 
contact with the earth (Sansk. ^T^T^?^ TT(l||4j)- 

6 (Sansk. ^SJTffi), the designation of a sect, who worship the female principle according to the ritual 

of the Tantras. There are two chief divisions of them, Daksinacari and Vamacari, or right and left hand 
ritualists. The worship of the first is public, addressed to the goddesses, especially to forms of Durga, as 
Bhavani and Parvatu The worship of the latter, addressed to Tantrika impersonations of Durga, as Devi, 
Kali, Syama, or a woman representing the ^fff?, is private and said to be celebrated with impure practices. 



1. Pause. 

The (fixed) limit of days and nights decreases, 0! 0 heart! by joining the Guru thy business 
is adjusted. m 

(2) . This world is in the abnormal state of doubt ; he who knows Brahm is saved. 

"Whom he having awakened makes drink this juice, by him the inexpressible story is known. 

(3) . For which (object) you are come, that buy ye ; the indwelling of Hari in the heart is by means 
of the Guru. 

(If) in your own house (his) residence (is), you will easily obtain comfort, there will not be again 
a turn of transmigration. 

(4) . 0 heart-knowing Supreme Being, 0 disposer of the destiny ! make full the heart's faith ! 
Thy slave Nanak asks this comfort : make me the dust of the saints ! 

Om! By the favour of the true Guru I 

MaJiaU I. ; Ohar I. 1 

(1) . A mansion of pearls may then be raised, with gems indeed it may be studded. 

With musk, kungu, 3 aloe-wood and sandal-wood having plastered it he {%.$. the builder) may be 
delighted. 4 

Having seen (it) likely 5 it (i e. the name) is forgotten, thy name does not come into (his) mind. 

1 . Pause* 

"Without Hari life is consumed. 

I have asked my own Guru and seen, that there is no other place (but Hari). 

(2) . The ground may indeed be studded with diamonds and rubies, on the bedstead rubies may 
be set. 

An enchanting woman, with jewels on her face, may glitter and make shows in merriment. 
Having seen (her) likely it is forgotten, thy name does not come into (his) mind. 

(3) . I may become a Siddh, I may employ miraculous power, I may say to prosperity : Come ! 
I may sit down concealed (or) manifest, thy people may pay reverence (to me). 

Having seen (this) likely thy name does not come into (my) mind, it is forgotten. 

(4) . I may become a Sultan, and having assembled an army I may put my foot on the throne. 
I may obtain command and sit down ; 0 ISTanak ! all is wind ! 

Having seen (this) likely thy name does not come into (my) mind, it is forgotten. 

1 WcT signifies, according to the unanimous testimony of the Sikhs, a musical note or key, according to 
which these verses are to be played and sung. But the exact knowledge of it seems to he lost ; for in spite of 
many inquiries, I have never been able to get an accurate description of it. 

2 This word tiG Lf^T is missing in some MSS. ; the verses are in reality Tripadas. The Sikhs call the 
Dupadas, Tripadas and Caupadas generally sabd. 

3 5?T» is a very fine composition, of a red colour, made of amla (Sansk. WT^T«B)> which women 
apply to their foreheads. 

4 No person is mentioned ; it may therefore he applied to the first or tliird person singular. 

5 Vf~? is no,t to be confounded with ^f3" (lest) ; is the Sansk. i| cjf( according to my opinion ; we 
have therefore translated it with likely. 



Siri Rag ; mahala I. 
II. 1 

(1) . (If my) life (be) crores, crores, if wind-drinking (be my) nouriture. 2 

If (dwelling) in a cave I do not see neither moon nor sun, (if) I have no place for dreaming (and) 

Yet thy value is not found out (by me), how great shall I call thy name ? 

1. Fame. 

True is the Formless in his own place. 

Having heard, heard the word (one) tells it ; if it pleases (to any), he longs (for it). 3 

(2) . (If) I be killed and cut (in pieces) repeatedly, (if) I be ground on the grinding stone. 4 
(If) I be burned with fire, (if) I be reduced to ashes (mixed with ashes). 

Yet thy value is not found out (by me), how great shall I call thy name ? 

(3) . (If) having become a bird I roam about and go to a hundred heavens. 
(If) I do not come into the sight of any one, nor do drink and eat anything. 
Yet thy value is not found out (by me), how great shall I call thy name ? 

(4) . 0 Nanak ! if having read, read a paper consisting of a hundred thousand maunds consideration 
(an idea of him) 5 be made. 

(If) the ink do not run short, (if) the wind move the pen. 

Yet thy value is not found out; how great shall I call thy name ? 

Sin Rag ; mahala I. 

(1) . According to destiny one speaks, 6 according to destiny one eats. 
According to destiny a way is made, according to destiny one hears and sees. 
According to destiny the breath is taken ; what shall I go to ask a learned man ? 

1. Pause. 

0 father, the creation of Maya is deception. 

Ey the blind one the name is forgotten; he has neither this nor that (world). 

(2) . What lives, dies ; being born 7 it is here (in this world) eaten up by death. 
Where having sat down one is informed, there none has gone with. 8 

As many weepers as there are, they all bind together a bundle of rice-straw. 9 

1 On the occasion when these verses are said to have been tittered by Nanak, see Sikha de raj di vithia, p. 260. 
* *HfV*HT©" explained by ^-HA ; it is the Sansk. ^(TOfTO, satiety; food. 

3 This line is very intricate, as no subject whatever is indicated. The commentary says : ?j fa?^ ^ 
X^IU-^I 3Tft 3^TT 35T6^T as one has desire, so he covets (it). 

4 VTfe» lengthened instead of Iff^T* having fallen (on the grinding-stone)- 

5 ^T"© is here identical with ^1<£/>T> idea, consideration. 

e y*6<A y#>c\| = ^T^^ yW-^l (similarly ?HTfcf^ JHTM^T) 5 the subject is, as usual, not mentioned. 

7 Tllfii^ from ^TT@<2n= Sindhi ^TRTJT, to be born. 

8 f?f% 'ErfvT where one, having sat down, is informed ; of what, is not mentioned. Very 
likely it should be supplied : of one's good and bad actions, for *Rp£T"@^T has this secondary signfication : 
to correct, to put right. 

9 To bind up a bundle of rice-straw = to do a useless business. Weeping after a dead person is A 
useless thing. 



(3) . (Though) every one says very much and no one says little. 

(His) value is not obtained by any one, by saying he does not become great. 
Thou alone art the true Lord ; of other creatures (there are) many worlds. 

(4) . Who are low-born amongst the low, who are the lowest of the low. 

In their society and community is Nanak; what emulation (have I) with the great ? 
Where the low ones are cared for, there is pardon by thy (merciful) look. 

Siri Rag; mahald L 
IV. 1 

(1) . Covetousness is a dog, falsehood a sweeper, food obtained by cheating carrion. 
Another's defamation (is stirring up) another's dirt, tale-bearing fire, wrath a Candal. 2 
Enjoyments, praising myself, these are my works, 0 creator I 

1. Pause. 

0 father ! may (such things) be spoken, by which honour is obtained. 

Those who do excellent works, are called excellent at the gate (of God), those who do low works, sit 
outside and weep. 

(2) . (There is) the enjoyment of gold, the enjoyment of silver, the enjoyment of a fascinating woman 
(and) of the scent of sandal-wood. 

(There is) the enjoyment of a horse, the enjoyment of a bed, the enjoyment of a palace ; sweet is 
the enjoyment of meat. 

So many are the enjoyments of the body; how shall the name dwell in (this) body? 

(3) . That speech is acceptable, by which speech honour is obtained. 

He who speaks insipid things, comes to grief; hear, 0 foolish ignorant heart! 
Those, who please him, are good ; what will the others say ? 

(4) . They have understanding, they have honour, they have wealth in their lap, in whose heart he, 
(God) is contained. 

What for praising them ? is any one (else) beautiful ? 

0 TTanak ! without (his) glance they are not fond of giving nor of the name. 

Siri Rag; mahald I. 

(1) . A hall of intoxication, of falsehood is given by the giver. 3 
The intoxicated forget death, they enjoy themselves four days. 
The True one is found by those Sofia, who keep fast his court. 

1. Pause. 

0 Nanak ! know the True one as true ! 

By whose service comfort is obtained and (one) goes to thy threshold with honour. 

(2) . He is outwardly true liquor of molasses, 4 in whom the true name is. 

1 The following verses Nanak is said to have uttered in conversation with the Pandits of Benares. — See 
Sikhi de raj di vithia, p. 298. 

2 The way in which the Sikh Pandits explain the Granth may be seen from the Sikh! de raj di vithia, 
p. 299, where the following explanation is given : WHlt fSfcTT f^TZT fh WfTO $ T^TO 9" 
" another's defamation is dirt, wrath is fire, it is like a Candal." The Pandit in question did not understand 
the meaning of ^tf ffVft » and he therefore simply left them out. 

3 The giver here is God, who deludes by his Maya. 

* A strong liquor is distilled from 3J|7, or molasses. 



I sacrifice myself for those, who hear and explain (it). 

Then the heart is known as drunk, when it obtains a place in the palace (of God). 

(3) . When the name is the water (to bathe in), good actions (and) truth the scent of sandal-wood on 
the body. 

Then the face becomes bright; the gifts of the one giver are Lakhs. 
Pain is ordered from the part of him, with whom comfort rests. 

(4) . Why is he forgotten from the mind, whose the life of the creatures is ? 
Without him all is impure, whatever there is of clothing and food. 

All other words are false; what is pleasing to thee, that is acceptable. 

Sirl Rag ; mdhala I. 

(1) . Having burnt the love (of the world) rub it and make it ink ; make understanding the best paper. 
Make love the pen, make the mind the writer ; having asked the Guru, write the decision. 
Write the name, write (its) praise, write that which has no end nor limit. 

1. Pause. 

0 father ! know to write this account ! 

Where account will be asked, there will be made the true sign (or signature). 

(2) . Where greatness will be obtained, always pleasure and delight. 
(There) from their face marks will issue, in whose heart the true name is. 
If it does accrue 1 by destiny, then it is obtained, not by prattle of words. 

(3) . Some come, some rise and go, to whom the name of chieftain is given. 
Some are born as beggars, some have great courts. 

Having gone onwards (to the other world) it will be known, that without the name there is change 
of form. 2 

(4) . Out of thy fear dread is very great ; being consumed, being consumed, the body becomes tattered. 
Those who had the name of Sultan and Khan, have been seen becoming ashes. 

0 Nanak ! when one has risen and departed, all false love breaks down. 

Sirl Rag ; mdhala I. 

(1) . All juices are sweet by minding (the name), (all are) seasoned by hearing (it). 

The acid (juices) will go off by uttering (the name) with the mouth, by the sound 3 they are made spices. 
On whom he looks in mercy, to him the thirty-six kinds of food 4 are one substance. 6 

1. Pause. 

0 father ! other food is a poor pleasure. 

By the eating of which the body is pained and disorder rules in the mind. 

(2) . "Red clothing is a red heart; 6 whiteness (of clothes), truthfulness and donation. 

1 The words 3Uf*T f*T8> 5T VTfft^' must thus be constructed : % Tcrfij 5T VTC^- 

2 V3, change of form, etc., implies here transmigration. He who is not imbued in the name, will be 
subject to a course of transmigration. 

3 The > sound, denotes here "&>if3TcJj uttering Om ! 

4 ^H^p" means here food. 

6 On the occasion when these verses are said to have been uttered, see Sikha de raj dl vithia, p. 293. 
6 <T31 has a double meaning: red, and steeped in love (to God) ; the latter is here understood. 



Blueness and blackness (of clothes), wicked actions; putting on clothes, meditation on the feet 
(of Hari). 

The waistband is made of contentment, wealth and youth is thy name. 


0 father ! other clothing is a poor pleasure. 

By the putting on of which the body is pained and disorder rules in the mind. . 

(3) . To have a knowledge of a horse's saddle, of a golden back-strap, 1 this is thy way. 
Quiver, arrow, bow, sword-belt are the constituent parts of virtue (with thee). 

A musical instrument, a spear, appearing publicly with honour, (this) is thy business, 0 my caste ! 2 


0 father! other 3 mounting is a poor pleasure. 

By which mounting the body is pained and disorder rules in the mind. 

(4) . (My) house and mansion is the delight in (thy) name, thy (merciful) look my family. 
That is (thy) order, which will please thee, (though there be) other very boundless talk. 
0 JSanak ! the true kiug does not ask nor deliberate. 


0 father ! other sleeping is a poor pleasure. 

By which sleep the body is pained and disorder rules in the mind. 

Sin Rag ; maliala I. 

(1) . A. body (besmeared) with kungu, adorned with jewels, perfume of aloe-wood, the breath (kept 
fast) in the body. 

The mark of the sixty-eight Tlrthas in the face — in this there is display of little wisdom. 
In that is wisdom : praising the true name, the abode of (all) excellences. 


0 father ! other wisdom, other and other : 

If it he practised a hundred times, it is the . false effort of the false ones. 

(2) . He (=one) may apply himself to worship, he may be called a Plr, the whole world may flock 
to him. 

He may make his own name famous, he may be counted amongst the Siddhs. 

When his (honour) does not fall into account (before God), all (his) worship is (but) a wretched thing. 

(3) . Those who are established by the true Guru, 4 nobody can efface. 

Within them is the ahode of the name, by the name they will become manifest. 

(By whom) the name is worshipped, the name is minded, they are always unbroken 5 and true. 

(4) . When dust is mingled with dust, what will become of the soul? 

1 TTMfsr (Pers. c^c^ll) is the Sindhi ^{T^RT » a back-strap of a horse, merely put on for ornament's sake. 

2 Nanak is said to have uttered these verses on being asked by his father Kalu to mount a horse and to 
go home. — See Sikha de raj etc., p. 294. y 

3 The word TfcS, other, does not quite agree with the preceding verse, and seems to be a mere repetition 
without any reference to the context. The sense is : this and all such other mounting. 

4 The Sikhs always now refer the words *rf5 to their Guru, as an incarnation of the Deity. 
C nnfe» unbroken, not subject to death (f^RT WT ^THX 1 Tt)- 




All clevernesses are burnt (with the body) ; it rises and goes weeping. 

0 Nanak ! the name being forgotten what will become (of it) when having gone 1 to the gate (of God) ? 

Siri Pag ; mdhala I. 

(1) . The virtues, of the virtuous woman are spread (abroad), the vicious woman pines. 

If the fascinating woman longs for her husband, there is no meeting (with him), the friend (=husband) 
is hard-hearted. 

There is no boat nor buoy, he is not obtained, the friend is far off. 


My perfect Lord is motionless on his throne. 

If he makes the disciple 2 perfect, the True and Unweighable one is obtained. 

(2) . The palace of my Lord Hari is beautiful ; in it are gems and rubies. 
His castle of pearls, pure diamonds and gold, is delightful. 

Without a ladder how shall I ascend to (his) castle ? 
I am happy by the meditation on Hari (my) Guru. 

(3) . The Guru 3 is the ladder, the Guru is the boat, the Guru is the buoy, the name of Hari. 
The Guru is the pond, the sea, the boat, the Guru is the Tirtha and the sea. 

If she pleases him, she is bright, she goes to bathe in the true tank. 

(4) . He is called brimful, 4 dwelling on a full throne. 

(Dwelling) in a full, beautiful place, he fulfils the hope of the hopeless. 
0 Nanak ! if he is found full, how shall his qualities diminish ? 

Siri Bag ; mdhala I. 

x l). Come, sister, cling to my neck, (cling) to my breast, 0 dear companion! 
Having joined (me) tell (me) stories about thy powerful sweetheart (husband). 
In the true Lord are all virtues, in us are all vices. 


0 creator ! every one is in thy power. 

One word considered : when thou art, what are the others ? 

(2) . Go ask the woman beloved by her husband : by what cleverness is he enjoyed by you? 
"Easily with contentment she is adorned, who speaks sweetly. 

The sweet friend is then met with, when I hear the word (instruction) of the Guru." 

(3) . How many are thy powers, how great is thy donation? 

How many are thy living creatures, who praise thee day and night? 

How many are thy forms and colours, how many the high-born and the outcasts? 

(4) . If the True one is found, comfort 5 springs up (in the heart); the true ones are absorbed into 
the True one. 

1 3ffenTT must be read zrfSWT (in having gone), but in all such cases the Anusvara is never placed. 

2 As the word signifies also God, 3TWftf may denote a man who turns his face towards God, a 
seeker of God. 

3 The Guru is here the Gurdev (the incarnate Guru). This is shown by the whole context. 
* VTT, full, denotes in reference to God : all-filling, all-pervading and perfect in himself. 

5 signifies here comfort, joy. 



If attention is made, honour springs up ; by the words of the Guru he (=one) eats up his fear. 
0 Nanak ! the true king himself unites (him with himself). 

Sir^Rag ; mahala I. 

(1) . It has come to a good issue, 1 that I have been saved, (that) egotism has died away from (my) 
house (=body). 

The messengers (of Yama) render service again, (because I have) faith in the true Guru. 

He who abandons his own volitions 2 is an idle talker; the True one (alone) is without concern. 


0 heart ! if the True one is found, fear departs. 

How shall (one) become without dread and fear ? 

The disciple is absorbed by means of the word (of the Guru). 

(2) . How much utterance (of the name) is made (and yet) in uttering no end is reached ! 
How many are the beggars ! he alone is the bountiful. 

By the indwelling in the heart of him, whose the life of the creatures is, comfort is obtained. 

(3) . The world is a dream, (in which) a play is made ; for a moment he (God) makes her play the play. 
United (by God), those who are alike, meet together, separated (by God) they rise and go. 

What has pleased him, that is done, anything else cannot be done. 

(4) . Bythe disciple the thing 3 (i.e. the name of Hari) is purchased, (this is) true trade-stock, true capital. 
By whom the true (stock) is sold, praise to that perfect Guru ! 

0 iNanak ! he will recognize (know) the thing, who traffics in truth. 

Siri Rag ; mahala I. 

(1) . A metal is again joined to a metal, he who praises is absorbed into the object of praise. 
Apply (to thyself) deep red, 4 thick, true colour ! 

The True one is found by the contented, having uttered "Hari" with one mind. 


0 brother, (become) the dust of the holy people ! 

In the assembly of the saints the Guru (=God) is obtained, (final) liberation and the cow of all things. 6 

(2) . High and beautiful is (his) place, above is the palace of Murari. 6 

By true (=good) works the gate of the house and palace of the beloved is obtained. 
The mind of the disciple is instructed having reflected on the Supreme Spirit. 7 

1 &#>\ *T<ft fr{, i-e- ^175 1<ft yf> literally : a good thing has been effected, that. 

2 oT^Vr fZWfaft must nere De taken in the sense of : he who says or pretends, that he is abandoning 
his volitions or designs. 

3 ^W3> as often used in the Grantb, signifies the thing' icar i^offlv, i.e. the name of Hari. 

4 35T75 ; both are adjectives (for is also used as adjective) signifying "red." 

° "M^TcTET is identical with S^W ifcs, the cow that grants all wishes. V^TcTW signifies in Hindu! 
also : all things. 

6 *id ltd (*}\Tf\)». ^ e enemy of Mura (a Daitya), name of Vishnu or Krishna = God, 

7 WT3*T3TH (* ne same as V<W3*T0> Sansk. -4||dJT^T7T> tn e Supreme Spirit. It denotes the world- 
soul (enjoying itself), identified with Vishnu or Hari. 


(3) . If the threefold work 1 be practised, there arises hope and anxiety. 

How shall without the Guru the triad 2 cease to he ? hy being united with the self-existing, 3 comfort 

(By whom) in his own house his (God's) palace is recognized to be, he washes off his dirt (sin), if 
he (God) looks (on him) in mercy. 

(4) . Without the Guru the dirt does not go off; without Hari how is there perfume in the house? 
(By whom) the one word {i.e. the name) is reflected upon, he gives up (all) other hope. 

0 Nanak ! (by whom) he {i.e. Hari) is seen and pointed out (to me); (for him) I always sacrifice myself. 

Sirl Rag ; mahala I. 

(1) . Woe to the life of the unfavoured woman, she is ruined hy second love. 4 

Like a wall impregnated with saltpetre day and night falls and tumbles down (so she goes to ruin). 
Without the word (=name) no comfort arises, without the beloved pain does not go. 


0 handsome young woman ! what is decoration without the beloved ? 

At the gate thou obtainest no entrance to the house, at the threshold the false one is wretched. 

(2) . He himself the wise one is not mistaken, he is a true, great husbandman. 
Eirst having brought the soil in order he sows the seed of the name (in it). 5 

The nine treasures are produced (from) the one name, (according to) destiny the sign (=lot) falls. 

(3) . The wise one, who does not know the Guru, what is his wisdom and good conduct? 
By the blind the name is forgotten, in the self-willed is great mistiness. 6 

His coming and going does not cease ; having died he is horn (again) and becomes wretched. 

(4) . Sandal-wood has been bought, kungu and red lead for the parting-line of the hair. 
Very much perfume, 7 camphor with betel-leaves. 

If the woman does not please the sweetheart, 8 all (this) apparatus is useless. 

(5) . The enjoyment of all pleasures is useless, all ornaments are an abnormal thing. 

As long as she is not perforated 9 by the word (of the Guru), how shall she receive honour at the 
gate of the Guru ? 

0 Nanak ! those favoured women are blessed, who are in love with their husband. 10 

1 (cffyfM is ^f^rf (what is collected, heaped up), ITPC^ (what has been commenced), and 
(sh^^lTfT (what is being done). 

2 f35^ (formed from the Sausk. f^FTS, having three heads or horns), triad, the three qualities ^ 
(^rcT = *ra, the true nature, the quality of goodness), ^ {r^[=J^^, passion), and 3^ (cl*T = fHR> 
darkness), inherent in all that is created. 

3 *1vl-H , the same as ^T*frf%^i > self-existing, an attribute of the Supreme Being; but it may also be 
translated by: composure {of mind) ; composure {of mind) being obtained. 

4 ^rTT 3\G> second love (other than the love of God) = worldly love ; duality* 

5 lc% is here, for the sake of the rhyme, = ^f^TT, grain, seed. 

b *H*T STETT'B') a frequent expression in the Granth : deep darkness or mistiness (^Lfi). 

*6*Cf>, name of a perfume, ^*HT (Amaranthus oleaceus) and sandal- wood ground 

together to a paste. 

8 ^ TO 3^3" 7; cTf^ft; Sjfj is here neither Ablative nor Locative, but stands for j^fa (Dative). 

9 3-£C!\T> v.a. To perforate, to split ; in the passive : to be perforated = to be thoroughly imbued in. 

10 is a SindhI word (^r), and signifies properly : bridegroom. 



Siri Rag; wiahala I. 

(1) . Empty and frightful is the body, wflen the soul (or life) departs from it. 
The burning fire is extinguished, not any smoke has issued from it. 1 

The five (elements) 2 have wept, filled with pain, they are destroyed by second love. 


0 fool ! mutter Hari, remembering his qualities. 

Egotism and selfishness is captivating, the whole (world) is ruined by egotism. 

(2) . By whom the name is forgotten, having stuck to another business : 

They, by giving themselves to duality, 3 are consumed and dead; in their heart is the fire of thirst. 
Those are saved, who are preserved by the Guru, the others are cheated and deceived by their 
(worldly) business. 4 

(3) . Dead is friendship, love is gone, enmity and opposition is dead. 
(Worldly) business is stopped, egotism is dead, selfishness and wrath 'is absorbed. 

It is owing to destiny that the True one is obtained; the disciple is always suppressing (his senses). 

(4) . By true work the True one is found, by the wisdom of the Guru he falls into the skirt (of the 

That man is not born (again) nor does he die, he does not come nor go. 

0 ISTanak ! he who is foremost at the gate, he will go dressed to the threshold (of God). 5 

Siri Bag ; maliala I. 

(1) . The body being burnt has become earth, the mind by the infatuation of the Maya (like) dross. 
The (old) vices have again clung to it, the cruel ones sound (again) the trumpet. 

Without the word (of the Guru) he (or the mind) is brought into error, duality sinks the boat's load. 


0 mind ! be attentive to the word and cross (thereby) over ! 

By whom the name proceeding from the mouth of the Guru is not understood, he, having died, is 
born (again), he comes and goes. 

(2) . That is called a pure body, in which the true name is. 

(Such a) body is steeped in true fear (of God), the tongue has a true taste. 

(If) it {i.e. the body) is looked upon with a true glance (of mercy), it will not get into distress again. 

1 dlRj y 66-^1" S life is compared to a burning fire, which is extinguished without leaving any trace of 
Its existence. 

Q The five are here the elements (c^T), viz. : ^Eft (earth), Sf^f (water), "^rf^t (fire), ^T*J (breath), 
^IT^rni (ether), of which the body is composed according to Hindu notion. The Sikhs refer the five to 
SJTO (lust), ^Tf (wrath), ^3 (covetousness), *ftT (infatuation), HoffiJ (selfishness). 

3 ■ifyMI has in the Granth not the sense of doubt, but retains its original meaning : duality, twofold- 
ness (Sansk. §fcf \2T), like ^tTT ~3 I Q * 

4 ZfJT must be constructed thus : TTRt crfST flft ; W&t is fem. (supply 'Sf3[ 
is part, past conj. 

5 ^,fd inJ^TTTS foremost at the gate (of the Guru), Le. quite given to the attention and service of the 
Guru. thTTj dressed, i.e. in a dress of honour (c^Ji^). 



(3) . "From the True one wind (air) has proceeded, from the wind water has heen engendered. 
From water the three worlds have been made, into every body light is infused. 1 

The pure does not become defiled ; by him, who is steeped in the word, honour is obtained. 

(4) . This mind is contented in the True one, (if) he (God) casts upon it a look of mercy. 
The five beings 2 are steeped in true fear, there is true light in the mind. 

0 Nanak ! the vices are forgotten ; those who are protected by the Guru (obtain) honour. 

Siri Rag ; mahala I. 

(1) . 0 Kanak ! on the boat of the True one there is crossing over by means of reflection on the Guru. 3 
Some come, some go, quite full of selfishness. 

The intoxicated with obstinacy of mind are drowned, the disciple that True one is bringing across. 


How shall it be crossed without the Guru, (how) shall comfort be obtained ? 
As it is pleasing (to thee), so keep me, I have none other. 

(2) . If I look before me, there is a conflagration of the jungle, 4 on my back there are green sprouts. 
By whom it is produced, by him it is destroyed, in every body (vessel) the True one is brimful. 
He himself (also) unites to union 5 (with himself), to his true palace and presence (he conveys). 

(3) . At every breath I remember thee, I never forget thee. 

As, as the Lord dwells in the mind, (so, so) the disciple drinks nectar. 

Mind and hody are thine, thou art the Lord, having removed pride thou indwellest. 

(4) . By whom this world is produced, having made the forms (beings) of the three worlds. 
(His) light is known by the disciple, (whereas) the self-willed is bewildered in mistiness. 

The light (which is) unintermittingly in every body, he comprehends, who bears in mind the wisdom 
of the Guru. 6 

(5) . The disciples, by whom it {i.e. the light) is known, are applauded. 

They are united with the True one, they manifest the qualities of the True one. 

0 Nanak ! by the name they are contented, their soul and body is with the Lord. 

Sirl Rag ; mahala I. 

(1). Hear, 0 heart ! 0 beloved friend ! be united (with the Supreme Being), this is the time. 
As long as there is there the breath of youth, give (him) this body ! 
Without virtue it is of no use, the body decaying is reduced to ashes again. 

1 This is not quite in accordance with the cosmogonies of the Puranas ; see Vishnu Purana, p. 16, note 25. 

2 Vfe W5, the five beings (not elements), i.e. STW, Sjq, ^T, U3T? > which are personified. 

3 3U7ST> to cross (the ocean of existence) ; the crossing is made possible by reflection or meditation 
(f^c^ldAl) on the Guru, who is the mediator of salvation. 

* s.m. a burning of the jungle, 3@ y^ t literally : a conflagration of the jungle is burning. 

5 Slfe fiiWlOcM is a frequent expression in the Granth ; i^fe is the Locative of union, so 
that 5tfe fitwiQcvi literally signifies : to unite in or to union (with himself) ; from the Supreme Being 
all emanates and into it all is again reunited. 

6 ^fp£ <Ud*lfe *TTH ; these words are very comprehensive ; is = ?{\% (from t||cl/>|), to keep in 
mind, to think or reflect upon (Sindhi : HTT*J> Sansk. ^TR^F)- 




0 my heart ! having ohtained (this) profit go to thy house ! 

(If) by the disciple the name is praised,^he fire of egotism is removed. 

(2) . (If) having heard, heard a literary composition be made, 1 (if) having written and read a load, 
one understand it. 

His thirst is day and night very great, (as there is in him) the disease and abnormal state of egotism. 
He (i.e. God) is without concern, unweighable, (but) the wisdom of the Guru calculates his (God's) 
value. 2 

(3) . (If) I acquire lakhs of clevernesses, friendship and intimacy with lakhs (of people). 
"Without the society of the saint 3 I am not satiated, without the name I have pain and affliction. 
Having muttered Hari in the heart, (final) emancipation is obtained, the disciple recognizes his 

own. self. 

(4) . Body and heart is sold to the Guru, the heart is given with the head. 

By the disciple the three worlds are searched through, searching and looking about. 

He, who is united'to union (with God) by the true Guru, he, 0 Nanak ! is with the Lord. 

Bin Rag ; mahala I. 

(1) . There is no anxiety about death, no hope of life. 

Thou takest care of all creatures, thou countest their breath and morsel. 
Within the disciple thou dwellest, as it pleases (thee), so thou determinest. 4 


0 heart ! muttering Earn, the mind is soothed. 

In the heart grudge is hurnt and extinguished, by the disciple divine knowledge is obtained. 

(2) . (If) the state of the heart be known, if the Guru be joined, fear ceases. 

From which house, when being dead, one must depart, in that, whilst living, kill thyself and die ! 
From the unbeaten, beautiful sound he (i.e. Hari) is obtained, by means of reflection on the Guru. 5 

(3) . If the unbeaten sound is obtained, egotism is annihilated. 
For him, who serves his own true Guru, I always sacrifice myself. 

Standing at the threshold (of God) he is dressed (with a dress of honour), in whose mouth the 
name of Hari dwells. 

(4) . Where I see, there he is diffused, there is union of Shiva and of his Shaktis. 6 

1 3T\E<5 af^OT; jfe? (=Sansk. ?TS|'f)> binding together, making a 3^ (literary composition). 

8 Wtt is here a verb, ^n^TST* to compute, to calculate. As regards the verbal forms, I must refer to 
my Grammar to the Granth, which I intend to publish, as it would carry me too far to explain in notes all 
the different grammatical forms. 

3 THTj when used in the singular^ often denotes the Guru. 

4 fAd"H IJJcM is traditionally explained by the Sikhs = fed A I oJ<JAT> to judge, to determine. Its 
etymology is obscure (perhaps identical with the Hindi f^rN^Sf, f^f^Ef = f^^^). 

5 *H25vTC is the same as ttJAUd I > unbeaten. The sound not produced by beating (a drum, etc.) is 
said to be produced in the ^JJ^t "^WTO or tenth gate (of the human hody), Le. the vault of the head, 
where the vital breath, by the practice of Jog, is concentrated, and where that sound is believed to be produced 
thereby. J>f7^R "SITSft is the same as ttJAU^ 

6 About the Shaktis of Mahadeva or Shiva, see Vishnu Purana, p. 51, note 4. Rudra ( = Shiva) is with 
his energies an agent in creation. 



In three qualities 1 the body is bound up ; he who has come into the world is a sport. 
By separation (from God) they are separated in pain, the self-willed do not obtain union (with God). 
(5). If the mind retired from the world dwell in its (own) house (body), if it be imbued with true 
fear (of God). 

It enjoys the great delight of divine knowledge, it will not again become hungry. 
0 Nanak ! kill this (thy) mind and be united (to God), there will not be again pain. 

Stri Bag ; niahala I. t 

(1) . This mind is foolish and covetous, given to and allured by covetousness. 

The Sakta (worshipper of the Shakti) is not affected by the word (of the Guru), in foolishness he 
is coming and going. 

If a Sadh (holy man) meet with the true Guru, the abode of qualities {i.e. the Supreme Being) 
is obtained (by him). 


0 (my) mind ! give up egotism and pride ! 

Having served Hari, the Guru, the ocean, thou wilt obtain honour at the threshold. 

(2) . Having muttered the name of Ram day and night, the disciple knows the wealth of Hari. 

All comforts are in the enjoyment of the taste of Hari; in the assembly of the saints divine 
knowledge is obtained. 

(By whom) always, day and night, the Lord Hari is worshipped, (to him) the name is given by the 
true Guru. 

(3) . By the dog falsehood is practised; by reviling the Guru he is wasted and consumed. 

Erring he wanders about, he has much pain ; Yama having killed (him), makes him a threshing-floor. 2 
The self-willed obtains no comfort, the disciple (obtains) comfort and splendour. 3 

(4) . Here (in this world) business is pushed on, (but) the writ of the True one is authoritative. 
He is the friend (of) Hari who serves the Guru ; by the agency of the Guru he is foremost. 

0 Nanak! who does not forget the name, he (is) conspicuous 4 by (this) true work. 

Sir! Rag ; mahala I. 

(1). If but a little the beloved be forgotten, there is great sickness in the mind (produced). 

How shall honour at the threshold be obtained, when Hari does not dwell in the mind ? 

By meeting with the Guru comfort is obtained, the fire dies, the (three) qualities are absorbed. 5 


0 mind, day and night remember the qualities of Hari ! 

Those men are rare in the world, by whom the name is not a single moment forgotten. 

1 The three qualities are !tt> 3*^* 

2 i.e. He beats him hard like a threshing-floor. 

3 = Sansk. H + *TT*Jj splendour, lustre. 

* A^lc^ may here be translated by "conspicuous" (literally, a flag) ; true work (Sansk. ^fc^ «fpft) =not 
forgetting the name — is that which has a real value or merit. By not forgetting the name, a man becomes 
honoured at the threshold of Hari. But may also be taken = 7?|4f|%, he attends to, is intent on 

(with the Locative) true work. 

6 ^frfvT* HTfij is here verb (V||GcM = *PJlGcM > to be absorbed) and not postposition (in). 



(2) . (If) light be united with the source of light, there is conjunction of the intelligence with the 
principle of intelligence. 1 

By the destruction of egotism they are gone, there are no (longer) doubt and grief. 
In which disciple's mind Hari dwells, his union (with Hari) the Guru brings about. 

(3) . If I make (my) body (like that) of a fascinating woman, the enjoyer will enjoy (it). 
With that love should not he made, tbat appears as transitory. 

That Lord is the husband of the bed, he dallies (with) the disciple (as with) a beloved woman. 

(4) . Having removed the four fires 2 by throwing the water of Hari (upon them), die, 0 disciple ! 
Within (thee) the lotus is (then) opened, filled with nectar thou wilt be satiated. 

0 Nanak ! having made the true Guru (thy) friend, thou wilt attain the True one, having gone to 
the threshold (of God). 

Slrl Rag ; makald I. 

(1) . 0 beloved, mutter Hari, Hari ! having taken the wisdom (instruction) of the Guru say : Hari! 
0 mind, if the touchstone be applied to the True one, if he be weighed by a full weight : 

His value is not obtained by any one, 0 heart ! he is a priceless * gem. 


0 brother, the diamond of Hari is in the Guru ! 

In the true assembly 4 the true Guru is obtained by praising (Hari) day and night by means of the 
word (of the Guru). 5 

(2) . The true stock-in-trade (or goods), wealth and capital is obtained from the Guru's revelation. 
As fire dies by water being poured upon it, thus thirst (is extinguished) by the slave of slaves.* 
The executioner 7 of Yama does not touch (the disciple), thus he crosses the water of existence and 

will cause (others) to cross. 

(3) . To the disciple falsehood is not pleasing; to him, who is attached to truth, truth is pleasing. 
To the Sakta (= impious) truth does not please, falsehood is allotted to the false one. 

By the Guru being joined (with them) they (—the true ones) are steeped in truth, the true ones 
are absorbed in the True one. 

(4) . In the heart is a gem, a ruby ; the name is a jewel, the best thing, 8 a diamond. 

The true stock and wealth is the name ; in every body is the profound and deep (Supreme Being). 

0 Nanak ! by the disciple the diamond is obtained, if Hari bestow mercy on him. 

1 The Supreme Being is ^jf^ (^fcft ^HP-ft)' self-resplendent or the source of light, which is the principle 
of life in rational beings. In consequence of the (light) being infused into the created spirits, there is 
Tr3f3", intelligence, in them. The Supreme Being is therefore 44dj^, intelligent, or the priuciple of intelli- 
gence, from which the JTHfe of the (rational) beings has emanated. 

2 The four fires or heHts are said to be : fif*TT> ^TT» 5^?> 753- 

8 S)f*5 ?HiMfe> suc b like compounds are very frequent in the Granth, signifying literally: priceless in price. 
4 4JJ|fe> tbe true assembly or the assembly of the true disciples or saints. 
8 4Jfc|fc TfWIdcNW to praise Hari by means of the or w ord of the Guru. 

fi ^l+jHs CTTj the slave of slaves (servus servorum), i.e. the Guru. This phrase is of frequent occur- 
rence in the Granth. 

7 itmr> which the Sikhs traditionally explain by messenger 0£3"), is the same as 7^735= 533735, a 
Canp^al = executioner. 

8 V^ldM > Nka ^W3r the thing, the real thing or substance = the best thing or including all things. 




Sirl Rag; maliald I. 

(1) . By wandering about the fire (of the heart) is not extinguished, if one wander from country to 

From his heart the dirt ( = sin) does not go off, wretched is his life, wretched his (faqir's) dress. 
Devotion is not brought about by anything, except by the instruction of the true Guru. 


0 heart, attending to the Guru, remove the fire ! 

If the word of the Guru dwells in the mind, the thirst of egotism dies away. 

(2) . 0 mind ! it {i.e. the name) is a priceless gem, from the name of Bam honour is obtained, 1 
Having joined the assembly of the true ones Hari is obtained by the disciple, having applied his 

devotion 2 to Hari. 

When his own self is gone, comfort is obtained, (as) water mixing with water is absorbed (in it), 

(3) . By whom the name of Hari, Hari is not kept in his thoughts, he comes and goes vicious. 

By whom the true Guru, the Spirit, 3 has not been joined, he pines in the water of existence and 
causes (others) to pine. 

This gem, 0 soul! which is priceless, goes thus for a kaudi (cowrie). 

(4) . Those are perfect and wise men, by whom, being desirous 4 for, the true Guru is found. 
Having met with the Guru the water of existence is crossed (by them), at the threshold they are 

manifest 5 (present) with honour. 

0 Nanak! they will have bright faces, (in whom) contemplation springs up (and) attention (to the) 
word (of the Guru). 6 

Sirl Rag ; mahala I. 

(1). Make traffic, 0 trader! take with care a stock of goods. 

Such a thing should be bought, with which one gets through (the water of existence). 
In the other world is a very knowing banker, he will look after the thing. 7 

1 t| l<^cM (jJUmf) is also neuter, to be received, to come to hand. 

2 fw<£ s.f. (Sindhi ^3 $./•), Sansk. the entering into a thing, absorption in = deep meditation or 
intense devotion to, 

3 The true Guru is often called in the Granth VT^ (J^)- *J^T is called in the Vishnu-Purana 
Vishnu (who is identified with Brahma), TJ^ 1 (spirit, individuality) being the first form of the Supreme, See 
Vishnu Purana, p. 9. The true Guru is considered as an Avatar of the Supreme Being, and therefore the 
attribute of \nj*J is conferred on him too. Baba Nanak is considered by the Sikhs as an Avatar (incarnation) 
of the Supreme (Vishnu), who became again incarnate in the nine following Gurus ; for this reason they all 
call themselves Nanak. 

4 ?fiT is adjective (xfa*0» having a taste for, longing for, or having a right understanding for the matter. 
6 *Md<Sl<£ has here the sense of TT^f^, manifest, present, as used already by Tulsl Das (and written by 

him l|<**M). 

6 No Sikh, how much soever I inquired, could explain me this verse. The sense is : those have (or will 
have) bright faces in whom contemplation (iffo) and attention (?ffan^) of the word springs up. *TTO> 
sound, word, is nearly always the word of the Guru. 

* The <SOTr1ld<; or trafficker (retail dealer) takes his stock of goods (or ^jf*? capital) from the 

*TRF (^rrcr)> wholesale merchant or banker, to whom he is accountable. 




0 brother, say Earn ! attentively. 

Having taken the praise of Hari as thy stjck of goods go, if the Lord sees it, he puts confidence in it. 

(2) . "Who have no capital of truth, how shall they obtain comfort ? 
By carrying on a base traffic heart and body become base. 

Like a deer caught in a snare he has much pain and weeps always. 

(3) . The base ones (like base coins) are not received at the treasury, they do not obtain the sight of 
Hari the^Guru. 

The base ones have neither caste nor fellowship, by baseness nobody prospers. 

The base practise baseness; having come (into this world) they lose their honour when having gone. 

(4) . 0 Nanak ! the heart should be instructed by the word of the Guru (and in) the praise (of Hari). 
Those who are steeped in the love of the name of Earn, have no burden nor doubt. 

In muttering Hari is the greatest profit, the fearless Hari (dwells then) in the heart. 

Siri Rag ; mahala I. 
II. Ghar. 

(1) . Wealth, youth and a flower are guests for four days. 

Like the leaf of a lotus, 1 after having brought forth flowers, is withering away. 


Enjoy pleasure, when youth is fresh (blooming), 0 beloved ! 

The few days (of youth) are (soon) over and the coat (=body) has become old. 

(2) . My merry friends have departed and are fallen asleep in the grave-yard. a 

1 also shall go sad and weep with a feeble voice. 

(3) . Thou hearest not at all the intelligence with thy ears, 0 woman ! 

Forthwith thou wilt come to thy father-in-law's house, thou wilt not be continually in thy father's house. 
0 Nanak ! know, she who has fallen asleep in her father's house out of season, has lost the bundle 
of her virtues and is gone off, having bound together vices. 

Siri Rag; mahala I. 
II. Ghar. 

(1) . He himself is enjoying pleasure, 3 he himself is the pleasure, he himself is amusing (others) 
(with pleasure). 

He himself is the petticoat (= woman), he himself is the husband of the bed. 


Given to pleasure is my Lord, brimful he is contained (everywhere). 

(2) . He himself is the fisher and the fish, he himself is the water and the net. 

1 "IpTfe, SindhI Tf^rftr* Sansk. tjfflwft, the lotus plant, (not the flower) Nelumbium speciosum. 

2 tflcJlfe is explained by the Sikhs = ^TTcJt (in the graves), but the proper sense of the word is grave- 
yard. l fldlcV = Sansk. , decayed, the last syllable being originally han = an, i.e. ^JT*f , place, the place 
of the decayed. 

8 <F*ft*HT> <nT) dl^cAU refers chiefly to sensual pleasure. dl^cM is the causal of d^cM (= <PT^T» 

^•TT), and signifies either to amuse, to divert, or to cause (others) to dally with. 


SIEI bag, mah. l, sabdxxvi. xxvil 

He himself is the bait 1 of the net, he himself is within (it) the greediness (of the fish). 

(3) . My heloyed himself is in many ways playful, 0 my (female) friend ! 
He continually dallies (with) the favoured woman; behold ! this is my state. 

(4) . Nanak bows with supplication : thou art the lake, thou art the gander. 
Thou art the crane, 2 thou art the white lotus, thou thyself seest (thy) opening. 3 

Sin Rag ; mahald I. 
III. Ghar, 

(1) . Make this body the earth, (good) works the seed, the bow-holder 4 will pour water (upon it). 
(Make) the mind the husbandman, cause Hari to spring up (as a sprout) in the heart, thus thou 

wilt obtain the state of final emancipation. 


Why art thou proud, 0 fool ! of the Maya (illusive wealth) ? 

Thy father, son, all thy wives, thy mother, will at the end not be thy companions. 

(2) . He who pulls out (from his heart) the abnormal state of sensuality and the wicked ones, 5 
becomes meditating on the Supreme Spirit, after having given them up. 

Then silent repetition (of the name), austerity and continence is made, when they (i.e. the wicked) 
are checked, the lotus opens in the hermitage {i.e. secluded heart). 

(3) . (Who) subdues the twenty-seven fold body, 6 (who) in the three stations 7 remembers continually 

He recognizes in the ten and eighteen * the Infinite ; Kanak says : thus he is in one (continual) 
absorption (of thought). 

Siri Rag ; mahala I. 
III. Ghar. 

(1). Make works the earth, the name the seed, give continually the water of truth. 

Having become a husbandman, grow faith ; paradise and hell is thus (obtained) by the fool (and) wise. 9 

1 *T^73T s ' m ' diminutive of (= ^mtfcR), a plant (Arum Indicum), the root of which is sometimes 
eaten and used as a bait for fish. 

2 o/Qw (Sansk. cR^T^f) must here be translated by crane, for the sake of contrast. S^tofL Sansk. 
cflfqqu , is the white lotus, that opens at night-time. 

3 f%?T*T instead of f^TTO (Sansk. f%cfiTO), the opening of the lotus (at night-time). t 

4 *1lfdJlMT^> in whose hand is a bow, an epithet of Vishnu. 

5 ^RZ, the wicked are SfR, ^J, 

6 xffaT *TV|3 lvld> the twenty-seven fold, i.e. body. The body is said to consist of twenty-five parts, of 
*HT3^TT and of = twenty-seven. 

1 tra* s.m. station = ?H<J*ftU, U. 5TRc^ W(fj{, waking, dream and deep sleep ; a fourth (cjffa) 

is also counted, the absorption of the soul in Brahma. 

8 The ten are said to be the four Vedas and the six Shastras ; the eighteen are the eighteen Puranas. 

9 The words are so elliptic, that they are hardly intelligible. The sense is : thus paradise is obtained by 
the wise and hell by the fool. 




Likely thou wilt think, that it {i.e. paradise) is obtained by (mere) words. 

By the conceit of wealth, by the beauty of the body, in this wise the (human) birth is lost. 

(2) . Vice is on the body (like) mud, this mind is a frog, who does not get any information respecting 
the lotus. 

The black bee is the teacher, who continually talks ; how shall it {i.e. the mind) understand, when 
he (the black bee) does not make it understand ? 

(3) . Speaking and hearing is (like) the voice of the wind {i.e. useless), this mind is attached to 
the Maya. 

The (merciful) glance of the Lord is heart-pleasing to them, by whom he is considered as One and 
meditated upon. 

(4) . (By whom) the thirty (days of fasting) and the five (prayers daily) have been kept, he, having 
made the name his companion, goes off, having frustrated the design of Satan. 

Nanak says : it must he departed, what for is property and wealth amassed ? 

Biri Rag ; mafiald I, 
IY. Ghar. 

(1) . He is the Lord, by whom the world is made budding, (by whom) the world is made green. 
By whom the water and earth have been fixed ; blessed is the creator. 


Thou must die, 0 Mulla, ! thou must die ! remain in the fear of the creator ! 1 

(2) . Then thou art a Mulla, then thou art a KazI, if thou knowest the name of God. 
None, though he be very learned, will remain, it is gone onwards. 2 

(3) . He is a Kazi, by whom his own self is abandoned and the one name is made his support. 
He is and will be, he will not be destroyed, true is the creator. 

(4) . Five times he prays, he reads the book of the Qoran. 
Nanak says : when the grave calls, drinking and eating is stopped, 

Sirl Rag ; mahala I. 
IY. Ghar. 

(1). There is one dog (and) two bitches with (me). 
Bewildered they always bark early in the morning. 
Falsehood is a knife, stolen (goods) carrion. 
I remain in the form of a bowman, 3 0 creator ! 


I have no road of honour, 4 nor do I practise good works. 
I am ugly and remain in an unclean form. 

1 3t at the beginning of a sentence and in connexion with an imperative, is an exhortatory particle, like 
the Sanskrit ^rfxj . 

2 VTfjJ 3cJ3H i to carry the foot = to go on, to quicken one's step. 

3 1||AqJ i armed with a bow; a caste of low people, who are armed with a bow and live by hunting. 

4 Yff^ ^\ Vft* road of honour, i.e. I do not walk honourably. 



Only thy name saves the world. 
This is my hope, this my support. 

(2) . "With my mouth I utter calumny day and night. 
I look at another's wife and am of low occupation. 1 
Lust and wrath dwell in my body, I am a Candal. 

0 creator! I remain in the form of a bowman. 

(3) . Ensnared (caught) is my understanding by an elegant dress. 

1 am a cheater, I cheat the country. 

I am very clever, great is my weight. 2 

I remain in the form of a bowman, 0 creator ! 

(4) . I am ungrateful, I live on the wages of iniquity. 
How shall I, wicked thief, show my face ? 

The humble Fanak expresses his thought. 

I remain in the form of a bowman, 0 creator ! 

Siri Rag ; mahala I. 
IY. Qhar. 

1. There is one (and the same) understanding in as many creatures as there are. 
"Without understanding none is created. 
As their understanding is, so is their way. 

The account is one and the same, (in consequence of which) they come and go. 3 


Why, 0 soul ! practisest thou cleverness ? 

He (i.e. God) takes and gives, there is no remissness (on his part). 4 

(2) . Thine are the creatures and thou belongest to the creatures. 
To whom (else) shall they come and weep, 0 Lord ? 

As thou art the Lord, they come (to thee) and weep. 
Thou art theirs and they are thine. 

(3) . We contradict, we contradict. 
Thou weighest (us) within thy sight. 

Who (does) good works, he has full understanding. 
Without good works it (i.e. the understanding) decreases in the heart. 
.(4). Mnak bows ( = says): what sort of a man will get divine knowledge? 
He who knows his own self, will comprehend (God). 
Who reflects by the favour of the Guru : 
That sage is acceptable at the threshold (of God). 

1 Occupied with or in a low business, or a low-caste man. 

2 It is difficult to say wbat is exactly meant by ^T?T» as there is no hint to what it is to be 
referred. Very likely the sense is : my weight (^T? ma y have this meaning) is great, which I, as a clever 
man, have or exercise. 

3 ^tfT is the final account taken and asked at the threshold of God, according to which they come and 
go, i.e* are subjected to transmigration* 



Sirl Rag ; mahald I. 
IV. Ghar. 

(1) . Thou art the ocean, wise arid clear-sighted, how shall I, the little fish, obtain (thy) end ? 
Wherever I see, there art thou, if I go out from thee, I burst and die. 


I do not know the fisher nor do I know the net. 
"When pain overtakes me, I remember thee. 

(2) . Thou, 0 -beloved! art known as brimful, I am far off. Whatever I do, that is in thy 

Thou seest, I do not acknowledge (it). Neither thy work nor thy name. 

(3) . As much as thou givest, so much I eat. I have no other door, to which door shall I go ? 
Nanak makes one supplication: soul and body, all is with thee. 

(4) . He himself is near, he himself is far, he himself is in the midst. 
He himself sees and hears, he himself by his power makes the world. 
That order, 0 Nanak ! which is pleasing to him, is authoritative. 

Birl Rag ; mahald I. 

IV. Ghar. 

(1) « Why is the creature conceited in its mind ? 
The gift is in the hand of the giver. 

As he pleases, so he gives or does not give. 
What is effected by the word of the creature ? 


Who himself is true, to him pleases truth. 

Who is blind and ignorant, (to him pleases) nonsensical talk. 

(2) . Whose the trees are, (his is) the garden. 
As their kind (species) is,, so is their name. 

According to the nature of the blossom the fruit is defined (set down). 
Having sown himself he himself will eat it. 

(3) . A wall is raw, (if) the clay in it be raw. 1 
If the intellect is unsalted, the flavour is insipid. 

0 UanakJ the simple-minded are put right {i.e. succeed). 

Without the name there is no commendation (at the threshold of God). 

Sirl Rag ; mahald I. 

V. Ghar. 

(1). The fraudless (man) fraud does not deceive, nor can a dagger wound him. 

As the Lord keeps him, so he remains, (but) the soul of this greedy man is agitated. 

1 <4t£ \ cfa, WtH (='3tT)j * ne * s raw » not g 00 ^! firm, if the clay from which it is made be 

raw, i.e. bad, sandy. 




How shall the lamp hum without oil ? 

(2) . If the Puranas are highly appreciated, if the wick of fear is applied to this body. 
The understanding of truth is unawares 1 kindled. 


This is the oil, thus the lamp burns. 

Make a light, the Lord then meets (with thee). 

(3) . In this body sticks a Banya. 3 

Comfort is obtained, if worship (of God) he made. 
The whole world is coming and going. 

(4) . (If) in the world worship (of God) be practised : 
Then a seat at the threshold will be obtained. 
Nanak says : the arm will be swung. 3 

Sirl Rag ; mahald III. (Amardds.) 
I. Ghar. 

Om ! By the favour of the true Guru. 
I. XXXIV. 1 

(1) . I serve my own true Guru with one mind, with one thought and love. 
The true Guru is the heart's desire and Tirtha of him, whom he instructs. 

He obtains the boon, for which his heart has been anxious ; the fruit he wishes, he gets. 
If the name be reflected upon, if the name be asked, he is easily absorbed in the name. 


0 my mind ! taste the juice of Hari and thy thirst will cease. 
The disciples, by whom it has been tasted, remain easily absorbed. 

(2) . By whom the true Guru has been served, they have obtained the treasure of the name. 
In their heart the love of Hari dwells, in their mind conceit has ceased. 

The lotus of the heart has opened, meditation is easily brought about. 

The pure heart is delighted with Hari and at the threshold honour is obtained. 

(3) . Those who serve their own true Guru are rare in the world. 

By whom egotism and selfishness are destroyed and Hari is kept in the breast. 
Who have love to the name, for them I sacrifice myself. 

Those are happy in the four periods (of the world), in whom the inexhaustible, endless name is. 

(4) . By meeting with the Guru the name is obtained, spiritual blindness and (worldly) thirst cease. 
With Hari their heart is delighted, in their house they are solitary. 5 

J *HTfe is = *3fU> without knowing, unawares. 

2 Banya, a Hindu retail-dealer. The Banyas are rather notorious for their greediness and un scrupulousness. 

s W WsJlifl^h fc he arm mil be swung. In India people who walk about happy and without concern 
usually swing their arms in walking. 

4 The Sabds (Dupadas and Caupadas) are counted in one continual number, but at the same time the 
verses of the different mahalas (or Gurus) are counted separately. The first number indicates therefore the 
number of verses belonging to the several mahalas, the second the totality of Sabds etc., in a Rag*. 

6 The sense is : they retire from the world and worldly pursuits. 



I shall sacrifice myself for those, who have obtained the taste of Hari. 

0 Nanak ! by bis (merciful) look the true name is obtained, the vessel of virtues. 1 

* Sirt Rag ; mahala III. 


(1) . "Who baving put on many dresses 3 deceives (others), practising in his mind and heart hypocrisy. 
He does not obtain tbe palace of Hari, after his death, he enters into ordure. 


0 my mind ! the disciple, who (dwells) solitary in his own house. 
He practises true abstinence and will become manifest (=bonoured). 

(2) . By whom his mind is overcome by means of the word (instruction) of the Guru, he obtains the 
state of final emancipation in his house. 

By whom the name of Hari is reflected upon, him be (i.e. Hari) brings to the communion of the 
true assembly. 

(3) . If (one) enjoy a lakh of women, if be exercise dominion over the nine regions (of the earth). 
"Without the true Guru he does not obtain oomfort, again and again he falls into the womb. 3 

(4) . Ey wbom the necklace of Hari is put on their neck, having .directed their thought on the feet 
of tbe Guru. 

Echind tbem follows increase and success, they bave not a bit of covetousness. 

(5) . What pleases, to the Lord, that is done, anything else cannot be done. 

Humble Nanak lives by taking the name ; 0 Hari, give (it to me) according to thy inherent good 
.... ® 
disposition ! 

Siri Rag ; mahala III. 
I. Ghar. 


(1) . Whose tbe government is, his is every body. 

By performing the work of a disciple tbe True one becomes manifest in the heart. 
Within wbom the True one dwells, be has true knowledge of the True one. 

Tbose who are united with the True one, are not separated (from him), they dwell in their own house. 4 


0 my beloved, without Hari I have none other ! 

The true Guru is tbe true (real) Lord, union (with Hari) is made by tbe pure word (instruction of 
tbe Guru). 

(2) . Who by tbe word (of tbe Guru) is united (with Hari), be remains united, whom be (Hari) 
unites bimself. 

In a second love no one is united, again and again be comes and goes. 
In all the One dwells, the One is contained (in tbem). 

1 3TT> a frequent attribute of the name, about the same as 3fJ^t felJTTS; 3"f*T is the Arabic <jgulL 
(cup) ; in Panjabi it denotes a large metallic plate or vessel. 31*T may be translated by the vessel of 
virtues, or the vessel (receptacle) of (all) qualities. 

2 tne dress °^ a f a( ^ r ' Tnis verse 1S s P°ken against the deceitful faqlrs. 

a H ^cM * to * nto t * ie womD > *- e - to ** e horn again in the course of transmigration. 

* The meaning is : when united witb the Lord they dwell in their own house solitary (retired from the 
world), and do not wander about like faqirs. Or "house" may be taken as the inner man. 




That disciple, to whom he himself (=Hari) is mereiful, is absorbed in the name. 

(3) . Having read, having read an astrological treatise, the Pandits refleet (on it). 

Their understanding and intellect are led astray, they do not understand, in their heart ia the passion 
of covetousness. 

They wander about in the eighty-four lakhs 1 (of transmigrations), wandering and wandering they 
become wretched. 

What is written before must he done, nobody is erasing it. 

(4) . The service of the true Guru is difficult; the head should be given after having abandoned 
one's own self. 

If he falls in with the word (of the Guru), he is united with Hari ; all (his) worship is recompensed. 
By touehing the philosopher's stone he becomes a philosopher's stone, light ia absorbed in the 
luminous (Supreme Being). 

To whom it is decreed before, with them the true Guru will fall in. 

(5) . 0 heart, do not say: (I am) hungry, hungry, do thou not utter a cry ! 

By whom the eighty-four lakhs (of forms of existence) are created, he gives support to every one. 
The fearless is always merciful, he remembers all. 

0 Nanak! if it (= truth) he understood by the disciple, he will obtain the gate of salvation. 

Siri Rag ; mahala III. 

(1) . By whom, having heard, it {i.e. the name) is minded, they dwell in their own house. 
Having praised the true Hari by means of the instruction of the Guru, the vessel of virtues is obtained. 
Those who are steeped in the word (of the Guru) are pure, I shall always be their sacrifice. 

In whose heart Hari dwells, in their body he is manifest. 


0 my mind, meditate on the pure Hari, Hari ! 

On whose forehead it is written from the beginning, those disciples constantly meditate on him. 

(2) . 0 ye holy men of Hari, behold and look ! he dwells near brimful. 

By whom he is recognized by means of the instruction of the Guru, those see him always in their 

He always dwells in the heart of the virtuous, from the vicious he is far. 
The fleshly-minded are without virtues, without the name they pine and die. 

(3) . By whom the word (instruction) of the Guru is heard and minded, they meditate in their mind 
on that Hari. 

By being attaehed daily to devotion, mind and body become pure. 

False is the colour of the safflower, it passes away and they weep in pain. 

In whose heart the name is shining, he will always, always he firmly established. 

(4) . Having obtained the boon of human birth he does not think of the name of Hari nor meditate 
(on it). 

After his foot has slipped, he cannot remain (here), in the other world he does not obtain a plaee. 

That time does not come to hand (again) at the end, having gone, he regrets it. 

On whom he (Hari) looks (in merey), he is saved, having constantly direeted his thoughts on Hari. 

1 There are eighty-four lakhs of forms of existence (^ft = ^frf^), through which transmigration runs : 
nine lakhs of (moving in the water), twenty-seven lakhs of ^TR^ (stationary, like trees, etc.), eleven 
lakhs of Iff?? (worms, etc.), ten lakhs of (birds), twenty-three lakhs of 'EffapSJ (quadrupeds), four lakhs 
of JH^f (men). 



(5). They look at all things, (but) the fleshly-minded get no understanding. 
The worship of those disciples is acceptable, whose heart is pure. 

They sing the qualities of Hari,^hey always repeat : Hari ! having sung the qualities of Hari, they 
are absorbed (in him). 

0 Nanak ! their speech is always true, who remain meditating on the name. 

Siri Rag ; mahala III. 


(1 ) . By whom with one mind the name is meditated upon, having reflected by means of the instruc- 
tion of the Guru. 

Their faces are always bright in that true court (of God). 

Those always, always drink nectar, who are attached to the true name. 


0 brother, to the disciple honour will always be given ! 

If Hari, Hari is always meditated upon (by him), he washes off the filth of egotism. 

(2) . The fleshly-minded do not know the name, without the name honour is lost. 
They have not tasted the relish of the name, they cling to another love. 
Worms of ordure fall upon ordure, they are absorbed in ordure. 

(3) . His human birth is fruitful, who walks in the love of the true Guru. 
He saves his own family, blessed is the mother who has given birth to him. 

The name of Hari, Hari is meditated upon (by him), upon whom he bestows his mercy and pleasure* 

(4) . By which disciples the name is meditated upon, having removed from within their own self. 
Those are pure from inside and outside, the true ones are absorbed in the True one. 

Those have become acceptable, who meditate on Hari by the instruction 1 of the Guru. 

Siri Rag ; mahald III. 


(1) . To the devotees of Hari, Hari is wealth and capital, having asked the Guru they carry on traffic. 
They praise continually the name of Hari, the name of Hari is (their) trading stock and support. 
By the perfect Guru the name of Hari is established (in them), the devotees of Hari have an inex- 
haustible storehouse. 


0 brother, admonish this heart (of thine) ! 

Why does this (thy)Jieart indulge in laziness? 0 disciple, read (repeat) the name ! 

(2) . The devotee of Hari has love to Hari, if he reflect attending to the Guru. 
By hypocrisy devotion is not made, the word duality is wretched. 

That man, though united (by the Guru with the Supreme Spirit) does not blend (with him), in whose 
heart is the thought of difference. 3 

(3) . He is called a worshipper of Hari, who keeps Hari in the breast. 

Soul and body he entrusts and puts before (Hari), having destroyed egotism 3 from within. 
Blessed and acceptable is that disciple who is never discomfited. 

1 f^jjs J \ 6H £t vrfcT f^RHTfS signifies literally : in whose contemplation Hari is by means of the — . 

2 ffc|fc)o/ > separation, discrimination, here identical with ^f%Ttn, duality. The sense is: a man who 
still considers himself different, apart from the Supreme Spirit, cannot be united with him. 

8 Egotism = the idea of individual existence as distinct from the Supreme Being. 



(4). If lie (Hari) is found by destiny, then he is obtained; without destiny he cannot be obtained. 

Eighty-four lakhs are longing for him ; whom he unites, he is united with Hari. 

0 Nanak ! by the disciple Hari is obtained, by being always absorbed in the name of Hari. 

Siri Rag ; mahala III. 

(1). The name of Hari is an ocean of comfort, by the disciple it is obtained. 
By whom daily the name is meditated upon, he is easily absorbed in the name. 
His heart is in love with the true Hari, his tongue sings the qualities of Hari. 

0 brother, the world is pained by second love ! 

He who has come to the asylum of the Guru obtains comfort, having daily meditated on the name. 

(2) . To the true one dirt does not stick, a pure mind meditates on Hari. 

If by the disciple the word (of the Guru) is known, he is absorbed in the immortal name of Hari. 
By the Guru divine knowledge is kindled very bright, ignorance and darkness pass away. 

(3) . The fleshly-minded are filthy, filled with dirt, (in them) is the thirst and passion of egotism. 
"Without the word the dirt does not go off, tbey die and are born (again) and become wretched. 
They cling to imposture 1 and have neither this nor that side. 

(4) . The disciple practises silent repetition of the name, austerity and continence ; his love is (directed) 
to the name of Hari. 

By the disciple the one name of the creator is always meditated upon. 

0 Nanak ! the name is meditated upon (by him), (which) is the support of all creatures. 

Sirl Rag ; mahala III. 

(1). The fleshly-minded is filled with spiritual blindness, indifference to the world and loneliness he 
does not practise. 

He does not know the word (of the Guru), he is always in pain, at the threshold of Hari he loses 
his honour. 

By the disciple egotism is parted with, by being attached to the name comfort is obtained (by him). 

0 my mind, day and night (my) hope has been fulfilled continually ! 

Who having served the true Guru bums his spiritual ignorance, he is lonely in his (own) house. 

(2) . The disciple practises (good) works, indifference to the world and joy in Hari springs up 
(in him). 

Day and night he performs devotion, having annihilated egotism he is free from care. 
By great luck the true assembly is obtained, Hari is obtained and (thereby) easily joy. 

(3) . That man is a saint and indifferent to the world, that man establishes the name in his heart. 
Within whom lurks no darkness, who thoroughly removes from within his own self. 

The treasure of the name is shown (to him) by the true Guru, by drinking the juice of Hari he is satiated. 

1 *JT3^rnft, deceit, imposture, compounded of ,./. roguery (Sansk. ^&IT, by inversion of the 
first syllable **fTU), and y^jlj, play, playing with roguery, practising imposition*^ people by empty pre- 
tences or some hocus pocus. They cling to imposture (as knavish faqirs are wont to do) and lose thus this 
and that world, are deprived of both. 




(4). By whomsoever is obtained the society of the pious by a perfect destiny, he is indifferent to 
the world. 

The fleshly-minded wanders abouj;, he does not know the true Guru, egotism clings to his heart. 
0 Nanak ! those who are steeped in the word (of the Guru) and dyed in the name of Hari, are 
without fear, what can happen (to them) ? 

Siri Rag ; mahald III. 


(1) . In the house the wares are laid out, all the thing is within. 

If every moment the name be remembered, some disciple will obtain it. 
The treasure of the name is inexhaustible, by a great destiny it is obtained. 


0 my heart, give up calumny, egotism and conceit ! 

0 disciple, meditate thou always with one mind on Hari ! 

(2) . The faces of the disciples, who reflect on the word of the Guru, are bright. 

Here (in this world) and there (that world) they obtain comfort, having muttered, muttered in 
their heart : Murari ! 

In their (own) house the palace (of Hari) is found (by them), by reflecting on the word of the Guru. 

(3) . The foreheads of those, who turn away their face from the true Guru, (will be) black. 
Daily they earn pain, they are perpetually looked out for by the vile men 1 of Tama. 
(Even) in a dream they have no comfort, they are consumed by much anxiety. 

(4) . The donor of all is one, he himself gives presents. 
Nothing can be said, he gives to whom he pleases. 

0 Nanak ! by the disciple he (=Hari) is obtained, he himself knows him. * 

Siri Rag ; mahald III. 


(1) . If the true Lord be served, the True one gives greatness. 

(In whose) heart he dwells by the favour of the Guru, he removes egotism. 
This running mind he will save, when he himself looks down upon it (in mercy). 


0 brother, 0 disciple, meditate ou the name of Hari ! 

(In whose) heart the treasure of the name always dwells, he receives a place in the palaces (of Hari). 

(2) . Soul and body of the fleshly-minded is blind, he has no place nor site. 
In many births he wanders about like a crow in an empty house. 

By means of the instruction of the Guru there is light in the heart, by the word (of the Guru) the 
name of Hari is obtained. 

(3) . The world endowed with the three qualities is blind, the infatuation of the Maya is darkness. 
The greedy worship for the sake of food, reading the Ygdas they raise a cry. 

Amongst worldly pursuits they are consumed and dead, they have neither this nor that side. 

(4) . By the infatuation of the Maya is forgotten the father and preserver of the world. 

1 -Him is here derived from the Sansk. *{|<4J, a low, vile man ; yflf Tftf$ quite corresponds to yffl 
-H^|d > cf. Siri Rag 1 , Sabd 21, 2. The words may, however, also be translated ; they are always overcome by 
the net of Yama. 



Without the Guru it (i.e. the world) is thoughtless, the whole (creation) is (therefore) bound by 
(Tama) the death. 

The followers of the Guru are saved, having remembered the true name. 

Sir i Rag; mahala III. 


(1) . (In) the three qualities is the infatuation of the Maya, the disciple obtains the fourth degree. 1 
He is united by him (with himself) in mercy, the name of Hari comes and dwells in his heart. 

In whose bag there is religious merit, them he unites with the assembly of the pious. 


0 brother ! keep fast the true instruction of the true Guru ! 

(Who) is acquiring the thoroughly True one, (him) he (i.e. Hari) unites (with himself) by the word 
(of the Guru). 

(2) . By whom the name is known, for them I sacrifice myself. 

Having given up my own self, I sit down at (their) feet and walk according to their will. 
(Who) obtains the gain of Hari, the name of Hari, he is naturally absorbed in the name. 

(3) . Without the Guru the palace (of Hari) is not obtained, the name is not gotten. 
Seek such a true Guru, from whom that True one may be obtained. 

He who kills the demons, 2 lives in comfort, what is pleasing to him, that is done. 

(4) . As the true Guru is looked upon, so will be the happiness. 3 

If a man have faith (in the Guru), he will have no doubt whatever. 

0 Nanak ! there is one light and two forms (shapes), by the word (of the Guru) union (between the 
two) is effected. 

Siri Rag ; mahala III. 


(1) . Having abandoned the nectar they are greedy of worldly objects, they perform a false worship. 
They forsake their own religion, they do not understand, their (life) is daily spent in pain. 

The fleshly-minded are blind, they do not think, they arc dead, being drowned without water. 


0 my heart, flee always to the asylum of Hari ! 

If the word of the Guru dwells within, Hari is not forgotten. 

(2) . This body is a puppet of the Maya, within which wicked egotism is put. 
The fleshly-minded comes and goes, is born and dies (again), his honour is lost. 

By serving the true Guru, comfort is always obtained, by the Luminous one light is united (with 

(3) . The service of the true Guru is full of comfort, the fruit, that (one) wishes, he obtains. 
By chastity, truthfulness and austerity his body is pure, he makes Hari Hari dwell in his heart. 
He remains always in joy, day and night, meeting with the beloved he obtains comfort. 

(4) . I sacrifice myself for those, who have come to the asylum of the true Guru. 

At the true gate there is true greatness (obtained), they are easily absorbed in the True one. 

0 ^anak! by his (merciful) look he is obtained, the disciple he unites to uniou (with himself). 

1 \30MI V? = <}Tto> the fourth or mystic state of the soul, in which it is united with the Supreme 
Spirit or Brahm by intense meditation and abstraction from all objects of the senses. 

2 The *HTT3 are sfa, Sfcj, vRTcf, according to Sikh interpretation. 

3 The happiness of a man depends on what he takes the Guru for. 



Siri Rag ; mahala III. 


(1) . The works, which the fleshly-minded practise, are like ornaments on the body of an unfavoured 

The husband of the bed does not come, continually she is wretched. 

The palace of the beloved she does not obtain, his household is not seen (by her). 


0 brother, meditate with one mind on the name ! 

He who keeps company with the society of the pious, obtains comfort by silently repeating the 
name of Earn. 

(2) . That (fern.) disciple is always a favoured woman, by whom the beloved is kept in the breast. 
She speaks sweetly, she walks humbly, her husband dallies with her on the bed. 

Those favoured women are beautiful, who have infinite love to the Guru. 

(3) . By a perfect destiny the true Guru is found, when the destiny is rising. 
Prom within pain and error is cut off and comfort is obtained. 

She who walks according to the pleasure of the Guru, will not find any pain. 

(4) . In the decree of the Guru is nectar, which one may easily obtain. 
Those who have got it, have drunk it, having removed egotism from within. 

0 Nanak ! if the name is meditated upon by the disciple, union is effected with the True one. 

Siri Rag ; mahala III. 


(1) . When she knows her own beloved, she puts body and soul before him (as an offering). 
She does those works, which the favoured women do. 

There is (thereby) easily union (or meeting) with the True one, the True one gives (her) greatness. 


O brother, without the Guru devotion cannot be made. 

"Without the Guru devotion is not obtained, though every one desire it. 

(2) . On account of another love (than God's) the sum of the eighty-four lakhs (of births) is allotted 
to the fascinating woman. 

"Without the Guru she gets no sleep, in pain she passes the night. 

Without the word (of the Guru) the beloved is not obtained, she wastes her lifetime uselessly. 

(3) . In egotism she goes about in the world, (but) there is no wealth nor prosperity on her side. 
Every blind one, that does not think of the name, is bound by Yama, the death. 

When the true Guru is found, wealth is obtained, having remembered the name of Hari in the heart. 

(4) . Those who are attached to the name are pure by the inherent nature of the Guru. 1 
(Their) heart and body are dyed with colour, their tongue tastes sweet juice. 

0 Nanak ! that colour does not go off, which Hari has applied in the beginning. 2 

Siri Rag ; mahala III. 


(1). (If) he (Hari) bestows mercy on the disciple, then devotion is made (by him), without the 
Guru devotion cannot be made. 

1 The Guru being the "MTU^T or touchstone. 

2 In the beginning (Tjfij loc.) when the destiny of every being was fixed. 



He himself unites (with himself) ; he, who understands (the truth), becomes pure. 
Hari is true, true is his word, by the word (of the Guru) union (with Hari) is effected. 


0 brother ! why is he, who is destitute of devotion, come into the world ? 

(By whom) the service of the perfect Guru is not made, he has uselessly wasted his human birth. 

(2) . He himself is the life of the world, the giver of comfort, he himself by his gift unites (with 

What are these helpless creatures, what shall one say and tell (to him) ? 

He himself gives greatness to the disciple, he himself causes (him) to do service. 

(3) . Having seen his family he is bewildered with infatuation, at the time of departing it does not 
go with (him). 

Serving the true Guru the abode of virtues (or qualities =God) is obtained; his value 1 is not to be 
found out. 

The Lord Hari is my companion and friend, the Lord will be my companion at the end. 

(4) . (One) may say in his own mind and thought and get it said (by others), 2 (but) without the 
Guru self does not go. 

Hari is the donor, propitious to his devotees, 3 having bestowed mercy he dwells 4 in (their) heart. 
0 Nanak ! he gives beauty and understanding, the Lord himself gives greatness to the disciple. 

Siri Rag ; mahald III. 

(1) . Blessed is the mother, who has borne (the disciple), blessed and foremost is (his) father. 
Having served the true Guru, comfort is obtained (by the disciple), from within conceit is gone. 
Standing at the gate (of the Guru) the holy people serve (him), they obtain the abode of (all) qualities. 


0 my mind, turning with the face towards the Guru meditate on that Hari ! 
If the word of the Guru dwells in the mind, soul and body become pure. 

(2) . Having bestowed mercy he has come to the house, he himself has come and joined (it). 
By whom he is praised by means of the word of the Guru, they are easily coloured. 

The true ones are absorbed in the True one, they remain united (with him) and are not separated 

(3) . Whatever is to be done, that he has done, anything else cannot be done. 

Those who are separated long times, he has united (with himself), having put them down in the 
account-book of the true Guru. 

He himself will cause the work to be done, anything else cannot be done. 

(4) . Having given up the passion of egotism, soul and body is dyed with colour (love). 
Day and night the name of the fearless, formless, is contained in the heart. 

0 Kanak ! by himself they are united (with himself) by means of the perfect, infinite word (of the 

1 Construct f^fl x£\ = f^T 3T^ fAl|l<5 T\ STft* 7> "MTlft- 

2 He may say— that his own self is gone and be may get it said by others, i.e. it may be attested by others. 
But forms like Zfft <*u | y. bear in the Granth also the sense of an intensive verb : he may well say. 

d 3<*l (*lrnq«i<!l), kind to the devotees, a frequent attribute of Hari in the Granth. 
4 <S*Hifl stands here instead of ^T^ft, a beiog lengthened for the sake of the rhyme. 



Sir! Bag ; mahala III. 

(1) . Govind is the abode of (allf qualities, his end cannot be attained. 

By talking and chatting he is not obtained, (he is obtained) if egotism departs from within. 
By meeting with the true Guru he (ue. the disciple) is always steeped in the fear of God, he himself 
(i.e. God) comes and dwells in the heart. 


0 brother! some disciple understands (the truth). 

Those who do works without understanding (the truth), lose the blessing of their human birth. 

(2) . Those have obtained the relish (of the name) who have tasted it, without having tasted it they 
go astray in error. 

The true name is nectar, which cannot be described at all. 

He who drinks it has become acceptable, being absorbed in the perfect word (ofthe Guru). 

(3) If he himself gives, then it is received, nothing else can be done. 

In the hand of the giver is the gift, which he bestows by the medium of the Guru. 
As it is made by him, so it has been (made); as he does the works, (so they are). 

(4) . The name is chastity, truthfulness, and abstinence ; without the name one does not become 

By a perfect destiny the name dwells in the heart, by means of the word (of the Guru) union is 

0 Nanak ! he who abides in the love (of Hari), easily obtains the qualities of Hari. 

Siri Hag ; mahala III. 

(1) . If (one) subdue his body and practise upturned austerity, 1 egotism does not depart from within. 
If he practise very spiritual 2 works, he will never obtain the name. 

If he, living, die by means of the word of the Guru, the name of Hari comes and dwells in the heart. 


Hear, 0 my heart, flee to the asylum of the true Guru ! 

By the favour of the Guru one is freed from the world, he crosses the water of existence by means 
of the word of the Guru. 

(2) . In the whole (creation) the three qualities are inherent, second love (duality) and (consequent) 
disorder. 3 

The Pandit reads, (but) is bound by the fetter of spiritual ignorance ; he does not understand out 
of love to the visible world. 

By meeting with the true Guru the triad (the three qualities) goes off, on the fourth station is the 
gate of salvation. 

(3) . Prom the Guru the (right) way is obtained, the dimness of spiritual ignorance ceases. 

1 "@<J*? 3V> austerity practised by lifting up the arms or standing on the head and lifting the feet up- 
wards, etc. « It is often mentioned in the Granth. 

2 *Hft*WT3*T (=^WHII or ^WTftWi)» ver y spiritual, affectedly spiritual. 

8 *T3T TfY3 ^ should be constructed; H^T t*JjHf£> creation) 5| ^3TcS VT5 in a11 ( the 

creation) the three qualities are the constituent element : [ 310 feoMd must also be taken as Nomi- 




If (one) die by means of the word (of the Gum), he is saved, he obtains the gate of salvation. 
By the favour of the Guru he remains united (with God) ; true is the name of the creator. 
(4). This mind is very strong, it does not give up in any (way) its scheme. 
It inflicts pain (upon itself) by another love and is much punished. 

0 Nanak ! those who cling to the name are saved, having removed egotism by the word (of the Guru). 

Sirt Rag ; mahdla III. 


(1) . If he bestow mercy, the Guru is obtained, who establishes the name of Hari (in the heart). 
Without the Guru he is not obtained by any one, he wastes uselessly his human birth. 

By doing self-willed works he is punished at the threshold (of God). 


0 my heart, drop second love ! 

Within thee Hari dwells, by the service of the Guru thou wilt obtain comfort. 

(2) . True is the speech, true is the word (of the Guru), when (one) loves the truth. 
Having removed egotism and wrath, the name of Hari dwells in (his) heart. 

If with a pure heart the name is meditated upon, he obtains the gate of salvation. 

(3) . In egotism the world (=people) passes away, haying died it is born (again), it comes and goes. 
The fleshly-minded do not know the word (of the Guru), they will depart having lost their honour. 
By whom the name is obtained by the service of the Guru, he remains absorbed in the True one. 

(4) . (By whom) the Guru is obtained by minding the word, he removes from within his own self. 
Daily he performs devotion, his thoughts are always directed on the True one. 

0 !Nanak ! when the name, the highest good, dwells in (his) heart, he is easily absorbed (in God). 

Siri Rag ; mahala III. 


(1) . Those men, who have not served the true Guru, are ai&icted in the four periods (of the world). 
The Supreme Spirit which is in their house (=body) is not known (by them), they are ruined by 

conceit and selfishness. 

Begging from those who are cursed by the true Guru, they are consumed in the world. 
The true word (of the Guru), which is putting all things right, is not received (by them). 


0 my heart, behold always Hari in (thy) presence ! 

He takes away the pain of birth and death, in the word (of the Guru) he is contained brimful. 

(2) . Those who praise the True one are true, the true name is their support. 
They do true work, they love the True one. 

What the true Lord is doing, none is erasing. 

The fleshly-minded do not obtain (his) palace, the false ones are ruined by falsehood. 

(3) . Practising selfishness the world has died, without the Guru there is deep darkness. 
By the infatuation of the Maya the comfort-giving donor is forgotten. 

If it serves the true Guru, then it is saved, if it keep the True one in the breast. 
By mercy Hari is obtained and by reflection on the true word. 

(4) . Having served the trne Guru, (his) mind is pure by abandoning the passion of egotism. 
Having given up his own self, he dies whilst living by meditating on the word of the Guru. 
The hurried avocations (of life) are stopped, love to the True one has set in. 

The faces of those who are immersed in the True one, are bright at that true court. 



(5). By whom the true Guru, the Supreme Spirit, is not minded, whose love is not attached to the 
word (of the Ghiru). 

As much bathing and^liberality as he may practise, he is wretched by second love. 

If Hari bestow his own mercy (on him), then he will give himself to the lore of the name. 

0 Nanak ! remember thou the name by infinite love to the Guru ! 

Siri Rag ; mahala III. 


(1) . Whom shall I serve? what silent repetition shall I perform ? I will go and ask the true Guru. 
The decision of the true Guru I will obey, having removed from within my own self. 

By this service and attendance the name comes and dwells in the heart. 
Prom the name comfort is obtained, from the true word splendour. 1 


0 my heart, wake daily, thinking of Hari ! 
Protect thy own field, the crane will fall on thy field. 

(2) . The heart's desires (of him)- are fulfilled who remains brimful in the. word (of the Guru). 
He who performs devotion in fear and love day and night, sees always Hari in his presence. 
His heart is always immersed in the true word, error has gone far from his body. 

The pure Lord, who is true and profound in qualities, is obtained by him. 

(3) . Those who have waked are saved, those who have fallen asleep are plundered. 

"Who has not known the true word has passed his (time) (like) a dream. x 
As the guest of an empty house goes as he has come. 

The life of the fleshly-minded one has passed uselessly, what face will he show when having gone 
(to the threshold) ? 

(4) . Everything is he himself, (but) in egotism he cannot be described. 

If he is known from the word of the Guru, he removes the pain of egotism from within. 

1 cling to the feet pf those who serve their own true Guru. 

I, Nanak, sacrifice myself for those who are true at the true gate. 

Sir l Rag ; mahala III. 


(1) . If the time is considered, at which time shall devotion be made ? 

Those who are daily immersed in the name have true knowledge of the True one. 

If but a little the beloved be forgotten, what devotion is (then) made ? 

If soul and body is cool (happy) with the True one, no breath goes in vain. 2 


0 my heart, meditate on the name of Hari ! 

True devotion is then made, when Hari comes and dwells in the heart. 

(2) . Having sown the seed of the true name, the field is easily cultivated. 
The field springs up abundantly and the heart is readily satiated. 

The word of the Guru is nectar, by the drinking of which thirst ceases. 

(If) this mind be true and immersed in truth, it remains absorbed in the True one. 

1 TUTfB — ^Wry^ 5 fa * s shortened for the sake of the rhyme. 

2 i.e. Without remembering Hari. 



(3) . He is telling, seeing, and speaking, 1 (who) is continually absorbed in the word (of the Guru). 
(His) voice is sounding in the four periods (of the world), proclaiming the perfectly True one. 
(His) egotism and selfishness are stopped, (who) is united by the True one. 

They hare the palace (of Hari) in their presence who direct their constant thoughts on the True one. 

(4) . By his (merciful) loot the name is meditated upon, without destiny it cannot be obtained. 
By a perfect destiny he obtains the assembly of the pious, with whom the true Guru falls in. 
Ey being daily immersed in the name, the pain of the world departs from within. 

0 Nanak ! by means of the word (of the Guru) union is (effected), (who) praises, 2 he is absorbed in 
the name. 

Siri Rag ; mahala III. 


(1) . His own love he has put in them who reflect on the word of the Guru. 

^With the assembly of the pious they remain always united, remembering the qualities of the True one. 
He has cleared away the dirt of duality (in those) who have put Hari in their breast. 
True is (their) speech, truth in (their) heart, they love the True one. 3 


0 my heart, (thou art) filled with the dirt of egotism ! 

Hari is pure and always beautiful, by means of the word (of the Guru) h^ is adorning. 

(2) . Those are united by the Lord himself whose heart is fascinated by the true word. 
Ey being daily immersed in the name, light is absorbed in the luminous (Hari). 

By the (inward) light tbe Lord is known, without the true Guru understanding is not obtained. 
To whom it has been decreed beforehand, with them the true Guru has fallen in. 

(3) . ^Without the name the whole (world) is distressed, by second love it is lost. 
^Without it it does not live twenty-four minutes, in pain the night is passed. 
He who is led astray by error is blind, again and again he comes and goes. 

(If) the Lord bestow his own look (of mercy), he himself unites (with himself). 

(4) . He hears and sees all things, how shall it be denied ? i 

They commit sin on sin (and) are consumed by sin, and cause (others) to be consumed. 
That Lord does not come into their sight, the fleshly-minded do not obtain understanding. 
Whom he makes seeing, he sees; 0 Nanak ! the disciple obtains (understanding). 

Sirl Rag ; mahala III. 


(1). Without the Gnru sickness is not broken, the pain of egotism does not depart. 
In whose heart he dwells by the favour of the Guru, he remains absorbed in the name. 
By the word of the Guru Hari is obtained, without the word he is led astray in error. 


0 my heart, dwell in thy own house ! 

Praise thon the name of Earn, there will not be again coming and going. 

1 Though no trace of the subject be given, it must be, according to the whole context, the disciple. 

2 Le. The name. 

3 Some MSS. read funfT5» which, however, is against the rhyme; the right reading is fynrrfcT» the 
Abl. sing., by, on account of love with ( = to) Hari. 

4 The lithographed copy reads vf^fT TTffe, but the MSS. read correctly VTfTPtfT; W$fd 
VrfSWT Tftfe is the passive : how shall it be denied r 



(2) . Hari is the only donor, there is none other. 

He dwells in the heart of him who praises him by the word (of the Guru), comfort is easily obtained 
(by him). 

He sees all within his look, to whom he pleases, he gives. 

(3) . Egotism is all calculation, in calculation are not the nine comforts. 
Those who practise works of poison 1 are absorbed in very poison. 
Without the name they get no place, in the city of Yama they suffer pain. 

(4) . Soul and body, all is his, even he sustains them. 

By whom (the truth) is understood by the favour of the Guru, he obtains the gate of salvation. 
0 Nanak ! praise thou the name (of him who has) no end nor limit ! 

Sirl Rag ; maJiala III. 

(1) . They have always joy and comfort whose support the true name is. 
By the favour of the Guru truth is obtained, the remover of pain. 

He always, always sings the qualities of the True one, who has love to the true name. 
Having bestowed his own mercy, he has given him a storehouse (full of) devotion. 


0 my heart, sing the qualities of him who is always happy ! 

The true words of Hari are obtained by him, who remains absorbed with Hari. 

(2) . By true devotion the heart has become red, 2 it is coloured by a natural process. 
By the word of the Guru the heart is enchanted, nothing can be said (about it). 

The tongue, coloured by the true word (of the Guru), drinks nectar, having the right taste 3 it sings 
the qualities (of Hari), 

This colour is obtained by that disciple on whom he (Hari) bestows mercy and favour. 

(3) . This world is in uncertainty, sleeping the night is passed. 

Some are drawn out (from uncertainty) by his own decree and united by himself (with himself). 
He himself dwells in their heart and stops the infatuation of the Maya. 
He himself gives greatness and makes the disciple understand (the truth). 

(4) . The donor of all is one, the erring he instructs. 

Some are ruined by himself, they are attached by him to another (love). 

Prom the instruction of the Guru Hari is obtained, the luminous (Hari) unites light (with 

0 Nanak ! those who are daily steeped in the name are absorbed in the name. 

Sirl Rag ; mahala III. 

(1). By the virtuous the True one is obtained, having given up the passion of thirst. 

By the word of the Guru the mind is coloured, the tongue with love and affection. 

Without the true Guru he is not obtained by any one ; behold, having reflected in thy mind ! 

From the fleshly-minded the dirt does not go off, as long as he does not love the word of the Guru. 

1 t^ry, poison, anything detestable or wicked. 

2 i.e. Filled with love. 

6 <jf*T» odj> (Sansk. "^flr^) having the right taste, i.e. being enamoured. 




0 my heart, walk according to the will of the true Guru ! 

If thou dwellest in thine own house and drinkest nectar, thou wilt easily ohtain the palace (of Hari). 

(2) . The vicious (woman) has no virtue, she does not attain to sit in the presence. 
The fleshly-minded does not know the word, from the vicious the Lord is far. 

By whom the True one has been known, they are fully steeped in truth. 

By the word of the Guru their heart is perforated, the Lord himself has met with them in the 
presence. 1 

(3) . By himself they are coloured with dye-stuff, by means of the word (of the Guru) they are united 
by him. 

True colour does not go off, those who are steeped in truth, give themselves to devout meditation. 
Having wandered about in the four corners (of the earth) they have become tired, the fleshly-minded 
do not obtain understanding. 

Whom the true Guru, unites, he is united, having been absorbed in the true word (of the Guru). 

(4) . I am tired of making many friends, (that) one should cut off my pain. 

Having met with the beloved my pain is cut off, by the word of the Guru union is brought about. 
The acquisition of truth is true capital, the knowledge of the True one is true. 2 
Those who are united with the True one are not separated (again), after having become disciples, 
0 Nanak ! 

Siri Rag ; mahala III. 

(1 ) . He himself, the creator of the elements, 3 makes creation, having produced (ityhimself, he sees (it). - 
In all the One exists, the invisible cannot be seen. 

The Lord himself is merciful, he himself gives understanding. 

By means of the instruction of the Guru he always dwells in the heart of those, whose thought is 
continually absorbed in the True one. 


0 my heart, obey the will of the Guru ! 

Soul and body, all becomes cool (refreshed), (if) the name comes and dwells in the heart. 

(2) . By whom the element (of the world) has been made and put down, he takes care (of it). 
By the word of the Guru he is known, when he himself looks down (in mercy). 

Those men are shining by the word (of the Guru) at that true court (of Hari). 
The disciples, who are steeped in the true word, are united by the creator himself. 

(3) . By means of the instruction of the Guru the True one is to be praised, who has no end nor limit. 
He himself dwells in every heart by (his) order, he reflects on the order. 

If he be praised by means of the word of the Guru, he destroys egotism* from within. 
That woman, who is without the name, will weep, being vicious. 

1 i.e. The Lord himself has joined them and is in their presence, present with them. 

2 The knowledge (*rfe, according to the traditional interpretation of the Sikhs) of the True one (=God) 
is true (real, lasting), all other knowledge is to no purpose. 

3 ^ IdO ctfdJ 1 (=5 ldc\ Q^d<A), the maker or creator of the elements or rudiments. The elements are 
evolved from primary matter (IJtlM). This, however, is considered ^M|(c( (without beginning), and there- 
fore as a part of the Supreme Being itself. 3 [dcN could, however, also be translated hy : the maker 
of the causality = the cause of causes. 

4 i.e. Individuality, the consciousness or opinion of individual existence (as separated from the Supreme). 



(4). The True one I will praise, to the True one I will cling, by the true name satiety is given. 

On virtue I will reflect, virtue I will collect, vice I will wash away. 

If he himself unites to union (with himself), there will not he again separation. 

I, Nanak, will praise my own Guru, from whom I obtain that Lord. 

Sirt Rag ; mahala III. 

(1) . Hear, hear, 0 thou careless of work! why walkest thou swinging the-arm? 

Thou dost not know thy own beloved, how wilt thou show thy face having gone (to the threshold 
of Hari) ? 

I hold the foot of those friends who have known their beloved. 

(That) I may become like them, whom he unites with the company of the society of the pious. 


0 false handsome woman, thou art ruined by falsehood ! 

The beloved, the true, beautiful Lord, is obtained by means of reflection (on) the Guru, 

(2) . The fleshly-minded do not know the beloved, how is the night passed by them? 
They are filled with pride, in thirst they burn, they are distressed by second love. 

From the heart of those favoured women, who are attached to the word (of the Guru), egotism departs. 
They always enjoy 1 their own beloved, in continual happiness (their time) is passed. 

(3) . She who is without divine knowledge is abandoned by the beloved, the beloved cannot be 
obtained (by her). 

Ignorance is darkness, without seeing the beloved hunger does not cease. 
Come, join me, 0 companion ! unite with me the beloved ! 

If by a perfect destiny the Guru is met with (by any), the beloved is obtained, she is absorbed in 
the True one. 

(4) . Those friends are favoured women on whom he looks (in mercy). 
(Those) know their own husband (who) put their body and soul before him. 
In the house their own bridegroom is obtained (by them) who remove egotism. 

0 Nanak ! beautiful are the favoured women, who perform devotion day by day ! 

Sirl Rag ; mahala III. 

(1) . Some enjoy their own beloved, to which door shall I go and ask (for him) ? 

1 will serve the true Guru with love (saying) : join to me the beloved ! 

All created beings he sees himself, to some one he is near, from some one far. 

She who has known, that her beloved is with her, always retains the beloved in her presence. 


0 handsome woman, walk thou in the love of the Guru ! 

Daily thou wilt enjoy thy own beloved, being readily absorbed in the True one. 

(2) . Favoured women steeped in the word (of the Guru), adorned by the true word : 

Obtain Hari, their own bridegroom, in (their) house, by infinite love and affection to the Guru. 
The bed is beautiful, Hari sports in love, with devotion their storehouses are filled. 
That beloved Lord dwells in the heart who gives support to every one. 

1 dl<cfO '* literally, they cause their beloved (husband) to dally with them, or to stay with them. 



(3). I always sacrifice myself for those who praise their own beloved. 
Soul and body I surrender, I give my head, I cling to their feet : 
Who have known the One, having done away second love. 

0 Nanak ! (if) by the disciple the name is known, she is absorbed in the True one. 

Sin Rag ; mahala III. 


(1) . 0 Hari, thou art perfectly true, everything is in thy lap. 

In the eighty-four lakhs (of forms of existence) they wander about, longing (for thee), without 
meeting with the Guru they are in pain. 

(If) thou, 0 liberal Hari ! bestowest it, there is always comfort in the body. 
By the favour of the Guru I serve thee, 0 true, deep, and profound one ! 


0 my heart, he who is steeped in the name obtains comfort ! 

By means of the instruction of the Guru the name should be praised, there is none other. 

(2) . Dharmrai (i.e. Tama) has the order : sit down and decide on true religious merit ! 
He who by second love is of a wicked mind, is under thy dominion. 

Who mutter the qualities of the Supreme Hari, ' the vessel of virtues, the one Murari, in their heart : 
To them Dharmrai performs service ; blessed is he who is remembering (Hari) ! 

(3) . If the passions of the heart leave the heart, spiritual ignorance and conceit is stopped in the 

By whom the Supreme Spirit is known, he is readily absorbed in the name. 

Without the true Guru final emancipation is not obtained, the fle3hly-minded one wanders about mad. 
He does not know the word (of the Guru), he is chattering, in worldly objects he is absorbed. 

(4) . He himself is everything, there is none other. 

As he causes (them) to speak, thus it is spoken, when he himself calls (them). 
The speech of the disciple is Brahm, by the word (of the Guru) union is effected. 
0 Nanak ! remember thou the name, by the worship of which comfort is obtained ! 

Siri Rag ; mahala III. 


(1) . In the world filth and (consequent) pain of egotism is obtained, by second love dirt sticks (to 

The filth of selfishness, though washed-, does not go off at all, if (one) bathe at a hundred Tirthas. 
They practise works of many kinds, (but) twofold dirt has stuck to them. 
By reading the dirt does not go off, go and ask the sages ! 


0 my heart, if one come to the asylum of the Guru, then he will become pure. 
The fleshly-minded in saying : Hari, Hari ! have become tired, the dirt could not be washed off 
(by them). 

(2) . By a dirty heart devotion cannot be made, the name cannot be obtained. 
The dirty fleshly-minded have died dirty, they will go, having lost their honour. 

If he (Hari) dwell in the heart by the favour of the Guru, the filth of egotism is absorbed. 
As in darkness a lamp is lighted, so causes the Guru by (his) divine knowledge ignorance to be 



(3) . " It is done by us," " we shall do it," (saying thus) we are foolish and ignorant. 
The (real) actor is forgotten (by us), (our) affection is (turned to) second love. 

There is no pain like that of the^Maya, all have become tired wandering about in the world. 
From the instruction of the Guru comfort is obtained, having put the true name in the breast. 

(4) . Whom he 1 unites, he is united, I sacrifice myself for him. 

0 heart ! to them, who are immersed in devotion, the true speech (of the Guru) is their own place. 2 
The heart heing coloured the tongue is coloured (also) and sings (then) the true qualities of Hari. 

0 Nanak ! (by whom) the name is not forgotten, he is absorbed in the True one. 

Stri Rag; mahala IV. ? 
Ghar I. 
I. LXV. 

(1) . In my soul and body are excessive pangs of separation, how shall the beloved come to my house 
and meet (with me) ? 

"When I see my own Lord, my pain goes by seeing the Lord. 

1 will go and ask those friends, in what wise the Lord may come to an interview (with me) ? 


0 my true G-uru ! without thee there is none other. 

I, foolish and stupid man, have come to thy asylum, out of mercy join to me that Hari ! 4 

(2) . The true Guru is the giver of the name of Hari, he himself unites that Lord (with men). 
From the true Guru the Lord Hari is known, like the Guru there is none other. 

1 fall on the asylum of the Guru (saying) : kindly join to me that Lord ! 

(3) . ~No one has obtained him (Hari) by the obstinacy of his mind, every one becomes tired making 
shifts (to obtain him). 

If he practise a thousand clevernesses, on an unaltered 5 heart colour does not stick. 

By falsehood and hypocrisy he has not been obtained by any one ; what he sows, that he will eat. 

(4) . The hope of all is in thee, 0 Lord ! all creatures are thine, thou (art their) capital. 

0 Lord ! no one is empty of thee, at (thy) gate the disciples (obtain) praise. 

Draw out those, who are drowning in the poison, the water of existence ! this is the petition of 
humble Nanak. 

Sin Rag ; mahala IV. 

(1). If the name is obtained, the heart is satiated, without the name I shall live in misery. 
"Would that some disciple, a friend, would meet (with me), that he would show me the Lord, the 
vessel of virtues ! 

1 will be quartered for him who manifests to me the name ! 


0 my beloved ! I live, having meditated on the name. 

Without the name I cannot live ; 0 my true Guru, make fast (in me) the name ! 

1 i.e. Hari. 

2 The sense is : they live in the true speech of the Guru, are wholly given to it. 

3 i.e. Guru Ramdas. 

4 It appears that these verses were made by Ramdas before he himself had succeeded to the Guruship. 

5 S^cTT. ad j' new > fresh > not i m P roved or prepared (by a course of discipline). 




(2) . The name is a priceless jewel; it is with the perfect, true Guru. 

The true Guru, having taken it out, reveals it to those who give themselves to his service. 
Blessed and very fortunate are the men, very fortunate the women, who have come and joined 
the Guru. 

(3) . With whom the true Guru, the Supreme Spirit, has not met, they are luckless and in the 
power of death. 

They are again and again compelled to wander about in the womb, being made hideous in ordure. 
One should not come near to them, in whose heart is wrath, the Chandal. 

(4) . The true Guru, the Supreme Spirit, is the pond of immortality, the very fortunate come and 
bathe therein. 

The dirt of their several births goes off, having made fast the pure name (in themselves). 
Humble Eanak has obtained the highest station, having directed his devout meditation on the true 

Sin Rag ; mahala IY. 

(1) . (His) qualities I will sing, (his) qualities I will spread, (his) qualities I will tell, 0 my mother ! 
The disciple who tells (his) qualities, is my friend; having joined (this my) friend, I will sing the 

qualities of Hari ! 

A diamond, having met with a diamond, is perforated; in deep red colour I will bathe ! 


0 my Govind ! if I sing (thy) qualities, my heart is satiated. 

Within (me) is thirst after the name of Hari, the Guru being pleased procures it (for me). 

(2) . Colour the heart, 0 ye very fortunate ! the Guru being pleased grants the favour. 
The Guru makes fast the name with colour ; I sacrifice myself for the true Guru. 

Without the true Guru the name of Hari is not obtained, though they do lakhs and crores of (good) 

(3) . Without destiny the true Guru is not found, (though) always sitting near him in (his) house. 
Within (whom) is the pain of ignorance and error, in (whom) is a film (over the eyes), they (fern.) 

have fallen far off (from the Guru). 

Without meeting with the true Guru gold is not made (of iron), the fleshly-minded, the iron, is 
drowned at the side of the boat. 

(4) . The true Guru is the boat of the name of Hari, in what wise can it be ascended ? 
He who walks according to the will of the true Guru, comes and sits down in the boat. 
Blessed, blessed, very fortunate are those, 0 Xanak ! whom the true Guru unites (with Hari). 

Sir! Rag ; mahala IY. 

(1) . I always stand and inquire after the road; if any show me the Lord, to them I go. 

1 go about following those who have got hold of my beloved, making entreaty, making supplication, 
(for) I desire to meet the Lord. 


0 my brethren, may any one unite me to union with Hari the Lord ! 

1 have devoted myself to the true Guru, who has shown (to me) Hari the Lord. 

(2) . Humble I fall down at the side of the perfect, true Guru. 

The hope of the humble is the Guru, the Guru, the true Guru, applauds them. 
I cannot praise enough the Guru, who makes me meet with Hari the Lord. 



(3) . Every one, is desiring the true Guru, all the world, everybody. 

"Without destiny an interview (with him) is not obtained; he, whose lot it is not, sits and weeps. 
What has pleased to Hari, that Jias come to pass ; what is written from the beginning, no one will 
blot out. 

(4) . He himself is the true Guru, Hari himself unites to union with himself. 

He himself, having bestowed mercy, will unite, who follow after the Guru, the true Guru. 
He himself is in the world the life of the whole world ; 0 Nanak ! water is absorbed in water. 

Sirl Rag ; mahala IV. 

(1) . The name is juice of nectar, a very good juice; how is it obtained, that I may drink (this) 
juice ? 1 

Go and ask the favoured women : how has the Lord come and joined you ? 
These fearless ones say : I, rubbing, rubbing, wash his foot. 2 


0 brother ! having met with the friend, remember the qualities of Hari ! 

The friend is the true Guru, the Supreme Spirit, he removes (thy) pain by destroying (thy) egotism ! 3 

(2) . The (female) disciples are favoured women, into their heart mercy has fallen. 
The word of the true Guru is a jewel; who minds it, drinks the juice of Hari. 

Those are known as very fortunate who have drunk the juice of Hari by love to the Guru. 

(3) . This juice of Hari is in every tree and grass, the luckless do not drink it. 

"Without the true Guru it does not come to hand, 4 the fleshly-minded are lamenting (at not getting it). 
They do not bow before the true Guru, in their heart is the calamity of wrath. 

(4) . Hari, Hari, Hari himself is the juice, from Hari himself the juice issues. 

He himself, having bestowed mercy, will give it, and the disciple will suck the nectar. 
When that Hari has taken his dwelling in the heart, 0 Kanak ! the whole body and soul has 
become green. 

Sirl Rag; mahala IY. 

(1). The day rises and sets again, the whole night passes (again). 

The time of life decreases, man does not perceive it; continually the mouse gnaws the rope (of life). 
Sweet molasses are spread out by the Maya, the fleshly-minded one, sticking to it like a fly, is 
consumed and causes (others) to be consumed. 6 


0 brother ! my friend and companion is that Lord. 

The fascination of son and wife is poison, at the end no one will be a companion. 

1 The idiomatic expression is tflGoh to eat the juice. 

2 ?{f& *rf?5 Vffi fS7> "MlfSs these words are apparently to be referred to the Guru (f37* being taken 
in an honorific sense). 

3 ^ ^ is often to be taken in the sense of the Sansk. ^ff cRT^, the individuality as separated from the 
Supreme Spirit. The Guru removes the pain by causing the individuality to be re-absorbed into the world-soul. 

4 Vf^ 7>\ M%> literally, it does not fall into the lap. 

fi M% V xTTfe «i ft y a l so De translated : he is thoroughly consumed, being taken as an intensive verb. 



(2) . The disciples of the Guru are saved by devout meditation on Hari, uncontaminated they remain 
in the asylum (of the Guru). 

Their departure is always kept in view by them, Hari is taken as their viaticum, they will receive 

The disciples are accepted at the threshold, by Hari himself they are received and embraced. 

(3) . To the disciples the way is manifest, at the gate (of Hari) they are by no means kept back. 
They praise the name of Hari, the name is in their heart, they continue devoutly meditating on 

the name. 

"Whilst sounds not produced by beating (an instrument) are sounded at the gate, they obtain lustre 1 
at the true gate. 

(4) . Every one applauds the disciples by whom the name is praised. 

0 Lord ! give me their company ! (this is) the petition of (this) beggar. 

0 Nanak ! the lot of those disciples is great in whose heart the name is shioiog. 

Sin Rag; malxala V/ 
O It fir I. 

(1) . How thou art delighted, having seen the ornaments of thy son and wife ! 
Thou enjoyest thyself, livest in pleasures, art given to innumerable merriments. 
Thou givest many orders and art inflexible. 

The creator does come into thy mind, (thou art) a blind, ignorant, self-willed man. 


0 my heart ! the giver of comfort is that Hari. 

By the favour of the Guru he is obtained, by destiny he is acquired. 

(2) . Thou art covetous of clothes and enjoyment, of the dust of gold and silver. 
Excellent horses and elephants are much liked 3 (by thee) ; indefatigable chariots are made. 

(But in spite of all this) thou dost not come into anybody's mind, thou art forgotten by all (thy) 
relationship (after thy death). 

Being led astray by the creator (thou art) impure without the name. 

(3) . Earning the imprecations (of others) thou collectest wealth. 

On what thou art putting thy trust, that does not remain always with thee. 

Thou practisest egotism ; 0 selfish one ! thou art immersed in the inclination of thy heart. 

He who is led astray by that Lord himself has no caste nor fellowship. 

(4) . He, who has been joined (with Hari) by the true Guru, the Supreme Spirit, is alone my friend. 
One is the protector of the people of Hari, what do men weep in selfishness ? 

^hat is pleasing to the people of Hari, that he (=Hari) does, at the gate of Hari they are never 
turned back. 

0 Xanak! he who is steeped in the love of Hari becomes a light in the whole world. 

1 *Tin "MlGcM, to obtain lustre = to be adorned, to be received with honour. 

2 Gurn Arjun. On the whole, his poetry is the most incoherent and the least refined in the Granth and 
therefore frequently obscure, as little attention is paid by him to a clear grammatical construction. 

3 fe=Sansk. exC elleut horse; ff^, Sindhi ^ = Sansk. ips^ (Prakrit first irSRTT, 
thence the Hindu! ^ being a euphonic insertion to avoid the hiatus). The Lahor lithographed 
edition reads two other MSS. read only -fr, which suits the context better ; the translator has followed 
the latter reading. 



Siri Rag ; mahala V. 


(1) , In (their) heart (is) much wantonness and great merriment; being led astray by the pleasures 
of the sight : 

The umbrella- wearing sovereignties have fallen into doubt 1 (i.e. duality). 


0 brother ! happiness is obtained in the society of the saints. 

To whom it is decreed by that Supreme Spirit, who fixes the destiny, the pain of his uncertainty is 
blotted out. 

(2) . As many places and countries there are, so many have (I) wandered through. 
The wealthy man and great landowner says (everywhere) : " it is mine, it is mine." 

(3) . He carries out his order, fearless and unflinching he is in his pursuit. 
Every one is subjected by him, (but) without the name he is mingled with dust. 

(4) . Thirty-three crores of servants, Siddhs and Sadhiks, 2 standing at the gate. 
Wealth, great dominion — all, 0 Nanak ! has become (= passed) like a dream. 

Siri Rag ; mahala V. 

(1) . Having risen early in the morning (the body) is adorned, without understanding (the truth) 
she is foolish and ignorant. 

(If) that Lord has not come into her mind, she will be left in the desert. 
Having directed her thought to the true Guru she always, always enjoys pleasure. 


0 man, 3 thou art come (into this world) to gain advantage, 

In what bad brawl art thou engaged ? (thy) whole night, 4 passing away, is gone, 

(2) . Cattle and birds jump about, death is not seen (by them). 

In that company (i.e. like them) is man, who is ensnared in the net of the Maya. 
Those are perceived as emancipated who remember the true name. 

(3) . The house, that is to be abandoned, has become dear to thy heart. 
Whither thou hast to go and to remain, of that thou dost not think. 

Those ensnared ones have come out (of the net), who fall down at the feet of the Guru. 

(4) . No one can protect, no other (can) show (Hari). 

Having searched in the four corners (I) have come and fallen on the asylum (of the Guru). 
By the true king 5 (=Guru) Nanak the drowning one has been drawn out. 

1 They have fallen into doubt or uncertainty, i.e. they no longer know who they are, they do not know 
their own self. 

2 fini> a man supposed to have acquired miraculous powers (a Jogi) ; mlM^ (*n^TCi)> an ascetic, 
engaged in a course of austerities and observances in order to obtain final emancipation. 

3 ^£^^' an ^ ^ v * n £ being, but chiefly man (man and woman). 

4 %fe (T^'ft)' night, the time of enjoyment = lifetime. 

5 By Arjun the title of Tf^ irTf^rTCTj true king, is applied to the Guru, which afterwards has become 
the usual address to the Sikh Gurus. 



Sirl Mag ; mahala V. 


(1) . Tlie guest of twenty-four or forty-eight minutes is intent on his business. 

Being immersed in the business of the Maya the foolish one does not understand (the truth). 
Having risen and departed he repents, he has fallen into the power of the executioner (of Yama). 


0 blind one, thou art seated near the bank (of a river) ! 

If it be written before, then thou wilt obtain the word of the Guru. 

(2) . Not the green nor the half-ripe, the ripe (field) he is cutting. 

Having taken the sickle he has arrived (on the field), having kept ready the reapers. 
"When the order of the farmer is given, then the field is reaped and measured. 

(3) . The first watch (of the night) is gone in business, the second he has slept, in the third nonsense 
is chattered, in the fourth it has become morning. 

He has never come into his mind, by whom soul and body were given. 

(4.) (My) soul is devoted and made a sacrifice for the assembly of the holy ones : 

From which sagacity has fallen into (my) heart and the Supreme wise Spirit is obtained. 

Nanak has seen (thus) the heart-knowing, wise Hari always (dwelling) with him. 

Sirl Mag; mahala V. 


(1) . All things are forgotten (by me), the One is not forgotten. 

Having burnt all (worldly) business, the Guru has given (to me) the relish of the true name, 
Having dropped all hopes, I acquire one hope. 

Those who have served the true Guru, have obtained a place (in the other world). 


0 my heart, praise the creator ! 

Having abandoned all clevernesses fall down at the feet of the Guru ! 

(2) . Pain and hunger do not pervade (the body), if the giver of comfort be in the heart. 
One is r not ruined by any business (or work), if that True one is in the heart. 

Whom thou protectest having given thy hand (to him), him no one can kill. 
If the comfort-giving Guru be served, he washes off all vices. 

(3) . (Thy) servant asks the service (of those), (by whom) thy service is performed. 
By the assiduity of the assembly of the holy ones I obtain a pleased God. 
Everything is subject to the Lord, he himself achieves the action. 1 

1 sacrifice myself for the true Guru, who accomplishes all my desires. 

(4) . One friend is seen (by me), one brother and friend. 

The One's are the materials, the One's the manner (of applying them). 
If with the One my heart is conciliated, my mind has become immovable. 

The True one is (my) eating, the True one (my) clothing, by Manak the True one is made his 

1 There i s no real liberty of the created beings, tbe Lord himself is performing the actions in and through 
them. Zffe is an alliteration instead of 5^, likewise "If^ instead of \f%, to rhyme with Arjun, 
who pays little attention to a pure rhyme, adds any meaningless syllable to" make up the rhyme, so that the 
final words of a verse are often hardly recognizable. 



Siri Rag ; mahala Y. 

(1) . All things are obtained, if tne One come to hand. 

The boon of human birth is bearing fruit, if one tell the true word. 1 

He obtains the palace (of Hari) from the Guru, on whose forehead it may be written. 


0 my heart, apply thy mind to the One ! 

Without the One all is trouble, all the fascination of the Maya is false. 

(2) . There are lakhs of pleasures and sovereignties, if the true Guru cast a glance (of mercy). 
If he gives (me) one moment the name of Hari, my soul and body become cool. 

For whom it is decreed before, he has seized the feet of the true Guru. 

(3) . Fruitful are the forty-eight minutes, fruitful the twenty-four minutes, in which there is love 
to the True one. 

Pain and affliction do not touch him, whose support is the name of Hari. 
Whom the Guru, having seized his arm, has drawn out, he has passed across. 

(4) . That place is beautiful and pure, where the assembly of the saints is. 
Entrance obtains he, who has got the perfect Guru. 

0 Nanak ! their house is built there, where there is no death, nor birth, nor old age. 

Siri Rag ; mahala Y. 

(1) . He should be meditated upon, 0 soul, who is king above kings ! 
0 heart, place thy hope on him, in whom every one trusts ! 
Having given up all cunning fall down at the feet of the Guru ! 


O my heart, with comfort and ease mutter the name ! 

Meditate the eight watches (of the day) on the Lord, sing continually the qualities of Govind ! 

(2) . Fall on the asylum of him, 0 heart, like whom there is none other ! 

By the remembrance of whom much comfort is obtained, and no pain whatever arises. 
Perform always, always the service of the Lord, he is the true Lord. 

(3) . In the assembly of the saints thou becomest pure, the noose of Yama is cut off. 
Before him, who is the giver of comfort and the remover of fear, offer thy supplication ! 
On whom the kind one bestows kindness, his business is put right. 2 

(4) . More than much he should be praised, whose place is higher than high. 
Of him, who is without colours and marks, I cannot tell the value. 

0 Lord, have compassion on Nanak, give him thy own true name ! 

Siri Rag ; mahala Y. 

(1). He, who meditates on the name is happy, his face becomes bright. 
From the perfect Guru he is obtained, who is manifest in all the worlds. 
In the house of the society of the pious dwells that One true. 

1 i.e. If one always utter : Hari ! Hari ! the true Sabd is the name of Hari, the Gur-mantr. 
3 i.e. He obtains the object of his coming into this world. 




0 my heart, meditate on the name of Hari, Hari ! 

The name is always a companion and with (thee), in the other world it will bring (thee) emancipation. 

(2) . Of what use are the greatnesses of the world ? 

The amusement of the Maya is all insipid, at last it passes away and is annihilated. 
In whose heart Hari dwells, he is perfect and foremost. 

(3) . Become the dust of the pious having abandoned thy own self! 
Give up all schemes and cunning and cling to the feet of the Guru ! 
He gets the jewel, on whose forehead the lot may be (written). 

(4) . He gets it, 0 brother ! to whom the Lord himself gives (it). 

He performs the service of the true Guru, the heat of whose egotism is pat out. 
With Nanak the Guru has met and all his passions have become extinct. 

Sirl Rag ; mahala Y. 

(1) . One knows the creatures, One is their preserver. 

In One I trust in (my) heart, One is the support of my life. 

In the asylum of him, who is the Supreme Brahm, the creator, there is always happiness. 


0 my heart, give up all schemes ! 

Worship the perfect Guru, apply thyself continually to the meditation on the One ! 

(2) . The One is (my) brother, the One (my) friend, the One (my) mother and father. 
In the One I trust in my heart, who has given (me) soul and body. 

That Lord is not forgotten from (my) heart, who has subjected to himself everything. 

(3) . In the house is the One, outside is the One, in every place is he himself. 

By whom the living creatures are made, him repeat silently the eight watches (day and night) ! 
Those who are in love with the One have no grief nor affliction. 

(4) . The Supreme Brahm, the Lord is One, there is no second. 
Body and soul, all is his, what is pleasing to him, that is done. 

In the perfect Guru he has become complete ; l 0 Nanak, repeat thou silently that True one ! 

Sirl Rag ; mahala Y. 

(1) . Those who have applied their mind to the true Guru, are perfect and foremost. 
To whom he himself is merciful, in their mind divine knowledge springs up. 

To whom it is written on the forehead, they obtained the name of Hari. 


0 my heart, meditate on the One name ! 

All comforts spring up, thou wilt go dressed (in a robe of honour) to the threshold. 

(2) . The fear of birth and death is gone by the love and worship of Gopal. 2 
He himself preserves (those, who) are pure by the society of the holy ones. 

The dirt of birth and death is cleared away, having seen the sight of the Guru they are happy. 

1 Tbe sense is : In the perfect Guru the Supreme is completely contained, present. 

2 A name of Krishna, identified with the Supreme. 



(3) . In every place is contained that Supreme Brahm, the Lord. 
The donor of all ia the One, there is no second. 

In his asylum emancipation is obtained; what one desires, that comes to pass. 

(4) . In whose heart the Supreme Brahm dwells, they are perfect and foremost. 
Their pure lustre has become manifest in the world. 

Nanak is a sacrifice for those who have meditated on my Lord. 

Sirl Rag ; mahala V. 

(1) . Having met with the true Guru all pain is gone, the comfort of Hari has come and settled in 
the heart. 

Within (them) light is manifested (who) direct (their) thoughts on the One. 

Having joined the holy ones the face is bright, they {i.e. the disciples) obtain what is written before 
(for them). 

Those who sing continually the qualities of Govind, are pure by the true name. 


0 my heart, by the word of the Guru comfort is obtained ! 
The service of the perfect Guru is by no means fruitless. 

(2) . The desires of the heart are fulfilled, the treasure of the name is obtained. 
The creator, the knower of the heart, is known 1 as always indwelling. 

By the favour of the Guru the face is bright, having repeated the name (and practised) liberality 
(and) ablution. 

Lust, wrath, covetousness have become extinct, all pride is abandoned. 2 

(3) . The gain of the name is obtained, all the business is completed. 

By the Lord, having bestowed mercy, he is united (with himself), his own name is given to him. 

His coming and going has been stopped, he himself {i.e. Hari) has become kind (to him). 

The true palace and house {i.e. of Hari) is obtained (by him), (who) has known 3 the word of the Guru. 

(4) . The devotees he protects having bestowed his own mercy (on them). 

In this and that world the faces of them are bright who remember the qualities of the True one. 
Eemembering (hia) qualities the eight watches (=day and night) they are steeped in infinite love. 
Nanak is always a sacrifice for the Supreme Brahm, the ocean of happiness. 

Bin Rag ; mahala Y. 

(1) . If the perfect, true Guru be met with, the treasure of the word (=name) is obtained. 
If the Lord bestow his own mercy, the immortal name is silently repeated. 

The pain of birth and death is cut off, meditation is easily brought about. 


0 my heart, fall on the asylum of the Lord ! 

Without Hari there is none other, meditate on the One name ! 

(2) . His value cannot be told, he is an unfathomable ocean of qualities. 

1 \rsn^ = l|^|AT> on account of the rhyme. 

2 All this is the fruit of the service of the Guru. 

3 i.e. Who has received as true. 




0 very fortunate, join the society (of the holy ones), helieve in the true word (of the Guru) ! 
Serve the ocean of happiness, who is king above kings ! 

(3) . My trust is the lotus of the foot (of Hari), there is no other place. 
My hold is on thee, 0 Supreme Brahm ! by thy power I remain (abide). 
0 Lord ! thou art the trust of the humble, into thy society I enter. 

(4) . Hari should be silently repeated, Govind should be worshipped the eight watches! 
(Ey whom) soul, life, body, property are preserved, (by whom) mercifully life is protected. 

0 Kanak ! all pains are removed by him, the Lord, the Supreme Brahm, is forgiving (or : giving). 

Sirl Rag ; mdhala V. 

(1) . Who has fallen in love with that True one, he does not die nor come (again) after having gone. 
Though separated, he is not separated (from him, who) is continually contained in all. 

The pain and trouble of the humble he (Hari) is breaking on account of his good disposition towards 
(his) worshipper. 

The wonderfully formed, the unstained (Supreme) has been united (to me) by the Guru, 0 mother! 


0 brother, make that Lord thy friend ! 

Away with the fascination and friendship of the Maya ! no happy one is seen. 

(2) . He is wise, bountiful, well-disposed, pure, of an infinite form (or beauty). 
A friend, a helper, very great, high, great, infinite. 

He is not known as young (or) old, his court is immovable. 

What is asked (from him), that is obtained, he is the support of the helpless. 1 

(3) . Looking upon whom the sins are taken away and tranquillity is made in soul and body. 
If with one mind the One be meditated upon, the error of the mind ceases. 

He is the abode of virtues, always young, whose bountifulness is (all-) filling. 
Always, always he should be worshipped, day and night he should not be forgotten ! 

(4) . For whom it was written before, their friend is Govind. 

Body, soul and property, all I offer (to those, by whom) this whole life is devoted (to him). 
He always sees and hears in the presence, in everybody Brahm is contained. 
(Even) the ungrateful 2 he cherishes ; the Lord, 0 Nanak ! is always giving. 

Sirt Rag ; maJiald V. 

(1). By the Lord, by whom soul, body and property have been given, they are easily (naturally) 
taken care of and preserved. 

Having made all the constituent parts (of the body), infinite light has been put within it (by him). 3 
Always, always the Lord should be remembered, put and keep him within thy breast ! 

1 f^Hldl = T^Mdi J Arjun lengthens or shortens the syllables, not only at the end of the verse (for the 
sake of the rhyme), but also in the midst of the line, just as he pleases. 

2 JWfenP^, ungrateful. It is somewhat doubtful if it is to be derived from gT c f ^ or from ^gTcW - 
In the first case the initial nf would he wrong, in the second the assimilation of 1J to ghan is without analogy. 

3 W&T is here identical with ^JTH, a constituent part of the body, of which seven are enumerated : blond, 
marrow, fat, flesh, bones, medullary substance, semen. The ^TUT"?, the infinite light, is the *HT3HT> 
or the individual spirit which has directly emanated from the Supreme Spirit. 




0 my heart, there is none other without Hari ! 

Eemain always in the asylum or>the Lord, no pain will enter thee. 

(2) . Jewels, choice things, rubies, gold, silver are dust. 
Mother, father, son, relative, all kinsmen are false. 

By whom he was made, him he does not know, the fleshly-minded one is an impure beast. 

(3) . Who is inside and outside diffused, him he considers as being far away. 

Thirst (worldly covetousness) has seized him, he is absorbed in it, in his heart is cruel egotism. 
The boat's load 1 of them, who are destitute of devotion and the name, comes and goes. 

(4) . Be merciful, 0 Lord creator, and preserve the creatures ! 

Without the Lord there is no protector, very formidable has Yama become. 
Kanak does not forget (thy) name, 0 Hari, bestow (on me) thy own mercy ! 

Sirl Rag ; mahala V. 

(1) . My body and property, my kingdom and beauty, my country, 
(My) many sons and wives, many amusements and clothes : 

Are, if the name of Hari do not dwell in (my) heart, of no use nor account. 


0 my heart, meditate on the name of Hari, Hari ! 

Keeping always company with the holy ones direct thy mind to the feet of the Guru ! 

(2) . The treasure of the name is meditated upon (by him), upon (whose) forehead the lot may be 

All the works (of him) are adjusted, (who) clings to the feet of the Guru. 

The sickness of egotism (and his) error is cut off, he does not come nor will he go (again into other 

(3) . Keep thou company with the holy ones (and thus) bathe at the sixty-eight Tlrthas ! 2 
Life, soul, body become fresh (thereby), this is true relish. 

Here (in this world) greatnesses will accrue to thee and at the threshold thou wilt obtain a place. 

(4) . The Lord himself does and causes to be done (everything), all is in his hand. 
He himself having killed vivifies, within and without he is with (every one). 
Kanak has taken refuge with the Lord, who is the Lord of all bodies. 

Sirl Rag ; mahald V. 

(1). I have fallen 3 on the asylum of my Lord, the Guru has been merciful. 

By the instruction of the Guru all my troubles have become extinct. 

My heart has clung to the name of Earn, by the sight of the nectar I am happy. 


0 my heart, the service of the true Guru is the best. 

If the Lord bestow his own mercy (on me), I do not forget him one moment from my heart. 

1 V<r> s ' m ' the P ai "ty taken over in one boat's trip. 

2 The sense is : if thou keep company with the pious, it is as much as if thou wouldst bathe at the sixty- 
eight Tlrthas. 

3 lf§ ; no subject is mentioned, but it must be, according to the whole context, Tm, we = I. 



(2) . The qualities of Govind should continually be sung, who is the extinguisher of vices. 
Without the name of Hari comfort is not obtained, I have seen a great many things. 1 
Those who were given to his praises, have easily crossed the water of existence. 

(3) . (It is equal to) a Tlrtha, fasting, lakhs of abstinences, if the dust of the holy ones be obtained. 
From whom will (one) hide himself, as he (=Hari) always sees in the presence ? 

In every place my Lord is contained brimful. 

(4) . True is (his) kingdom, true his order, true is the place of the True one. 
True power he has applied, by the True one the world has been created. 

I, JS T anak, am always a sacrifice for him, by whom the true name is silently repeated. 

Sin Rag ; mahala V. 

(1) . Who with effort is silently repeating Hari, he is very fortunate and acquires wealth. 
He who rememhers Hari in the society of the saints, cuts off the dirt of (all his) births. 


0 my heart, go on repeating the name of Hari ! 

Enjoy the fruits desired by the heart, all grief and anguish ceases. 

(2) . By whose agency the body is sustained, that Lord is seen as being with (= in dwelling). 

In the water, the earth, on the surface of the earth he is present, 2 the Lord beholds his own sight. 

(3) . Soul and body have hecome pure, love to the True one has sprung up. 

By whom the feet of the Supreme Brahm are worshipped, they have performed all silent repetitions 
and austerities. 

(4) . A gem, jewel, ruby, nectar is the name of Hari. 

Comfort, ease, joy, relish; humble Nanak sings the qualities of Hari. 

Siri Rag ; mahala V. 

(1) . That is a Shastr, that is a magic spell, 3 hy means of which the name of Hari is muttered. 

By (that) placeless one a place has been obtained, (to whom) by the Guru the wealth of the lotus of 
the foot is given. 

(That is) true capital, (that is) true abstinence, if (one) sing the eight watches the qualities (of Hari). 
With whom the Lord has met bestowing his mercy (upon him), he does not die, nor does he come 
and go (again). 


0 my heart, worship always Hari with one mind ! 

He is contained within everybody, he is always a helper with (thee). 

(2) . How shall I count the amount of comforts, when I remember Govind ? 
They have been satiated who have tasted it, that relish knows (their) soul (only). 

The Lord dwells in the heart of him who is associated with the saints, the beloved is bestowing (his) 
favour (on him). 

He, who has served his own Lord, is king and chief of men. 

1 The sense is : I have seen a great deal and can speak from experience. 

* \rfcJ*HT> literally : filled in, i.e. completely diffused, so that no place is empty of him, 

3 **S<£> Sansk. ui<J1 , a magic spell or hymn, sung to obtain favourable events. 



(3) . At (every) opportunity (I) delight in the glory and qualities of Hari, in which (are contained 1 ) 
crores of ahlutions and bathings. 

(If) the tongue utters the report^of the qualities (of Hari), no alms will come up to it. 
Having bestowed a favourable look he dwells in soul and body, the merciful Supreme Spirit, the 
kind one. 

Soul, body and wealth are his, I am always, always a sacrifice (for him). 

(4) . Who is united by the creator (with himself), he, heing united, is never separated (from him). 
The fetters of his servants are cut asunder by the true creator. 

The erring one is put by him into the (right) way not considering his virtues and vices. 
Nanak has gone to the asylum of him, who is the support of all bodies. 

Siri Rag ; mahala Y. 

(1) . If by the tongue the True one be remembered, soul and body become pure. 
(Though there be) mother, father and numerous relatives, without him there is none other. 
If he bestow his own favour, he is not forgotten a minute. 


0 my heart, serve the True one as long as there is (any) hreath ! 
Without the True one all is falsehood, at the end it is annihilated. 

(2) . My Lord is pure, without him I cannot abide. 

In my heart and body is very great hunger, may some one hring and unite (him with me), 0 mother ! 
In the four corners (of the earth) (a place) has been sought (by me), without the bridegroom there 
is no other place. 

(3) . Make supplication before him, who is uniting the creator (with men) ! 
The true Guru is the giver of the name (of him) whose storeroom is full. 
Always, always he should be praised, (who has) no end nor limit ! 

(4) . The preserver should be praised, whose actions are many ! 
Always, always he should be worshipped ! this is the greatest wisdom. 

In soul and body it is sweet to him, on whose forehead (this) destiny is (written), 0 Nanak ! 

Sin Rag ; mahald Y. 
XX. XC. 

(1) . 0 brother, join the saints, remember the true name ! 

Store up provisions for the soul ! (that will be) with (thee) here and there. 

From the perfect Guru he (=Hari) is obtained, having bestowed his own favourable look. 

By destiny he obtains (him), to whom he is merciful. 


0 my heart, there is no one like the Guru ! 

No other place is seen, the Guru (alone) unites that True one (with thee). 

(2) . All things he has got, who has gone and seen the Guru. 

Whose mind is fixed on the feet of the Guru, they are very fortunate, 0 mother ! 

The Guru is bountiful, the Guru is powerful, the Guru is contained in all. 

The Guru is the Lord, the Supreme Brahm, the sinking ones the Guru causes to swim. 3 

1 The sense is : which is equal to crores of ablutions. 

2 The Guru, as an avatar, is identified with the Supreme Being. 


(3) . By what mouth is the Guru praised, who is the powerful (^efficient) cause of causes? 1 
Those foreheads remained immovable, on which the Guru put his hand. 

The nectar of the name, which the Guru gave to drink, is a suitable food against birth, and death. 
(By whom) the Guru, the Lord, the destroyer of fear, has been served, (his) pain has gone off. 

(4) . The true Guru is deep and profound, the ocean of comfort, sin-removing. 

Who has served his own Guru, on him the club of the messenger of Tama does not fall. 
I have searched and seen the whole world (and found that) nothing can he compared with the Guru. 
The treasure of the name was given (to me) by the true Guru, in the heart of Mnak is (therefore) 
the pith of happiness. 

Sirl Rag ; mahala V. 

(1) . Having considered it sweet I ate it, (but) a bitter taste sprang up (after). 

Brothers, friends, good friends were made (by me), (I) was occupied with talking about worldly subjects. 
(But all) passes quickly, 2 without the name it is insipid. 


0 my heart, stick to the service of the true Guru ! 

What is visible, that is annihilated, give up the opinion of thy (own) mind ! 

(2) . Like a dog, who has become mad, runs in the ten directions. 

(So) a greedy creature does not know what is eatable and not eatable, it eats all. 

Being immersed in the intoxication of lust and wrath, it falls again and again into the womb. 

(3) . By the Maya a net is spread out having made a bait within it. 
By greediness the bird is caught and cannot get out, 0 mother ! 

It does not know him by whom it is made, again and again it comes and goes. 

(4) . This world is fascinated in many ways and in many manners. 

Whom he preserves, he is preserved (abides), the infinite Supreme Spirit is powerful. 
The people of Hari are saved by their constant meditation on Hari, Nanak is always a sacrifice 
(for them), 

Sirl Rag ; mahala V. 
Ghar II. 

(1). The cowherd has come to the cowhouse, 3 what ostentation has he to make? 
The time has arrived, it must be gone, take thou care of thy household things ! 


0 my heart, sing the qualities of Hari, serve the true Guru in love ! 
Why art thou conceited of a trifle ? 

1 STcJ^ °MdCV may be translated in different ways. The expression is also found in Tulsl Das Ramayan, 
where it is explained by: STfrT^Tf^r ^ WCT^ tne efficient causes of the Mahat, etc. (see Wilson's Visb. 
Pur. p. 14). STH^ oMdO *nTJW may therefore be translated by : who is able to make the primary elements 
or substances (3HTW). But it is perhaps more simple to take it = ^^\ SH STT3^, he is the (efficient) 
cause of causes, and the whole expression, 5^ STTO^ *RT^W> might be translated by: he is the powerful 
(efficient) cause of causes. 

2 Literally : In going delay is not made. 

3 dlfaw, cow-house, a hut built on pasture ground, tbence the adjective or s.m. 3 |fe < &h the cowherd, 
who belongs to the <*|fiiW- The word is obsolete in Hindi now, but still in use in Maratbl (*ffa35). 

siri rag, mah. v., SABD XXIII. XXIV. XXV. (XCIII. XCIV. XCV.) 


(2) . Like the guest of a night thou wilt rise and depart at dawn. 

"Why art thou enamoured with thy household ? all is (like) a flower-garden. 

(3) . Why sayest thou : " mine, mine " ? desire that Lord, who has given it ! 

By any means thou must rise and go, thou wilt go leaving behind lakhs and crores (of rupees). 

(4) . Whilst wandering in the eighty-four lakhs (of forms of existence) thou hast obtained the hard- 
to-be-acquired human birth. 

0 Nanak, remember thou the name ! that day (of departure) has come near to thee. 

Stri Rag ; mahala Y. 

(1) . So long thou livest comfortably, as thy companion is with (thee). 

When thy companion has risen and gone, thou art mingled with dust, 0 woman ! 


(If) in (thy) heart indifference to the world has been effected, (if there be) a desire to see the sight 
(of the Guru). 

Blessed is that thy state ! 

(2) . As long as thy beloved (husband) dwells in the house, all say: yes, yes! 
When thy beloved will rise and go, then none will ask a word about thee. 

(3) . Serve in thy father's house thy bridegroom and thou wilt dwell in comfort in thy father-in-law's 
house. 1 

Having joined the Guru learn wisdom and good conduct, (then) pain will never befall thee. 

(4) . All must go to their father-in-law's house, all are bringing their wives home. 

0 iNanak, blessed are the favoured women, who have love to their bridegroom ! 

Siri Rag ; mahala Y. 
Ghar YI. 

' (1). He alone is the (primary) cause of causes, by whom the form (of every thing) is made. 
Meditate on him, 0 my heart, who is the support of all ! 


Meditate in thy heart on the feet of the Guru ! 

Giving up all cunning fix thy thoughts on the true word (of the Guru) ! 

(2) . Pain, trouble and fear do not befall him, in whose heart the mantr (initiatory word) of the 
Guru is. 

(Though) one make crores of efforts, no one has crossed without the Guru. 

(3) . Having seen the sight (of the Guru) he (the disciple) subdues his mind, all his sins go off. 

1 am a sacrifice for them, who fall down at the feet of the Guru. 

(4) . The true name of Hari dwells in a heart associated with the saints. 
Those are very fortunate, 0 Nanak, in whose heart this is the case ! 

Siri Rag ; mahala Y. 

(1). Collect the wealth of Hari, worship the true Guru, give up all passions ! 
By whom thou wast made, having kept in mind that Hari thou wilt be saved. 

1 This is a^simile often used in the Granth. The sense is : if thou servest God in this present world (thy 
father's Louse), thou wilt live, in happiness hereafter (in thy father-in-law's house = the next world). 




Becite silently, 0 heart, the One, infinite name ! 

The support of the heart is he, by whom life, soul and body were given. 

(2) . In lust, wrath and conceit the world is immersed, 0 mother ! 

Fall on the asylum of the saints, cling to the feet (of the Guru) ! pain and darkness are done away. 

(3) . He practises truth, contentment and mercy : these are the best works. 

He gives up his own self and becomes the dust of all, to whom the Lord, the shapeless, gives it. 

(4) . What is seen, all that art Thou, (thy) expansion is spread out. 

Nanak says : by the Guru (my) error has been cut off, I consider (now) all as Brahm. 

Sirl Rag ; mahala V. 

(1) . In bad and good actions the whole world is (engaged). 
Free from both is the devotee ; some rare one is knowing. 1 


The Lord is contained in all (things). What shall I say (and) hear ? 
Thou, 0 Lord, art the great Supreme Spirit, the wise ! 

(2) . He who is in pride and conceit, is no worshipper. 

Of unbiassed regard for truth, 0 saints, is one amongst a crore. 

(3) . Telling and causing to be told is a false renown. 2 
By telling a story some rare disciple is emancipated. 

(4) . The state of him, who is everywhere present, 3 does not come into sight. 
He has obtained (this) gift, 0 Nanak ! who is the dust of the saints. 

Sirl Rag ; mahala V. 

Ghar VII. 

(1) . On account of my trust in thee indulgent treatment has been shown to me. 
The child errs and makes mistakes, thou, 0 Hari, art father and mother ! 


Telling and causing to be told (legends) is easy, (but) what is pleasing to thee is difficult. 

(2) . I put my trust in thee, I know, thy own self is I. 

In all and without all art thou, 0 father ! who art not in need of anything. 

(3) . 0 father, I do not know what word is conformable to thee ! 
He who is free from bonds, 0 saints, keeps affection for me ! 

(4) . The Lord has become merciful, coming and going has been stopped. 
Having met with the Guru, the Supreme Brahm was known by Nanak. 

1 Some rare one is knowing, supply : the fact, that good and bad actions are not existing for the devotee, 
who sees in all Brahm. 

2 By telling or narrating stories or legends of the gods, making others tell them, emancipation is not 
obtained. The recital of the legends of the gods is considered very meritorious. 

3 WfferrfS. adj. (Sansk. ^rf%3pT) literally : not disappeared, not gone = present (everywhere) 

The explanation (in the Panjabi Dictionary) : free from the ordinary conditions of human life, is gratuitous. 



Sirl Rag ; mahala V. 
Ghar I. 
1. Having joined the saints death has heen cut off. 
The true Lord has settled in (my) heart, the Lord has become merciful. 
The perfect, true Guru has been met with (and) all troubles have become extinct. 


0 my true Guru, I am a sacrifice for thee ! 

1 devote myself for thy sight, having been pleased thou hast given me the nectar-name. 

(2) . Those are wise men, who have served thee in love. 

Pinal emancipation is obtained (following) after those, in whose heart the treasure of the name is. 
There is no donor like the Guru, who has given the gift of the soul. 1 

(3) . Those have become acceptable, (with) whom the Guru has met by (their) good destiny. 2 
Those who are in love with the True one, get a place to sit in his court. 

In the hand of the creator are honours ; they obtain what is written before (for them). 

(4) . True is the creator, true the maker; true is the Lord, true his support. 

The perfectly True 3 one is praised (by him), whose intelligence and discrimination is true. 
He is contained in all unintermittingly ; Nanak lives by reciting silently the One. 

Sirl Rag ; mahala V. 

(1) . The Guru, the Supreme Lord, should be worshipped, loving him in heart and body ! 
The true Guru is the donor of the creatures, he gives support to every one. 

The words of the true Guru should be done, this is true consideration. 

Without being attached to the society of the saints all the fascination of the Maya is (but) ashes. 


0 my friend, remember the name of Hari, Hari ! 

(If) connexion with the saints dwell in the heart, the toil is accomplished. 4 

(2) . The Guru is infinitely powerful, the very fortunate get an interview with him. 
The Guru is inapprehensible, pure, like the Guru there is none other. 

The Guru is the creator, the Guru the maker, the disciple has true information (regarding him). 
■Without the Guru there is nothing, what the Guru wishes to do, that is done. 

(3) . The Guru is the Tlrtha, the Guru is the Coral-tree, 5 the Guru is the accomplisher of the desires 
(of men). 

The Guru is the donor, having given the name of Hari he saves the whole world. 

The Guru is powerful, the Guru is formless (or the formless Supreme Being), high, inaccessible, infinite. 

The greatness of the Guru is incomprehensible, what will the narrator say ? 

1 * WT5T*TCT 7y must here be taken as a Tatpurusha, the gift of the soul, i.e. tbe gift, by which the soul 
may be saved, 

2 TTsTFfg * Abl. of H^|G , from ^TYTRr, good lot or destiny. This seems to be the simplest explanation, 
the meaning "naturally" not fitting so well the context. 

8 7ig+J^3, literally: truer than true = perfectly true. 

4 The sense is : man's toil is accomplished, or over. 

5 VT3tTT3> Sansk. TTTf^rPrTf the Coral-tree, one of the five trees of heaven. 




(4). As many fruits as are desired in the heart, so many are with the Guru. 

The (fruits) written before are to be obtained (by him), (to whom) he gives the capital of the true 

He who has come to the asylum of the true Guru, will not again be destroyed. 

0 Hari, mayst thou never be forgotten by Nanak ! this life, body and breath are thine. 

Sirl Rag ; mahala V. 

XXX. c. 

(1) . Hear, 0 saints, 0 brother! final emancipation (is obtained) by the true name. 
The feet of the Guru should be embraced, 1 the name of Hari is the Tlrtha. 

In the next world (such a one) is received at the threshold, the placeless one obtains a place. 


0 brother, true is the service of the true Guru ! 

From the Guru, being pleased, the (all-) filling, the invisible and indivisible 2 is obtained. 

(2) . (I am) devoted to the true Guru, who has given (me) the true name. 
Daily I praise the True one, the qualities of the True one I sing. 

The True one I eat, the True one I put on (as clothes), true is the name of the True one. 

(3) . May he not be forgotten at any breath (or) morsel, the Guru himself is the fruit-yielding body 
(or person). 

Like the Guru none is seen, recite him (silently) day and night ! 

If he bestow a favourable look, then is obtained the true name, the vessel of (all) qualities. 

(4) . The Guru, the Supreme Lord, is One, he is contained in all. 
To whom it was decreed before, they meditate on the name. 

0 [Nanak ! who has resorted to the asylum of tbe Guru, does not die nor does he come (again) having 

Om ! By the favour of the true Guru ! 

Mahala I. ; Ghar I. 

(1). Speaking, speaking (my) heart is proclaiming (his qualities), as, as it is known (to my heart), 
so it proclaims (them). 

He, who is proclaimed, how great is he, in which place is he ? 4 

As many as are telling (bis qualities), all having told (them) continue meditating (upon them). 

1 +1d<£crM (srevana), (Sansk. ^T^(lj), v.a. To embrace, to hold fast, to resort to. 
*Hl^ = n{%^, having no difference (from the universe), the identity of the Supreme and of the 


' The n{7?Z\nft does not always contain the exact number of eight verses, but sometimes one more 
or less. 

4 The whole verse is obscure and the sense can only be arrived at by conjecture. 




0 father/ lie (Hari) is invisible, inaccessible, infinite ! 
True is the preserver, of a pure ijame, of a pure place. 1 

(2) . It is not known how much thy command is, no one knows to write it down. 

^ If a hundred poets be assembled, not a moment they cause to arrive (at it), though they weep. 
His value has been obtained (found out) by no one, all tell it by hearsay. 

(3) . Plrs, prophets, Saliks, Sadiqs and martyrs. 2 

Shekhs, Mullas, Darveshes : a great blessing has come upon them, who continually read (his) salutation. 3 

(4) . Without asking (any body) he makes, without asking he pulls down, without asking he gives 
and takes. 

His own power he himself knows, he himself produces the (primary) causes. 
He, looking on, sees all ; to whom he pleases, he gives. 

(5) . The name of (his) place is not known nor how great his name is. 
How great is that place, where my king dwells ? 

None can arrive there, to whom shall I go to ask ? 

(6) . Castes and no-castes do not please (him),* if he makes one great. 

In the hand of the great one are the greatnesses (=honours), to whom he pleases, he gives. 
By his own order he adorns (a man), not a moment he delays. 

(7) . Every one recites much (his qualities) iu the thought of taking much (from him). 
What a great donor shall he be called ? his gifts are not counted. 5 

0 Nanak ! there is no deficiency coming forth, thy store-rooms are from age to age. 

Mahala I. 

(1). -All are the female friends of the beloved (=husband), all adorn themselves. 
They are come to make an estimate (of their respective virtues) : a bastard scarlet dress is not the 
right state. 

By hypocrisy the affection of the husband is not obtained, counterfeit overgilding is miserable. 


0 Hari, thus the woman lays hold of the beloved ! 

The favoured women, who please thee, thou adorncst in thy own mercy. 

1 The explanation of the words \T[°f\ Alift "UTo? bllfii by the Sikh commentary : 1|f^^ j ^ Vf<?3 
is a mere guess and only shows that the Sikhs themselves no longer understand their Granth. 

z = uli^JLsj literally, a traveller, the first stage in Sufism, a devotee ; JTT^q? = Jj^bj odj» True, 

sincere ; *j<J$, a plural of the plural Ij^Sj (from du^), martyrs. *J\T% iwOlJ *1 JW> literally : martyrs 
and martyr, a mere tautology, to fill up the verse, as Nanak apparently did not understand that IfiJ^T was the 
plural of Jug.& . The same is the case with the following irfcf HTTfE^ being likewise the plural of ^£ . 

3 The whole verse is very ohscure and the Sikhs are totally at a loss how to explain it. ^,fj d4W must 
apparently be taken as one word (Pers. (jJu*^ ^J, to arrive, to happen) and joined with f-{A oT@ ydojfd 
*H3R?t "£fcF <J#iWj to them a great blessing has arrived. As in the whole sentence a number of Arabic- 
Persian words are jumbled together, we need not be surprised if also a Persian verb is employed. Such a 
jumbling of foreign (and frequently not at all understood) words is considered a great feat of learning. It 
does not come into consideration if even the rhyme be broken thereby (7J*lW — <d<)- 

* <^dA|<^dA , castes and no-castes, i.e. he has no regard to any castes, if he wishes to make one great. 

5 ^5 <jfvPHT THTOj literally : having given, the amount, estimate is stopped, i.e. he never counts how 
much he gives. 



(2) . The body and heart of her, who is adorned with the word of the Guru, is with her beloved 

Having joined both hands she stands and looks out, she utters a true petition. 

She is steeped in red (colour), dwells in true fear, she is steeped in love, in the true colour. 

(3) . Servant and slave of the beloved she is called, who minds the name. 
True love does not break, if he unite to true union (with himself). 

I am always a sacrifice for her, who is imbued with the word (of the Guru) and whose heart is 
perforated (by it). 

(4) . That woman will not sit down as a widow, who is absorbed in the true Guru. 
Her beloved is delightful, young, true, he does not die nor go. 

He always sports with the beloved woman, true is his favourable look and goodwill (towards her). 

(5) . Truth is laid out (by her) as her wealth, 1 the ornament of her dress is love. 
Having applied the paint of sandal-dust, the tenth gate 2 is made her palace. 

Her lamp is lighted by the word (of the Guru), her necklace on her breast is the name of Earn. 

(6) . She is beautiful amongst women, on whose forehead is the jewel of love. 
Her beauty and wisdom is charming by the infinite love of the True one. 

Without her beloved she knows no man, on account of her love and affection to the true Guru. 

(7) . 0 thou, who hast fallen asleep in the dark night, how will the night be passed without thy friend ? 
(Thy) bosom burns, (thy) body is set on fire, (thy) heart, 0 woman, is consumed by fire ! 

When the woman is not enjoyed by the husband, her youth passes to no purpose. 

(8) . On the bed (is) the husbaud, the wife has fallen asleep (and) obtains (therefore) no understanding. 
I have fallen asleep, my beloved is waking, to whom shall I go and ask ? 

She who is united (with her Lord) by the true Guru, abides in fear ; love, 0 JNanak ! is her companion. 

Sin Rag ; mahala I. 


(1) . Thou thyself art the qualities, thou thyself recitest (them), thou thyself having heard (them) 

Thou thyself art the jewel, thou (thyself) examinest (it), thou thyself art its infinite price. 
Thou art true honour and greatness, thou thyself art bestowing (it). 


0 Hari, thou art the creator ! As it pleases thee, so keep me ! 
May thy name, 0 Hari, be obtained as rule of conduct ! 

(2) . Thou thyself art the pure diamond, thou thyself are the majfith 3 colour. 
Thou thyself art the bright pearl, thou thyself art the mediator of the devotees. 

By the word of the Guru (thou art) praising (thyself), in every body (thou art) visible and invisible. 

(3) . Thou thyself art the ocean and the boat, thou thyself art the near and further shore (of it). 4 
Thou knowest the true way, by means of the word (of the Guru) thou art ferrying over (the water 

of existence). 

1 ^ V7>; amount (of weight), T[K, amount of wealth. 

2 <*i<Z\ ^WT^ the tenth gate, said to be in the crown of the head (the so-called sT^t^T* the aperture 
of Brahma). The Jogis pretend to keep the breath fast in the tenth gate and to drink thus the nectar of 
immortality, by union with Brahm, which is brought about there. 

^ 3 WfitS, s.f. the root of a vine, from which a genuine red colour is extracted (WtTT, coloured with 
ma jith, genuine red, in contradistinction to TTvTT, ungenuine red). 

4 VT3 nmn? =» Sansk. TTTTTVTT (=M KM I 0 . the near and further bauk or shore. 



The fear of the fearless 1 is known, without the Guru there is darkness. 

(4) . Thou, 0 creator, art seen as firm, all the other (creatures) come and go. 
Thou alone art pure, the other (creatures) are bound and fall into dullness. 

Those who are preserved by the (furu, are saved, who fix their meditation on the True one. 

(5) . Hari is known from the word (of the Guru) by him, who is attached to the true discourse of the Guru. 
To his body dirt does not stick, who has a habitation in the house of the True one. 

If he bestow a favourable look, the True one is obtained, without the name what can he do ? 

(6) . Those, who have known the True one, are happy in the four ages. 

Having extinguished the thirst of egotism, they put firmly the True one in their breast. 
(Ey them) the gain of the One name is obtained in the world having made the Guru the object of 
their reflection. 

(7) . (Ey whom) true goods are laden, he has always gain, true is his stock. 
In the true court he will sit, whose devotion and supplication is true. 

With honour his account will be settled, the name of Ram is making (him) manifest. 

(8) . He ( = Hari) is called higher than high, he cannot be seen by any one. 
"Where I see, there art thou alone, by the true Guru thou art shown. 
(Thy) all-pervading light is easily known by Nanak. 

Sirl Rag ; mahala I. 

(1) . The fish did not know the net, the saltish pond is bottomless. 
Why did the very clever and beautiful (fish) confide (in it)? 2 

On account of its (own) action it was caught, death does not recede from its head. 


0 brother, know thus death (impending) on thy (own) head ! 
As the fish, so man falls unawares into the net. 

(2) . The whole world is fettered by death, without the Guru death does not recede (from them). 
Those who are attached to the True one, are saved having abandoned the anomalous state of duality. 

1 am a sacrifice for those, who are true (= accepted as true) at the true gate. 

(3) . Like a hawk is the birds' net in the hand of the huntsman. 

Those who are preserved by the Guru, are rescued, the others are caught with the bait. 
Without the name they are picked out and thrown down, no one is a companion with them (at the 
time of death). 

(4) . Truer than true he is called, true is the place of the True one. 
Ey whom the True one is minded, in their heart is true meditation. 

Those disciples are known as pure in heart and face, who have divine knowledge. 

(5) . Offer before the true Guru the prayer : join to me the friend ! 

The sweetheart being met with, happiness is obtained, the messengers of Yama have died having 
eaten poison. 

If I abide within the name, the name comes and dwells in (my) heart. 

1 "feiijfcPHT 33 > the fear of the fearless ; the sense of the words is : the fear of those, who do not fear 
thee, is known. Though they are apparently fearless, they are at the end afraid : for without the Guru and 
his word all is darkness. But fZJljfcWT 33" might also be translated by : thou art known as fearless (Nanak 
using such compounds as: c?75T, free fr° m parts), "fosTfcTW standing for f^Sdl = lAoJd- 

3 Le. in the net; why did it confidently go into the net? 



(6) . Without the Guru there is darkness, without the word (initiatory mantr) (one) does not obtain 

By the instruction of the Guru light is made, if (one) continually meditate on the True one. 
There death does not enter, light is absorbed in the luminous (Supreme Being). 

(7) . Thou art the sweetheart, thou art wise, thou thyself art uniting (men with thyself). 
By the word (of the Guru) thou art praised, who hast no end nor limit. 

There death does not arrive, where the boundless word of the Guru is. 

(8) . By (his) order all are produced, by (his) order they do their work. 

By his order they are in the power of death, by his order they are absorbed in the True one. 
0 Nanak ! what is pleasing to him, that is done, nothing is in the power of these creatures. 

Siri Rag ; maJiala I. 

(1) . He who is of an impure body, is of an impure heart, his tongue (also) becomes impure. 
He who is of a false mouth, speaks falsehood, how shall he become pure? 

Without the word (of the Guru) (his) heart is not cleansed, 1 from the true one truth is 'obtained. 


0 fair lady ! what comfort has she, who is destitute of virtues ? 

Joined with thy beloved thou wilt enjoy pleasure, happiness is in the love to the true word (of the 

(2) . If the beloved (husband) goes abroad, the woman, separated from her husband, is in grief. 
As a fish in little water makes pitiful moaning. 2 

If it is pleasing to the beloved, comfort is obtained (by her), when he himself bestows a favourable look. 

(3) . I will praise my own beloved with my friends and companions. 

By the beauty of (his) body my heart is enchanted, having seen (him) I am imbued with love. 
Being adorned with the word (of the Guru) (I am) beautiful, (my) beloved enjoys (me) with favour. 

(4) . A fascinating woman is of no use, if false and vicious. 

She has no eomfort in her father's nor in her father-iu-law's house, 3he burns in a false passion. 
Her coming and going is annoyance, she is forgotten and abandoned by her husband. 

(5) . The wife of the beloved is bright (happy), she, who is abandoned, what relish has she? 
She is of no use to the beloved (husband), who speaks a great deal of nonsense. 

At the gate and house she is not admitted, who has abandoned herself to another pleasure. 

(6) . The Pandit reads books, (but) does not understand the subjeet under consideration. 
He gives instructions to others — (on his part) a money business. 

In a false story the world wanders about, to remain in the word (of the Guru) is the best. 

(7) . Many Pandits and astrologers reflect on the Yedas. 

In discussion and opposition, in praise and diseussion is (their) eoming and going. 

Without tbe Guru (their) destiny will not be loosened, they tell, hear and deliver explanations. 

(8) . All are called virtuous, I have no virtue whatever. 

Hari is the bridegroom of the woman that is pleasing (to him), to me that Lord pleases. 
0 Nanak ! if by the word (of the Guru) union is effected, there is no more separation. 

words are inverted and must thus be placed to get any sense out 
of them : fEITJ TO *H3 7> *ffaft*^- *H3 or nfflf =^7^' heart, mind. Another reading is : ft^ 
Wtt, y ery likely instead of : fz[7i But the text is apparently corrupt here. 

3 3733 "M 66 1 c£ = 3"?c5 llWT^, pitiful moaning. 



Siri Rag ; maJiald I, 

(1) . If silent repetition (of the TSedas, etc.), austerity and abstinence be practised, if at a Tlrtha 
(one's) residence be made. 

Eeligious merit, alms, good actions, what are they to him without the True one ? 
"What he sows, that he will reap, without virtue birth is destruction. 


0 fair lady, the slave of virtue obtains comfort ! 

She is perfect who, having abandoned vice, is absorbed by the instruction of the Guru. 

(2) . Without a trading-stock the trafficker looks about in the four corners (of the earth). 

He does not comprehend his own capital stock, that the thing remains in his (own) household. 1 
"Without goods his pain is very great, the false (world) is ruined by falsehood. 

(3) . Who tries the jewel (of the name) reflecting (upon it), his gain is day and night new. 2 
He obtains the thing in his own house, he goes having accomplished his business. 

Make traffic with the traffickers, 0 disciple, reflecting on Brahm ! 

(4) . He (Brahm) is obtained in the society of the saints, if he, who is uniting, unite (the disciple 
with himself). 

Within whom the boundless light (of Brahm) is, he, being united, is not separated (again from him). 
He remains in the true seat of the True one, (who has) love and affection to the True one. 

(5) . By whom their own self is known, (they have) in their (own) house, 3 in their own palace, the. 
palace (of Hari). 

The True one falls into the lap of those who are in love with the True one. 

That Lord, who is true and of a true name, is known as (being present) in the three worlds. 

(6) . That woman is quite happy, who has known that her beloved is with her. 
The woman is called to the palace, (where) she enjoys (her) beloved with pleasure. 

She is a true and good-favoured woman, who is fascinated by the beloved with his qualities. 

(7) . Wandering about, wandering about I ascend a sand-hill, having ascended a sand-hill I go to a 

Though I wander about in the forest, I do not get understanding without the Guru. 
If I wander about, having strayed from the name, again and again I shall come and go. 

(8) . Go and ask the travellers, who, having become servants (of God), have departed. 
(If) they know their own king, they are not repulsed at the gate of the palace. 

0 Nanak ! the One is contained (everywhere), there is no other. 

Siri Rag ; mahala I. 

(1). From the Guru the Pure one is known, whose body is pure. 

In whose heart the Pure and True one dwells, he knows the sweet friend. 4 

Easily 6 abundant comfort (accrues) to him, the arrow of Tama does not touch him. 

1 The sense is : he does not know that the Supreme is within him. 

2 i.e. He has a new gain day and nig^t. 

3 "UfcT is here = body ; in their own house = within themselves. 

4 JJraVtB 1 instead of *Hf!tfira> the sweet friend (Sansk. ^rfirfTR), the final short syllable being 
lengthened for the sake of the rhyme. The explanation of the Sikh Granthis, that IHlPjfa means the pain 
of the heart 9 gives no sense and does not suit the context. 

5 M\}t\ % may also be translated : from the innate (Hari) ; see Astp. xxiii., note. 




0 brother, (on him) is no filth, who hathes in pure water. 

Thou (0 Hari) alone (art) pure, all the other (creation) is defiled with filth. 

(2) . The palace of Hari has been made beautiful by the creator. 1 

The light of the lamp of the sun and moon is incomparable, in the three worlds is boundless light. 
In the shop, the city, the fort, the cells, is the trade and traffic of the True one. 

(3) . The collyrium of divine knowledge breaks the fear (of him) (who) sees the light of him, who is 
without collyrium (i.e. of the Supreme). 2 

The hidden and manifest (things), all are known (by him), who keeps his mind steady. 

If such a true Guru (who keeps his mind steady, etc.) be met with, he easily unites (with the Supreme). 

(4) . A scratch is made with the touchstone, he carefully examines the good ones. 
The counterfeited do not obtain a place, the genuine ones he puts into the treasury. 
Remove hope and anxiety! thus (thy) filth will be absorbed. 

(5) . Every one desires comfort, no one desires pain. 

Comfort (has) abundant pain (following), (but) the fleshly-minded one (has) no understanding (of this). 
If comfort and pain be considered as the same, comfort is obtained from the secret of the word (of 
the Guru). 

(6) . If the Veda be read with a loud voice, the speech of Brahm (and) Vyasa : 

The Munis, worshippers and devotees are imbued with love to the name, the vessel of virtues. 3 
Those, who are in love with the True one, have overcome ; I shall always be a sacrifice for them. 

(7) . In the four periods (of the world) those are dirty and rilled with filth, in whose mouth is not 
the name. 

The face of those, who are destitute of devotion and love (to the name), is black, they lose their honour. 
Those, who have forgotten the name, weep being ruined by vice. 

(8) . By searching and searching he is found, he meets with him who fears him and unites (him 
with himself). 

He dwells in the house (=body) of him who knows his own self, the thirst of (his) egotism ceases 

0 Nanak ! those are pure and bright, who are in love with the name of Hari. 

Siri Rag ; mahalci I. 

(1) . Hear, 0 misled and foolish heart, cling to the feet of the Guru ! 

Silently recite and meditate on the name of Hari ! Yama is (then) afraid and pain flees. 

Great is the pain of the ill-favoured woman, how shall her happy state (of wifehood) remain firm? 


0 brother ! I have no other place ! 

My wealth is the treasure of the name, I sacrifice myself for the Guru, by whom it is given. 

(2) . (By means of) the instruction of the Guru honour is (obtained), praise be to him ! in his society 
is union (with God). 

1 ^rfj W[ the palace of Hari is the Universe, which is illuminated by the lamp of the sun and 
moon. ^ TJTZ, shop = hear t ; \r^, city = body ; 3f^, fort = the crown of the head containing the tenth gate 
(■C*1<cl ^*HTcT) J <*difl> the seventy-two cells or compartments of the human body. 

2 fo<3-HA ; God is without collyrium, i.e. without any spot or darkness. ^Tfe, s.f. light, splendour. 

3 3T*f may here also be translated by: and its qualities. 



Without Mm I do not live twenty-five minutes, without the name I die. 

May by me, the blind one, the name be not forgotten ! if I remain steady (in it), I shall go to the 
house (of Hari). ^ 

(3) . That disciple (finds) no place (in Hari's palace), whose Guru is blind. 

Without the true Guru the name is not obtained, without the name what relish is there ? 
He comes and goes repenting, (he is) like a crow in an empty house. 

(4) . Without the name there is pain in the body, like a wall made of soil impregnated with saltpetre 
(it crumbles down). 

As long as the True one is not in the mind, so long the palace (of Hari) is not obtained. 
By him the house (of Hari) is obtained, who is imbued with the word (of the Guru), he is con- 
tinually in the state of emancipation from individual existence. 

(5) . I ask my own Guru, having asked the Guru I do the work (enjoined by him). 

If I praise (Hari) by means of the word (of the Guru), he dwells in (my) heart, the pain of egotism 
(or individual existence) is consumed. 

Union (with the Supreme) is naturally effected, the true (disciple) has union with the True one. 

(6) . Those who are imbued with the word (of the Guru) are pure, having abandoned lust, wrath 
and conceit. 

They praise always, always the name, they keep Hari in their breast. 

How should he be forgotten from the heart, who is the support of all creatures ? 

(7) . He who dies by means of the word (of the Guru), has (really) died, he will not die again another - 


From the word (of the Guru) Hari is obtained (by him), who has love to the name. 
Without the word the world strays about, it dies and is born again and again. 

(8) . Every one praises his own self, a high-flown (speech) 1 is made (in self-commendation). 
Without the Guru one's own self is not known, what is done by speaking and hearing? 2 

0 ITanak! if by means of the word (=instruction of the Guru) (one's own self) be known, then 
no one will practise deceit. 

Siri Bag ; mahala I. 

(1) . If, without (having) the beloved (husband), the woman be adorned, her youth is useless and 

She does not enjoy in comfort her bed, without the beloved her ornament is useless. 
The ill-fated woman has much pain, the Lord of the bed is not in the house. 3 


0 heart, mutter the name of Earn, then comfort will arise ! 

Without the Guru the love (of the husband) is not obtained, by the word (of the Guru) it accrues 
and pleasure springs up. 

(2) . By the service of the Guru comfort is obtained; if Hari be the bridegroom, there is easily 

The beloved enjoys the bed of the true (woman), whose love and affection is deep. 

1 ^sTO" <j5<Tt J supply : or TJJ3> a higher than high (word or speech) is made. 

2 f«WT ^jfff 5 the sense of tnese wor ^ s is : wllat is tbe IT 00 * 1 °f saying 1 that ne lias known his 
own self, or of hearing that such a one has known his own self? 

3 This simile is used by Nanak all through the Granth ad nauseam. 




She is recognized as a disciple, who is united (with Hari) by the Guru (on account of her) virtuous 
conduct. 1 

(3) . Meet with (thy) true husband, 0 fascinating woman, charmed by (thy) beloved enjoy thyself! 
Heart and body is delighted in the True one, whose value cannot be told. 

(If) Hari (be thy) husband, (thou art) a favoured woman in the house; he is pure, of a true name. 

(4) . If in the mind the mind die, then the woman will enjoy the beloved. 
A necklace of pearls in one thread is joined together on her neck. 3 

In the assembly of the saints comfort springs up, the name is the support of the (female) disciple. 

(5) . In a moment (man) is born, in a moment he is consumed, in a moment he comes, in a moment 
he goes. 

If he know the word (of the Guru, i.e. the name) and remain (in it), death will not persecute him. 
The unequalled Lord cannot be compared (with any thing), from a story (that is told) he cannot he 

(6) . The traders and traffickers are come, having written down their wages. 
If they do the work of the True one, profit accrues to them by his favour. 

Tbe true trading-stock is obtained from the Guru, he has not a bit of covetousness. 

(7) . The disciple he will weigh accurately, true is his balance and weight. 
Hope and desire is charming (him), by the Guru it is stopped, true is (his) word. 
He himself will weigh accurately, full is the weight of the Perfect. 

(8) . By the telling of legends (final) emancipation is not obtained, nor by reading loads of books. 
Purity of the body is not obtained without devotion and love to Hari. 

0 Nanak ! him, by whom the name is not forgotten, the Guru, the creator, unites (with himself). 

Siri Rag ; vnahala I. 

(1) . If the true, perfect Guru be met with, the jewel of reflection is obtained. 
If the heart be given to one's own Guru, the love of all is obtained. 

The boon of final emancipation is obtained, that is blotting out vices. 


0 brother, without the Guru divine knowledge is not acquired ! 
Go and ask one of the Brahmas, Naradas and Ved-Vyasas ! 3 

(2) . He, who is known by application to divine knowledge and meditation, is called inexpressible. 
(If) a tree is fruitful and green, its shade becomes large. 

Kubies, jewels, gems, are in the store-room of the Guru. 

(3) . From the store-room of the Guru is obtained the love to the pure name. 
The true,, boundless stock of goods is collected by a full destiny. 

He is a giver of comfort, a remover of pain, the true Guru is destroying the demons. 

1 (McM3lcr==3T<$ *HUTcJ> virtuous conduct. The case or grammatical connexion is utterly neglected by 
Nanak, and the translation can only be made according to conjecture. 

2 As a sign of her 4HO |<J( > or happy state of wifehood. 

6 tbe son of Brahma, and one of the ten original Rishis. He delighted in exciting quarrels 

(hence Ald< = an embroiler). He is said to be the inventor of the Vina or lyre, of a code of laws, and of the 
Naradlya Purana. fgnfR = the supposed compiler of the Vedas. Twenty-eight Vyasas are men- 

tioned, who are incarnations of Narayana (or Brahma), and descend to earth from time to time to promulgate 
the Vedas. 



(4) . The water of existence is difficult and terrible, there is no shore nor limit of it. 
There is no boat nor buoy, nor is there a pole (to work the boat with) or a boatsman for it. 
There is a boat (consisting) of the^fear of the true Guru, by a favourable look he ferries across. 

(5) . If but a little (only) the beloved be forgotten, pain sets in and happiness departs. 
May the tongue be burned with firebrands, that does not mutter the delightful name ! 
"When (his) body is destroyed, his pain is very great, when Tama seizes (him), he repents. 

(6) . Saying "mine, mine/' they are gone, body, wealth, wife, is not with (them). 
, "Without the name wealth is useless, he 1 is gone astray on the road. 

The true Lord is served by the disciple, (whose) story (description) is inexpressible. 

(7) , He (=man) comes (into the world), having gone, he is caused to wander about (in transmigra- 
tion), his lot having fallen he follows his occupation. 3 

How shall that, which is written before, be blotted out? the destiny is written after the pleasure 
(of the Supreme). 

Without the name of Hari there is no (final) emancipation, by the instruction of the Guru he finds 
union (with the Supreme). 

(8) . Without him I have nobody, whose my soul and life is. 

May egotism and selfishness be consumed, may covetousness and conceit be burnt ! 
0 Mnak ! if the word of (the Guru) be reflected upon, the abode of virtues (or of all qualities = the 
Supreme) is obtained. 

Siri Rag ; makald I. 

(1) . 0 my heart, entertain such a love with Hari, as the lotuses with the water ! 
Though they be knocked down by the waves, yet they expand in love. 
Having received their life in the water, they must die without water. 


0 my heart, how wilt thou be released without love (to Hari) ? 

He who is contained within the disciple, bestows on him a storehouse (full) of devotion. 

(2) . 0 my heart, entertain such a love with Hari, as the fish with the water ! 
As it is very great, so is its joy great, in its mind and body is tranquillity. 
"Without water it does not live twenty-four minutes, it considers the Lord very dear. 

(3) . 0 my heart, entertain such a love with Hari, as the Chatrik 3 with the cloud ! 
The tanks are full, the deserts are green, not a drop (more) falls, what is that ? 

What accrues by destiny, that is obtained, he gives to him, on whose head the destiny has fallen. 

(4) , 0 my heart, entertain such a love with Hari, as the water has with milk ! 

1 We should expect here "they," but the change from either number to the other is very frequent, as it 
may suit the rhyme. 

2 VfStt)" fojdfe 5WfEj an expression which is frequently met with in the Granth, but which the 
Sikhs are no longer able to explain. vfg?^ is the Formative (here Locative) of \rflFHT> fal l en > used abso- 
lutely : after having fallen (TjfrTft), i.e. his lot (Qd^). I n the Granth it is a frequent expression: ftt3 
XrfsjnfT, the lot has fallen = to reap one's (evil) deserts. It may therefore be translated : after having met 
with his deserts, after being punished, he (being born again in human shape) does his avocation (assigned 
to him by the caste, in which lie is born). Qdfo is also the Locative of fadS, ™- destiny, the whole con- 
struction being used in the sense of the Latin Ablative absolute. 

3 rilfctW (Sansk. ^rRi), the Cuculus melano-lucus. It is said, that he only drinks from clouds and that 
he is therefore always eagerly expectant of rain. 



It endures itself the boiling, but does not allow the milk to be consumed. 

He ( = Hari) himself having united the separated (from him), gives (them) true greatness. 

(5) . 0 my heart, entertain such a love with Hari, as the ChakvT 1 with the sun ! 
Not a moment she falls into sleep, she thinks that the far (sun) is present. 

The fleshly-minded does not get any understanding, the disciple (considers him as) always (being) 
in (his) presence. 

(6) . The fleshly-minded make calculation, (but) what the creator does, that comes to pass. 
His value is not obtained, though every one search (for it). 

(If) by the instruction of the Guru it be given, then it is obtained ; be who meets with the True one, 
finds comfort. 

(7) . True love does not break, if that true Guru falls in (with the disciple). 

If the blessing of divine knowledge be obtained, the knowledge of the three worlds accrues (thereby). 
The pure name is not forgotten, if he take (=repeat) the qualities (of Hari). 

(8) . Having played those little birds are gone, which are picking up food on the surface of the tank. 
In twenty-four (or) in forty-eight minutes one must go; the play (lasts) to-day (or) to-morrow. 
Whom thou unitest (with thyself), he is united, having gone he treads on the true arena. 2 

(9) . Without the Guru love (to God) does not spring up, the filth of egotism does not go off. 

By whom bis own self is known as the " So ham," 3 he believes in the secret of the word (of the Guru). 
If by the disciple his own self be known, what else shall he do or cause to be done ? 

(10) . What of those, who have been united, shall be united ? he (Hari) believes 4 in (them, who) 
are united by the word (of the Guru). 

The fleshly-minded one gets no understanding, being separated (from the Supreme) he is struck in 
the face. 

0 Nanak ! there is only One palace (of Hari), there is no other place. 

Siri Rag ; mahala I. 

(1) . The self-willed (ungodly) woman goes astray and is led astray, having gone astray she finds no 
place (of rest). 

Without the Guru no one points out (the way), blind she comes and goes. 
The blessing of divine knowledge is lost (by her), deceived and ruined she goes. 


0 father, the Maya deludes into error ! 

The ill-fated woman, deluded by error, is not taken to the bosom of the beloved. 

(2) . Erring she wanders about in foreign countries, deluded she goes and abandons her house, 
Erring she ascends a mountain and a sand-hill, in error she agitates her mind. 

1 ^<*<qT| (Sansk. ^THRU the Brabmani goose or duck. It is said, that the male and female bird 
separate at night-fall and are anxiously expecting the re-appearance of the sun to be reunited. They are 
therefore said to be in love with the sun. 

a ftflf (SIndhi), a level piece of ground, on which sports are made; flf^ ^*5^T, to tread on the arena, 
to sporty The play down here is transitory, the true play will come hereafter, when united to the Supreme. 

3 *TiJ ( =: *?f*f*t)> literally: he is I, absolute identification of the individual existence with the Supreme. 
The Absolute becomes conscious only in the human spirit. The tenor of the instruction of the Guru is here 
perfectly lucid, and Sikbism is in no way differing from the common Hindu pantheism. 

4 ftft V^nrrfff: these words are, as usual, only a hint, by themselves they are quite unintel- 
ligible. They should be thus constructed : ^ fjfe f^j ^rfg y^fonffe, who are united by 
means of the word of the Guru, in them he (Hari) confides, places his full trust in them. 



How shall she, who is separated (from the Supreme) from the beginning, be united ? ruined by pride 
she will lament. 

(3) . Those separated ones the Guigi will unite, who have their joy in Hari and love the name. 
Those have easily true great splendour, who rely for support on the qualities and the name of Hari. 
As it pleases thee, so keep me, without thee what Lord have I ? 

(4) . By reading and reading letters one is led astray, in (faqlr-) dresses there is much pride. 
What does he, who has bathed at a Tirtha, (if) in (his) heart be the filth of conceit ? 
Without the Guru, by whom shall the heart, the King and Sultan, be admonished ? 

(5) . (If) the boon of love (to Hari) be obtained, the disciple will reflect on truth. 

That woman has parted with her own self, (whose) ornament is in the word of the Guru. 
In her (own) house that beloved is obtained by infinite love to the Guru. 

(6) . By the service of the Guru the heart becomes pure and happy, 

In (whose) heart the word of the Guru is settled, she removes from within egotism. 
When the boon of the name is obtained, there is always (new) profit acquired in the heart. 

(7) . If it accrue by destiny, then it (the name) is obtained, by thyself it cannot be taken. 
Cling always to the feet of the Guru, remove from within thy own self ! 

The True one falls into the lap of those who are in love with the True one. 

(8) . Every one is subject to error, unerring is the Guru, the creator. 

By the teaching of the Guru the mind is instructed, love (to Hari) springs up in it. 
(By whom) the name is not forgotten, (him) the inexhaustible word (of the Guru) unites (with the 

Siri R&g ; mahala I. 

(1) . The thirst after the Maya (illusive world) is deluding (men), sons, relations, house and wife. 
By wealth and youth the world is deceived, by greediness, covetousness and selfishness. 

In consequence of the deceit of spiritual darkness I have died, this prevails in the world. 


0 my beloved, I have none other without thee 1 

Without thee none other is pleasing to me, (if) thou art pleasing (to any one), happiness is obtained. 

(2) . The name I will praise with pleasure, from the word of the Guru contentment (is obtained). 
What is seen, that will go off, false is the infatuation (of the world), do not look (at it) ! 

The travelling caravan has come, (but) behold, it is continually going along. 

(3) . Many tell a story, (but) without the Guru understanding (of truth) is not found. 

If the greatness of the name accrue (to any one), he is steeped in the True one and obtains honour. 
Those who please thee, are good, there is no false nor genuine one (by himself). 

(4) . In the asylum of the Guru final emancipation is obtained ; the trading-stock of the fleshly- 
minded is false. 

The eight metals 1 of a king, (which) are malleated (into money), are inscribed with a word. 
He himself is the examiner who tries them ; the right ones are put into the treasury. 

(5) . Thy value does not become known, all has been seen by me and carefully examined. 3 
By telling it does not come to hand ; he who abides in the True one, obtains honour. 

According to the instruction of the Guru Thou art to be praised, another value (of thine) cannot be told. 

1 The eight metals are : gold, silver, copper, tin, lead, brass, iron, steel. 

3 iflj fd £\ ^rf°T <eTTTfff- <eTTTfS> having struck and sounded. This refers to the habit of 

striking on earthenware and sounding it (before buying it), to see if it be sound = to examine carefully. 



(6) . In which body the name is not approved of, in that body is the contention of egotism. 
"Without the Guru divine knowledge is not obtained, the enjoyment of the visible world is duality. 
Without (praising) the qualities (of Hari) it is of no use, the relish of the Maya is insipid. 

(7) . In hope they are born, in hope they enjoy the pleasures (of this life). 
Bound in hope they are marched off, ruined (robbed) they are struck in the face. 

He who is bound by vice, is beaten, who follows the instruction of the Guru, is saved by the name. 

(8) . Thou alone art in all places, as it pleases thee, so keep me ! 

In (whose) heart the True one dwells by means of the instruction of the Guru, he has a good name, 
honour and reputation. 

By whom the disease of egotism (individuality) is removed by means of the true word (of the Guru), 
he perceives the True one. 

(9) . In the sky and in the nether region, in the three worlds thou art present. 

Thou thyself art the devotee and the object of his love, thou thyself art united (with him) and 
unitest him (with thyself). 

May the name not be forgotten by Mnak ! as it pleases thee, so thou fillest (all places). 

Siri Rag ; mahala I. 

(1) . By the name of Bam my heart is perforated, what other reflection shall I make? 

By attention to the word (of the Guru) comfort arises, love to the Lord is the pith of happiness. 
As it pleases thee, so keep me ! the name of Hari is my support. 


0 my heart, true is the will of the Lord ! 

Meditate on him who has created and adorned body and soul ! 

(2) . (If my) body be thrown into the fire as an offering, having cut it (to pieces of) one rati and 
weighed it. 

If I make body and soul the fuel, daily burning (them) in the fire. 

It does not come up to the name of Hari, though I perform lakhs of crores of works. 

(3) . (If my) body be cut into halves, having ordered the saw 1 to be placed upon my head. 

(If my) body be melted in the Himalaya (snow-mountain), yet the disease will not leave my mind. 
It does not come up to the name of Hari ; every (place) I have seen and carefully examined. 

(4) . Though I give (in charity) castles of gold and present many excellent horses and elephants. 
(Though) I give land and many cows, yet (there is) pride and conceit within (me). 

By the name of Bam my heart is pierced, 2 the Guru has given (me) the true gift. 

(5) . Many are the opinions of the mind, many the reflections on the Veda. 
Many are the fetters of the soul, (but) the disciple has the gate of salvation. 
On the side of truth is every one, (but) above it is good conduct. 3 

(6) . Every one is called high, none is seen low. 

One reason (leading thought) is in the created vessel (=man), One light is in the three worlds. 

1 <*d<S3 (Sansk. cfi^if^), a kind of large saw, but without teeth, as formerly suspended at Benares, by 
which the body was cut into two halves (lengthwise). 

2 The sense of tjnoi, to pierce, is: to have a lively, never intermitting remembrance of a thing, to 
have a constant pricking. 

3 The sense of these words is : every one wants to know truth, but a good religious conduct is better than 
this research after truth. 

sir! rag, mah. I., ASTPAD. XV. 


If it accrue by destiny, then the True one is obtained, the original gift none erases. 

(7) . (If) a holy man meet with holy men, contentment dwells (in him) on account of his love to 
the Guru. ^ 

If the inexpressible tale be reflected upon, he is absorbed in the true Guru. 

Having drunk nectar he is contented, dressed (in a dress of honour) he will go to the court (of Hari). 

(8) . In every body sounds the kingurl 1 daily by the natural property of the word. 
Some rare one gets understanding, (but) the disciple informs his heart. 

0 Nanak ! by whom the word is not forgotten, he is rescued (from material existence), having per- 
formed the word (of the Guru). 

Siri Bag ; maJiald I. 

(1) . Painted and white is the aspect of the mansions, beautiful are the doors. 
According to the pleasure of the heart they were erected, in second love and affection. 2 

If the inside is empty and without love (of God), the body tumbles down (and becomes) a heap of ashes. 


0 brother, (thy) body and property will not go with thee (after death). 

The name of Earn is a pure property, the Guru bestows that Lord as a present. 

(2) . The name of Earn is a pure property, which the Giver gives. 

In the future world no question will be asked from him, whose companion the Guru, the creator is. 
(If) he himself release, emancipation is obtained, he himself is bestowing the gift. 

(3) . The fleshly-minded one considers his own daughters and sons as a chance. 
Having seen women, he is delighted, (but) the joy he has, is grief. 

The disciple enjoys, by the delightful word (of the Guru), day and night the juice of Hari. 

(4) . (His) reason goes (if) his wealth is going, the worshipper of the Sakti is continually wandering 
about. 3 

Seeking it outside one is ruined, the thing is in the house, in one's own place. 

The fleshly-minded one is robbed by egotism, into the disciple's lap (the thing) falls. 

(5) . 0 thou vicious worshipper of the Sakti, know thy own origin ! 

The body (consists) of blood and semen, near the fire 4 life (is infused into it). 

The body is in the power of the breath, on the forehead is the sign of the True one. 5 

(6) . Long life is desired (by every one), no one wishes to die. 

The life of that disciple is called happiness, in whom that (Hari) is indwelling. 

Upon what does he, who is void of the name, count, who has not the sight of Hari, the Guru ? 

(7) . As one is led astray by night in a dream, as long as sleep lasts. 

So are the creatures in the power of the female snake,** within them is the duality of egotism {i.e. 

If instruction by the Guru is given, it is reflected, that this world is (but) a dream (has no real 

1 A sort of a lute, containing only two wires. 

2 Or : in love and affection for duality. 

4 The fire is the fire of the womb. 

5 ^TI^ = 'RJ 577 T^TT^ the sign of the True one is on the forehead written already in the 
womb ; i.e. man's destiny is allotted to him 'already in the womb. 

6 The TTBVfe is identical with the Maya. 



(8). Eire dies if water be poured (upon it), as a child by the milk of the mother (is satiated). 
Without water no lotus is produced, without water the fish dies. 

0 JSanak ! if the disciple obtains the juice of Hari, he lives and sings the qualities (-praises) of Hari. 

Siri Rag ; maJiald I. 

(1) . Having seen a terrible mountain in my father's house I became afraid. 
High and difficult is the mountain, there is no staircase (leading up) to it. 1 

By the disciple he (i.e. Hari) is known (as being) within; being united (with Hari) by the Guru, I 
am saved (i.e. I have crossed). 


0 brother, the difficult water of existence frightens (me). 

(If) the perfect and true Guru fall in with one, being friendly disposed (to him), 2 the Guru brings 
him across (hy) the name of Hari. 

(2) . Though I make preparations for departure (and) know, that I am going. 
Who has come will depart (again), immortal is that Guru, the creator. 

Yet (I am) praising the True one, (I have) love to the True one. 3 

(3) . Beautiful mansions and palaces, thousands of solidly-built forts. 
Elephants, horses, saddles, armies in boundless lakhs : 

Are gone with no one ; wearing away they have died being sapless (unsolid). 

(4) . If gold and silver be collected, wealth is a net of anxieties. 

If one cry out for justice (or help) in the whole world, without the name death is upon his head. 
When the body falls down, the soul will sport, 4 what will be the state of the evil-doer? 

(5) . Having seen his sons and wives the Lord of the bed is delighted. 
Perfume is applied (by him), he adorns his dress and figure. 

Dust is mingled with dust, he departs leaving his family behind. 

(6) . He may be called a chief, a King, a Eaja, a Bau 5 or Khan. 
He may be called a Chaudharl, 6 a Eau, he may burn in haughtiness. 

The fleshly-minded one, by whom the name is forgotten, is (like) a reed burnt in a jungle-fire. 

(7) . He, who has come into the world, will go having practised egotism. 

The whole world is a chamber of lamp-black, 7 body, mind and trunk (are or become) ashes. 

Those are pure who are preserved by the Guru, by the word (of the Guru) their fire is extinguished. 

(8) . 0 Nanak ! it is crossed (=salvation is obtained) by the true name (of him who is) king above 

By me the name is not forgotten, the jewel of the name of Hari is my trust. 

The fieshly-minded are consumed in the water of existence and die, the disciples cross the bottomless 

1 f3T5 3T*T J the second is superfluous and only added to make up the rhyme. 

2 7jf?T must here be taken as Part. p. conj. of <J4JcM> to become well-disposed. 

3 The words qifo fV*HT5> of which the Sikh Granthis could give me no explanation, must be 
constructed thus : "^Tfe fWfT? % ! ^ th I have love to the True one. fc|Tft> is here simply postposi- 
tion (= tfl | •)), Hindi cfPiS to, for. 

4 -rTlQ the soul will sport (i.e. in transmigration). 

5 There is some difference between raja and rau, the latter signifying a chieftain. 

6 the head man of a village or trade. 

7 on-rlCO oMtTI' a chamber of lamp-black, by entering which one is sullied = a place of defilement. 



Sirl Rag ; rnahala I. 
Ghar II. 

(1) . Having fixed (thy) residence remain in the house; why is there continually the apprehension 
of going ? 

This is considered a residence, when people remain stationary. 


How is there a (firm) residence in the world ? 

Practising righteousness bind thou up good works as viaticum, apply thyself continually to the name ! 

(2) . The Jog! practising his sitting-postures 1 sits down, the Mulla sits down in (his) place (or 

The Pandit explains books, the Siddh 2 sits down in a temple. 

(3) . The Gods, the Siddhs, the Ganas, 3 the Gandharvas, the Munis, the Shekhs, Plrs, chiefs: 
Are departed to the threshold (of God), and others also will go (there). 

(4) . Sultans, Khans, Kings, nobles are gone, having departed (from the world). 

In twenty-four minutes (or) in forty-eight minutes it must be gone; 0 heart, understand it, thou 
also wilt arrive there ! 

(5) . If he (the Supreme) be described in words, some rare one will understand it. 

Nanak tells this supplication (=says) : he is in the water, in the earth and on the surface of the earth. 

(6) . Allah is invisible, inapproachable, powerful, creator, merciful. 

All the world is coming and going, only the residence of the Merciful one is firm. 

(7) . He is called stationary, on whose head there is no destiny. 
Heaven and earth will pass away, he alone (will remain) stationary. 

(8) . Day and sun will pass away, night and moon will pass away, lakhs of stars will be destroyed. 4 
He alone is stationary ; 0 Nanak, call him the True one ! 5 

Ghar I. 
' Astpadis. 
By the favour of the true Guru ! 

(1). If he (the Guru) bestow mercy on the disciple, devotion is made, without the Guru devotion 
cannot be made. 

1 The Jogis have eighty-four sitting-postures. 

2 The Siddh, an ascetic, who is said to have acquired superhuman powers. In the following verse the 
Siddhs are a sort of demi-gods, inhabiting, with the inferior deities and Munis, the region between the sun 
and earth. — See Vishnu Purana, ed. Wilson, p. 227. 

3 The Ganas (Sansk. ^JTJf) are troops of inferior deities attendant on Shiva and under the superintendence 
of Ganesh. 

4 "M&fli j from H^cM or 1| W^cM> to be destroyed, from the Sansk. Jpsf^l. 

6 "Sntfe is Persian call, say! The insertion of a Persian word or phrase is considered very 

elegant by the Sikhs. 




He himself unites (the disciple with himself), if he (the disciple) understand (the truth), then he 
will become pure. 

Hari is true, true is (his) word, by the word (of the Guru) union ia brought about. 


0 brother, why haat thou come into the world void of devotion ? 

The service of the perfect Guru is not performed (by thee), uselessly (thy) human birth is wasted. 

(2) . Hari himself is the life of the world, the donor, he himself, having bestowed (the gift), unites. 
What are these helpless creatures ? what can one say or tell ? 

He himself gives greatness to the disciple, he himself makes (him) perform worship. 

(3) . Having seen (his) family he is charmed with fascination, when departing, it does not go with (him). 
Who serves the true Guru, obtains the abode of (all) qualities, his value is not ascertained. 

My friend is the Lord Hari, he will be a companion (also) at the end. 

(4) . In the father's family 1 the life of the world is the donor; by the fleshly-minded one (his) 
honour 2 is lost. 

Without the true Guru no one knows the road, the blind one (has) no place whatever. 

In whose heart Hari, the giver of comfort, is not dwelling, he will regret it at the end, when he is gone. 

(5) . In the father's family the life of the world is the donor; by the instruction of the Guru he is 
caused to dwell in the heart. 

Daily, day and night, (such a one) performs devotion, the infatuation of his egotism (individuality) 
is stopped. 

He becomes such as the person is, with whom he is in love ; the true ones are absorbed in the True one. 

(6) . When he himself ( = Hari) bestows a favourable look, he ( = the disciple) conceives love (to 
him), having reflected on the words of the Guru. 

By the service of the true Guru tranquillity springs up, having extinguished the thirst of egotism. 
Hari, the giver of favours, always dwells in the heart (of him, by whom) the True one is put and 
kept in his breast. 

(7) . My Lord is always pure, by a pure heart he is obtained. 

In whose heart the treasure of the name of Hari dwells, all the pain of his egotism (individuality) 

By the true Guru the word (=the name of Hari) is proclaimed, I am always a sacrifice for him. 

(8) . One may say (so) in his own heart and mind, (but) without the Guru "self" does not go. 
Hari is propitious to (his) devotees, the giver of comfort, if he bestow mercy, he dwells in the heart. 
0 Nanak ! the Lord himself gives beauty and reflection, he gives greatness to his disciple. 

Bin Rug ; mahala III. 

(1). Who are practising works of egotism, on them the punishment of Tama falls. 
Those are saved who serve the true Guru, being occupied in their thoughts with Hari. 

0 my heart, meditate on the name, directing thy face towards the Guru ! 

To them it is originally and before by the creator decreed, who by means of the instruction of the 
Guru are absorbed in the name. 

1 i 

'.e. Whilst living in one's fathers house = in this M-orld. 
The honour of the human birth. 



(2) . Without the true Guru faith does npt come, love to the name does not arrive. 
Not (even) in a dream they obtain comfort, absorbed in pain they sleep. 

(3) . Though it may be said: Ha©, Hard! though he may be much desired, the destiny cannot be 

Those devotees have become acceptable at the gate, by w&om the will of Hari has been obeyed with 


(4) . The Guru makes the word firm with colour, without mercy it cannot be taken. 
If a hundred nectars be sprinkled, yet the Dhau 1 will bear a poisonous fruit. 

(5) . Those people are true and pure, who have love to the true Guru. 

They are performing the will of the true Guru, having given up the poison and passion of egotism. 

(6) . From the obstinacy of the mind one is not liberated by any contrivance, go and search the 
Smriti and the Shastras ! 

Those who have joined the assembly of the holy ones, are saved by performing the word of the Guru. 

(7) . The name of Hari is a treasure, which has no end nor limit. 
Those disciples are lustrous, on whom the creator bestows mercy. 

(8) . 0 Nanak, the donor is One, there is no other ! 

By the favour of the Guru he (Hari) is obtained, by destiny he is acquired. 

Siri Rag ; mdhala III. 

(1) . There is a beautiful bird on a tree, he picks up (as food) truth by love to the Guru. 
He drinks the juice of Hari, he remains at his ease, he does not fly, nor come nor go. 
In his own house he has obtained a dwelling, in the name of Hari, Hari he is absorbed. 


0 my heart, do the work of the Guru ! 

If thou walkest according to the will of the Guru, thou wilt daily be steeped in the name of Hari. 

(2) . There are beautiful birds on a tree, they fly and go to the four quarters (of the earth). 
As much as they may fly, their pains are great, they always burn and lament. 

Without the Guru the palace (of Hari) does not become known, nor is the fruit of immortality found. 

(3) . (In) the disciple Brahm is verdant with true, natural ease. 

The three branches 2 are removed (by him) having directed his thoughts on the One word (=name). 
Hari alone is (or has) the fruit of immortality, he himself gives it to eat. 

(4) . The fleshly-minded are oppressed with heat and dried up, they have neither fruit nor shade. 
One should not sit near them, they have neither house nor village. 

They are cut down and continually burnt, they have neither the word (of the Guru) nor the name 
(of Hari). 

(5) . According to his order they do works, when the lot has fallen they wander about- 
According to his order they see the sight (of the Guru), where he sends them, thither they go. 
By his order Hari, Hari dwells in (their) heart, by his order they are absorbed in the True one. 

(6) . The helpless do not know his order, the fools wander about being led astray. 

In the obstinacy of their mind they are doing (religious) works, continually, continually they become 

No rest comes into their heart, nor do they conceive love to the True one. 

1 Ml G ? (Sansk. ^ITcNft) the Grislea tomentosa, a poisonous shrub. 

2 The three branches are the three qualities *T3, <T^, 



(7) . The faces of the disciples are beautiful by their love and affection to the Guru. 

By true devotion they are attached to the True one, at the gate of the True one they are (found) true. 
They have become acceptable (themselves) and save all their family (also). 

(8) . All do their works (in) his sight, outside his sight no one (is doing a work). 
As the True one is looking upon one, such he is. 

0 Xanak, from the name (come) greatnesses, 1 by destiny they are acquired I 

Sin Rag ; mahala III. 

(1) . The disciples meditate on the name, the fleshly-minded get no understanding. 
The faces of the disciples are always bright, Hari comes and dwells in (their) heart. 
Quite easily comfort is obtained (by them), easily they remain absorbed (in Hari). 


0 brother, become the slave of the slaves ! 

The service of the Guru is attachment to the Guru, some rare one obtains it. 

(2) . There is always the happy state of wifehood of that favoured woman, who walks in the love of 
the true Guru. 

The immovable beloved is always obtained (by her), he does not die nor go. 

Being united by the word (of the Guru) she is not separated, she is absorbed in the bosom of the beloved. 

(3) . The pure and exceedingly bright Hari cannot be obtained without the Guru. 

One reads the Vedas (but) does not understand (them), by (faqlr-) dresses and error he is led astray. 
By the instruction of the Guru Hari is always obtained, the tongue is absorbed in the juice of Hari. 

(4) . By the innate nature of the instruction of the Guru the infatuation of the Maya is brought to 
an end. 

"Without the word (of the Guru) the world goes about in pain, the fleshly-minded she (the Maya) 
has eaten up. 

He who by the word (of the Guru) meditates on the name, is absorbed in the True one by means of 
the word. 

(5) . The ascetics (Siddhs) wander about being led astray by the Maya, by the natural property (of the 
Maya in them) deep meditation (so as to identify themselves with the Supreme) is not made (by them). 

In the three worlds she ( = the Maya) is contained, excessively she is clinging (to them). 
"Without the Guru final emancipation is not obtained, nor does the duality of the Maya cease. 

(6) . What is called Maya ? "What works does the Maya practise ? 

By pain and happiness this soul is bound, it practises the works of egotism (individuality). 
Without the word (of the Guru) the error does not cease, egotism (individuality) does not depart 
from within. 

(7) . Without love devotion is not possible, without the word (of the Guru) it is not acceptable 
(with Hari). 

If by the word egotism (individuality) be annihilated, the error of the Maya will cease. 
The boon of the name is obtained by the disciple with natural ease. 

(8) . Without the Guru the qualities (of Hari) are not known, without the qualities (of Hari being 
known) devotion cannot be made. 

In (whose) heart Hari, the propitious to the devotees, has taken his abode, he has naturally found 
that Lord. 

0 Nanak ! Hari is praised by means of the word (of the Guru) (by him, who) obtains (him) by destiny. 

1 Or : in the name are. 



Sirl Rag ; mahala III. 

(1). The infatuation of the Maya% made by my Lord, he himself leads astray in error. 
The fleshly-minded one practises (religious) works, (but) does not understand (the truth), uselessly 
he wastes his human birth. 

The word of the Guru is the light in this world, by destiny it comes and dwells in the heart. 

0 my heart, repeat silently the name, and comfort will be obtained. 
If the true Guru be praised, naturally that Lord will be found. 

(2) . (His) error is gone, (his) fear has fled, who applies his thoughts to the feet of Hari. 

If the word (of the Guru) be performed by the disciple, Hari comes and dwells in (his) heart. 
To the true house and palace (of Hari) he is admitted, death cannot eat him. 

(3) . Nama (was) a calico-printer and Kabir 1 a weaver, (but) from the perfect Guru they obtained 

The sons of Brahma know the word, they parted (therefore) with egotism (individuality) and family. 3 
Gods and Naras sing their praise, no one effaces it, 0 brother ! 

(4) . The son of the Daitya 3 does not at all read (with his preceptor) the duties, religious observances 
and abstinences (prescribed by the Shastras) (and yet) he knows no duality. 

Having met with the true Guru he became pure, daily he praises the name. 
The One he recites, the One name he meditates upon, he knows no other. 

(5) . The six (philosophical) systems, the Jogis and Sanyasls 4 are led astray in error without the Guru. 
If they serve the true Guru, then they obtain the station (degree) of salvation, Hari dwells in (their) 


If (their) thought is fixed on the true word (of the Guru), coming and going is stopped. 

(6) . The Pandit reading and reading explains an argumentation, without the Guru he is led astray 
in error. 

1 Nama or Namdev, a famous devotee, who is considered the first Marathi writer (Molesworth, Marathi 
Dictionary, Introd. p. xxv), is said to have been a contemporary of Kabir (about 1480 a.d.). Kahir, the 
weaver, a Musalman by birth (as borne out by the Granth and the testimony of Ravidas) and disciple of 
Ramanand, lived partly at Magar and partly at Benares under the reign of Sikandar Shah LodI (1488 — 1512). 
Portions of the writings of both are incorporated in the Granth, especially of Kabir, who comes in for a con- 
siderable share in every Rag, and who is to be considered as the author of the whole reformatory movement 
going on in India during the Middle Ages. Nanak and the following Sikh Gurus have iudorsed the tenets of 
Kabir and made them their own. 

2 The sons of Brahma; the mind-born sons of Brahma, who are called Sanatkumara, Sananda, Sanaka 
and Sanatana (with sometimes a fifth, Ribhu, added). They are said to have declined to create progeny and to 
have ever remained boys (Kumara), pure and innocent. The "sabd" means here the initiatory mantr (so ham), 
implying identity with the Supreme; they refused therefore to enter duality by procreation. 

3 ^t3 1T3> the son of the Daitya (Hiranyakas'ipu) Prahlad, whose story is told in the Vishnu Purana. 
His preceptor did not teach him the name of Vishnu, but Vishnu himself (who is here to be understood by the 
^Tfe grg 1 ), the instructor of the whole world. His father is said to have made different attempts on the life of 
his son, but to have signally failed ; at last Hiranyakas'ipu was torn in pieces by Vishnu hi the Avatar of the 
Narsinha (man-lion) issuing from a pillar of the hall. This story is frequently mentioned in the Granth. 

* JjfTWT'fY O^TsETrtft)* one wno nas cast on? a ^ worldly desires and possessions, a religious mendicant 
(now different from the fourth order of Brahmans). The Sanyasls are generally followers of Shiva, the 
Bairagis of Vishnu. 



The round of the eighty-four lakhs (of forms of existence) is allotted (to him), without the word 
(instruction of the Guru) he does not ohtain salvation. 

When he reflects on the name, then he obtains salvation, when the true Guru unites (him) to union 
(with Hari). 

(7) . In the assembly of the holy ones the name of Hari is produced, where the true Guru is naturally 
met with. 

Soul and body I offer up, my own self I remove, I walk in faith in the true Guru. 
I am always a sacrifice for my own Guru, who fixes my mind on Hari. 

(8) . He is a Brahman who knows Brahm, who is in love with Hari. 

The Lord, who dwells near in the heart of all, is known hy some rare disciple. 

0 Nanak ! the name, (by means of which) greatness is ohtained, is known from the word of the Guru. 

Sirl Rag ; mahala III. 

(1) . The whole world seeks composure, 1 (hut) without the Guru it cannot be ohtained. 

The Pandits and astrologers, reading and reading (treatises), have become tired, by (faqir-) dresses 
and error they are led astray. 

By meeting with the Guru composure is obtained, if he {i.e. Hari) bestow his own mercy and good 


0 brother, without the Guru composure does not accrue. 

From the word (of the Guru) alone composure springs up, that true Hari is ohtained (from it). 

(2) . What is sung in composure is acceptable, without composure the recital (of the Purans, etc.) is 

Easily devotion is produced hy composure, out of natural love and abandonment of the world. 
From composure comfort and tranquillity are obtained, without composure life is useless. 

(3) . By composure (the disciple) always, always praises (Hari), easily giving himself to deep 

By composure he utters the qualities (of Hari), he performs devotion directing his thoughts (on 

By the word (of the Guru) Hari dwells in his heart, his tongue eats the juice of Hari. 

(4) . By composure death is driven away, if (one) fall on the asylum of the True one. 
By composure the name of Hari dwells in (his) heart, he does true work. 

Those are very fortunate who bave obtained it, they remain easily absorbed (in Hari). 

(5) . In the Maya composure is not produced, the Maya is in duality. 

The fleshly-minded are doing (the prescribed) works, (but) they burn continually in egotism." 
Birth and death do not cease, again and again they come and go. 

(6) . In the three qualities composure is not obtained, the three qualities lead astray in error. 

It may he read, it may he pondered, what shall be said (by him), when he goes astray from the 
heginning ? 

In the fourth stage is composure, 2 it falls into the lap of the disciple. 

1 The whole Astpadi is a play with the meaning of TTTTtJ, MxSMl • It signifies here (as a substantive m.), 
according to the whole context: " composure, ease of mind:' In Sindhi it is still used in this sense (^f3|), 
but no longer in modern Hindi. *KJtT is also used as adjective, "innate," natural, and as adverb (*TU^), 
naturally, easily, 

7 In the fourth stage the individual spirit identifies itself completely with the Supreme Spirit. 



(7) . The name of him that is without attributes (=the Supreme) is a treasure, by composure 
sagacity (of mind) is obtained. 1 

By the virtuous it is praised, trueis the story of the True one. 

Those who are gone astray he (Hari) will unite (with himself) by composure, by the word (of the 
Guru) union is brought about. 

(8) . Without composure every one is blind, the infatuation of the Maya is darkness. 
By composure sagacity is obtained from the true inexhaustible word (of the Guru). 
He himself, the perfect Guru, the creator unites (him). 

(9) . By composure the invisible one is known, the fearless, the luminous, the formless. 

He alone is the donor of all creatures, the luminous is uniting (with himself) that which is luminous. 
By the perfect word (of the Guru) he is praised, who has no end nor limit. 

(10) . The wealth of those endowed with divine knowledge is the name, naturally (=readily) they 
traffic (with it). 

Daily they take as profit the name of Hari, the store-rooms (of whom) are inexhaustible and filled. 
0 Nanak ! no deficiency befalls them, they are given by the giver. 


Sir l Rag ; mahala III. 

(1) . After the true Guru is found, no wandering (in transmigration) takes place, the pain of birth 
and death ceases. 

Erom the perfect word all knowledge is obtained, he (the disciple) remains absorbed in the name of 


0 my heart, fix thy mind on the true Guru ! 

He himself, (whose) name is pure and always fresh, will come and dwell in the heart. 

(2) . 0 Hari, keep me in thy asylum ! As thou keepest me, so I remain. 

The disciple, who whilst living dies by means of the word (of the Guru), crosses the water of 

(3) . By a great destiny the name is obtained, by the word approved by the Guru he (=the disciple) 
ohtains honour. 

In whose heart the Lord, the creator himself dwells, he remains easily absorhed (in Hari). 

(4) . To some fleshly-minded the word (of the Guru) is not pleasing, bound in fetters they are caused 
to wander about (in transmigration). 

Again and again they come having passed through the eighty-four lakhs (of forms of existence), 
uselessly their human birth is lost. 

(5) . In the heart of the devotees is joy, by the true word they are steeped in the love (of Hari). 
Daily they sing (his) qualities, they are always pure (and) are easily absorbed in the name. 

(6) . The disciples speak a speech of nectar, they recognize all (the world) as the Supreme Spirit. 
The One they serve, the One they worship, the disciples recite the inexpressible one. 

(7) . If the true Lord be served, he comes and dwells in the heart of the disciples. 

Those who are always in love with the True one, he unites (with himself) out of his own mercy. 

(8) . He himself does (everything) and causes it to be done, he himself awakens some who have 
fallen asleep. 

He himself unites to union (with himself) (those), 0 Mnak ! (who) are absorbed in the word (of the 

1 By TfU^t (abL), composure, *p£^, brightness of intellect or sagacity of mind, is obtained. 



Sin Rag ; mahald III. 

(1) . By serving the true Guru soul and body have become pure and holy. 

He always gets joy and comfort in his heart, who has joined the deep and profound (Hari). 
He who sits in the true assembly, his mind is composed by the true name. 


0 my heart, fearlessly serve the true Guru ! 

By serving the true Guru, Hari dwells in the heart, not a bit of filth clings to it. 

(2) . Prom the true word honour springs up, true is the name of the True one. 

1 shall become a sacrifice for those who, having extinguished their egotism (individuality), have known it. 
The fleshly-minded do not know the True one, they have nowhere a place or spot. 

(3) . The True one (I) eat, the True one (I) put on, in the True one is my abode. 
(I) praise always the True one, in the True one is (my) dwelling. 

All is recognized (by me) as the Supreme Spirit, by means of the instruction of the Guru (my) abode 
is in (my) own house. 

(4) . (Who) sees the True one, who speaks the True one, (his) body and soul become true. 
True is (his) evidence, true his instruction, the story of the True one is true. 

By whom the True one is forgotten, they go in pain and weep. 

(5) . By whom the true Guru is not served, for what have they come into the world ? 

Being bound they are beaten at the gate of Yama, he does not hear (=listen to) their screams and cries. 
Uselessly their human birth is lost, they die and are born repeatedly. 

(6) . Having seen this world burning (I) 1 have tied to the asylum of the true Guru. 

By the true Guru the True one is made firm (in me), (I) always remain in true continence. 
The true Guru is the true boat, by (his) word (I) cross the water of existence. 

(7) . In the eighty-four lakhs (of forms of existence) they continually wander about, (but) without 
the true Guru final emancipation is not found. 

The Pandits and silent ascetics reading and reading have become tired, by duality they have lost 
their honour. 

By the true Guru the word (=the name) is proclaimed, without the True one there is no other. 

(8) . Those who are applied by the True one, cling to the True one, and do always true (good) work. 
They have obtained a dwelling in their own house 1 ' and remain in the true palace. 

0 Nanak! devotees are always happy, they are always in love with the true name. 

Sir! Rag ; mahald V. 

(1). Whom a very great difficulty befalls, to him none gives an entrance. 

If his enemies are lying in wait for him, even his relatives keep aloof from him. 

Every asylum is broken down, every protector fails. 

(But) if he remember the Supreme Brahm, no hot wind will touch him. 


The Lord is the strength of the weak. 

He neither comes nor goes, he is always firm; from the word of the Guru the True one is known. 

1 No subject whatever is pointed out, it can only be guessed at. 

2 The sense is : they do not seek the Supreme outside, but they find him in their own heart, which is his 
palace, where he dwells. 



(2) . If one be weak, naked, in the pain of hunger. 

If no money fall into his lap, if no one encourage him. 

If no one do his aim and object, 1 inhere be no business whatever (for him). 

If he remember the Supreme Brahm, his satiety will be immovable. 

(3) . "Who has much anxiety, whose body much sickness pervades. 

"Who is surrounded by a household and family, who has sometimes joy and sometimes grieL 
"Who wanders about in the four corners of the earth, who sits not dowu nor sleeps for twenty 

If he remember the Supreme Erahm, his body and soul will be refreshed. 

(4) . He may be subdued by lust, wrath and spiritual blindness; he may be a miser, given to greedi- 
ness. 2 

He may have committed the four sins and crimes, 3 he may have perpetrated an atrocious murder. 

He may never have caught with his ear any book, song, poetry. 

If he remember the Supreme Erahm, he is saved by the remembrance of a moment. 

(5) . He may go through the Shastras, Smriti, the four Vedas from memory. 
The great ascetic may practise austerities, the Jogi may go to a Tlrtha. 

He may (practise) twofold more than the six duties, 4 performing worship he may bathe. 
If he has no love to the Supreme Erahm, he will surely go to hell. 

(6) . (If he have) dominion, property, chieftainships, an abundance of enjoyment of (sensual) 

(If he have) delightful and beautiful gardens, if his order go unflinching. 

(If he have) merriments and shows of many kinds, if he have adhered continually to his pleasure. 
If he has not remembered the Supreme Erahm, he has gone into the womb of a snake. 

(7) . He may be very rich and of virtuous conduct, his comeliness and manners may be spotless. 
He may be in love with mother, father, son, brothers, friend. 

He may he addressed by the whole quiver-bearing army in homage : 0 Sir, Sir ! 

If he has not remembered the Supreme Erahm, he is seized and thrown into the lowest hell. 8 

(8) . In his body there may be no sickness nor any defect, no pain nor grief whatever. 
Death may not come into his mind, day and night he may enjoy himself. 

He may have made all his own, he may not have got anxiety in his heart. 

1 *WfiJW an d *WT@ synonymous ; the latter stands for = ( in Prakrit dissolved 
already into ^^(^)|). The word ^J^RT^3 is also used in the same sense in Sindhi. 

2 fV*HT<T; ftPHTH stands here (for the sake of the rhyme) for fl|lHT<JT> attached to, given to 
(=fjpET), constructed with the locative (&fe), as in Sanskrit. 

8 The four sins are now said to be : the killing of a girl, the killing of a cow, the killing of a Brahman, 
and cohabitation with one's Guru's wife. Formerly five heinous sins were enumerated : (1) killing a Brah- 
man, (2) stealing gold, (3) drinking liquors (H^tTT^), (4) intercourse with the wife of one's Guru, (5) associa- 
ting with any one guilty of such crimes. 

4 The six duties, as far as they are binding on the Khatri, are mentioned already, p. 17, note. The six 
duties of the Brahman are : (1) ^TO^if (reading of the sacred texts), (2) ^TSTTTJ^ (teaching the same), 
(3) (sacrificing), (4) ^T^ffi (procuring or vicariously conducting sacrifice), (5) ^Jw\ (almsgiving), 
(6) HfTRTf (accepting donations). 

5 5cR*T "ETC "Ste must be thus d >vided : 31R*I *MJ \J^J wearing a quiver, the other ^fe is 
= ^*^«fT to worship, to do homage, and is the participle past conjunctive: having done homage. 

fi is originally one of the seven divisions of Patala (see Vishnu Purann, p. 204) ; but in the 

modern Hindi it denotes the lowest of the seven divisions, and is identical with Ad^ • 




If the Supreme Brahm he has not remembered, he falls (has fallen) into the power of the servant 
of Yama. 

(9). On whom the Supreme Brahm bestows mercy, he obtains the society of the holy ones. 

As, as he (Brahm) is magnified, so, so love with Hari (is increased). 

He himself is the Lord of both boundaries, 1 there is no other place. 

From the true Guru, if he be pleased, the true name is obtained, 0 Nanak ! 

Sin Rag ; mahala V. 

Ghar V. 


I do not know what things please (him). 

0 heart, seek the way ! 

(1) . He who is given to meditation, makes meditation ; 
He who has divine knowledge, acquires divine knowledge. 
By whom is the Lord known ? 

(2) . The BhagautI 2 remains in his practice. 
The Jogi says : (I am) emancipated. 

The ascetic is absorbed in his austerity. 

(3) . The silent devotee keeps silence, the Sanyasi is given to chastity. 
The stoic is absorbed in indifference (to the world). 

The devotee bows down in (different) manners. 

The Pandit reads with a loud voice the Veda. 

The householder is fulfilling his duties in his household. 

(4) . The Ik-sabdi and Avadhut is (given) to mimicry. 
The Kapari is given to show (sport). 

Some bathe at a Tirtha. 3 

(5) . (Some) who go without food and are fasting, are touchable {i.e. mingling with people). 
Some hide themselves and do not give au interview. 

Some are wise in their own mind. 

(6) . No one says : he is wanting. 4 
All say : he is obtained (by me). 

"Whom he (Hari) unites (with himself), he is a devotee. 

(7) . Giving up all contrivances and shifts : 

1 will fall on the asylum (of the Guru). 
Nanak flees to the foot of the Guru. 

1 ^vlf fafattfT tfWJ> the Lord of botli ends or boundaries, Le. of this and that world, or of the whole 

2 The BhagautI is a faqir, who imitates the dress, dance, etc., of Krishna; r|J|^ |, given to the practice, 
performance (of the , etc.). 

3 The Ik-sabdi is the same as the Alokh-nami, who only uses the word Alakh (Brahma). The Avadhut 
is a naked faqir; both are said to be given to mimicry. The Kapari is a faqir who makes pilgrimage to 
Hinglaj ; they carry a red flag, sell rosaries, etc., and also give public shows (SJ©3T = cfi^rfofi). : HW3T= 
Sansk. lintel > wakeful, attentive to, given to. 

4 ^M"rf^> he (i.e. God) is wanting, or not found. 



Om ! By the favour of the true Guru ! 

SIEI HAG; mahala I. 1 

Ghar III. 

(1) . Amongst Jogis thou art a Jogl, amongst sensual men thou art sensual. 
Thy end cannot be obtained ; in heaven, on earth, in the nether region art thou ! 


I devote myself, I devote myself, I am a sacrifice to thy name. 

(2) . Thou hast created the world, thou hast put the created beings into (their) occupation. 2 
Thou seest thy own work, by the omnipotence thou lettest fall the dice. 8 

(3) . Thou art manifest and known in, the world (the expansion). 
The whole (world) longs for (thy) name. 

Without the true Guru (thou art) not obtained, the whole (world) is in the net of the illusive Maya, 

(4) . One should offer himself a sacrifice to the true Guru ! 
By meeting with whom perfect salvation is obtained. 

What the Gods, Naras, the Munis are longing for, that is taught by the true Guru, Sir !* 

(5) . Now is the society of the good known : 
Where the One name is praised. 

The One name is the commandment (of God), 0 Nanak ! by the true Guru it is taught, Sir ! 

(6) . This world is led astray in error. 
By thyself it is ruined. 

Anguish has seized those ill-fated women, whose lot thou art not, 0 Lord ! 

(7) . What are the signs of the ill-fated women ? 

Having strayed away from their husband, they wandeir about wretched. 

Dirty are the clothes of those fascinating women, in pain the night is passed (by them), 0 Lord ! 

(8) . What work is done by the lucky women ? 
They have obtained the fruit decreed for them before. 

Casting upon them thy own favourable look, thou thyself unitest them (with thyself), 0 Lord ! 

(9) . Whom (thou hast) caused to obey (thy) order: 
Within them (thou hast) planted the word (of the Guru). 

Those lucky women are (thy) intimate friends, who have love with (thee) the husband, 0 Lord ! 
' (10). Who are pleased with the divine decree : from their heart error is removed. 

0 Nanak, such a one is known as the true Guru, who unites every one, Sir ! 

(11). By meeting with the true Guru those have obtained the fruit (of their former good actions): 
Who have cleared away from within egotism (individuality). 

1 In the best MSS. of the Granth the following two pieces are numbered by themselves, and not among the 
Astpadis, to which they do not belong. No title is given to either piece ; we head them therefore by the first words. 

2 fire = f*T3%» the created beings; {jl? firf? WtGcM, to put into (upon) their occupation, to assign 
to every created being its peculiar work. 

3 in*TT ^Id^cM, to let fall or pour out the dice, i.e. to assign the lot to every creature. 

4 tJV© may be translated by " Lord " or " Sir" (or brother). In the following verses -rf\G is partly applied 
to God, partly redundant (applied to a brother = UTTSt)- 



The pain of (their) foolishness 1 is cut off, destiny has come and settled on their forehead, Sir ! 

(12) . Thy words are nectar. 

In the heart of (thy) devotees they are deeply fixed. 

By keeping up worship in the heart, comfort (is obtained); 2 (on whom) thou bestQwest a favourable 
look, (him) thou savest, 0 Lord ! 

(13) . The true Guru, heing met with, is known. 
By the meeting with whom the name is praised. 

Without the true Guru it is not obtained; the whole (world), doing (religious) works, has become 
tired, 3 0 Lord ! 

(14) . I have devoted myself to the true Guru. 

Who has put me, who was led astray by error, into the (right) way. 

If he bestows his own favourable look, he himself unites (with himself), Sir ! 

(15) . Thou art contained in all. 

By that creator his own self is hidden. 

0 Nanak, he has become manifest to that disciple, to whom the creator has communicated his 
light, Sir! 

(16) . By the Lord himself he is cherished. 
Who has given and made soul and body. 

He preserves the honour of his own servant, putting both hands on his forehead, Sir ! 

(17) . All abstinences and cunnings have come to an end. 
My Lord knows everything. 

His glory is laid out manifest, all the world cries : victory ! Sir ! 

(18) . My virtues (and) vices he has not taken into account. 
The Lord has remembered his practice. 4 

Taking me to his neck he has preserved (me), no hot wind touches (me), Sir ! 

(19) . In my heart and body the Lord is meditated upon. 
The fruit desired by my heart I have obtained. 

Thou art Lord above a king and emperor, JSanak lives reciting silently (thy) name, 0 Lord ! 

(20) . Thou thyself hast created thyself. 

Thou hast made another sport (= the world) and shown it. 

In all is the perfectly True one ; whom he pleases, him he lets know (the truth), Sir ! 

(21) . (Where) he is obtained by the favour of the Guru. 
There the infatuation of the Maya is brought to an end. 

He himself, out of his own mercy, absorbs (with himself), Sir ! 

(22) . (Thou art) the GopTs, the river, the cowherd. 
Thou thyself hast removed the kine. 

By (thy) order the vessels are made, thou thyself having broken (them) makest (them again), 5 
0 Lord ! 

(23) . Who have fixed their mind on the true Guru. 

1 The ^d+lfii or foolishness, coDsists in considering oneself different from the Supreme. 

3 The words wfofo ^ftW must be thus constructed : ntefo ^ffcf*H *Tfef (UTT 

3 Has become tired, knocked up. The sense is : all their (religious) works have been of no use, the name 
was not obtained by their works. 

4 The sense is : the Lord has remembered that it is his practice ever to forgive. 

5 nmf ^fe **<£lfo may also be translated; thou thyself, having prepared (or adorned them), 
breakest (them). 



They have brought duality to an end. 

A pure light is in those men, they are gone, having adorned their human birth, Sir ! 
(24.) (Thou art) always, always £doing) good works. 
I (am saying) (thy) praises night and day. 

(Thou art) giving gifts without being asked ; Nanak says-: remember the True one, Sir ! 

Sirz Rag ; mahala V. 

Having fallen at his feet I will conciliate him, Sir ! 

By the true Guru, the Supreme Spirit, (I am) united, like him there is none other, Sir ! 

(1) . The Lord 1 (is) my dear friend. 

(He is) sweeter (to me) than mother and father. 

(Sweeter than) sister, brother and all friends ; like thee there is none other, 0 Lord ! 

(2) . By thy order Savan 2 has come. 
I have applied the plough of truth. 

I commenced to sow the name in hope; 0 Hari, having made it grow, bestow heaps of corn, 

(3) . I, having met with the Guru, know the One. 
I do not know any other word in my mind. 

By Hari I was put into one work ; as it pleases (thee), so accomplish it, 0 Lord ! 

(4) . 0 brethren, enjoy yourselves and eat! 

I have been invested by the Guru in the court with the mantle. 

I have become the master of the village ; the five partners were brought bound, Sirs ! 3 

(5) . I have come to thy protection. 
The five are the labourers of my fields. 

No one lifts up his shoulder and is remiss, 0 Nanak ! by hard labour the village is cultivated, Sir ! 

(6) . I sacrifice and devote myself (to thee). 
Continually I am meditating on thee. 

The desolate heap of ruins is built up, I am a sacrifice to thee, 0 Lord ! 

(7) . I am always meditating on the beloved Hari. 
I obtain the fruit, I desire in my heart. 

All my works are adjusted by him, the hunger of my heart is taken, away by him, Sir ! 

(8) . All (worldly) occupation is given up by me. 
I serve the true Lord. 

The name of Hari, the receptacle of the nine treasures, I have taken and bound in my lap, Sir ! 

(9) . I have obtained the comfort of comforts. 
The Guru has fixed the word in my heart. 

1 TAHITI (='ft^T^')> an epithet of Krishna, the Lord of cows. Arjun was a great worshipper of 
Krishna : he was his (the God whom he had specially chosen for his worship) ; his tomb at Lahore is 
still covered with paintings exhibiting the feats of Krishna. 

2 Savan = July-August (the rainy month in the Panjab). 

3 The master of the village, the master of the heart. The five partners are explained by: SfW> ^» 

*fcr» nfvhrre. 


SIRI RAG, MAH. V., PAI PAE, 10-21. 

By the true Guru, the Supreme Spirit, it was shown (to me), having put his hand on my fore- 
head, Sir! 

(10) . I have built a true Dharmsala. 

I obtain the instruction of the Guru, having searehed (for it). 

I wash the feet (of the Guru), I swing the Pankha, bowing and bowing to him I cling to his 
feet, Sir ! 

(11) . Having beard (his) words (I) came to the Guru. 

The name, alms-giving, bathing was enjoined (by the Guru). 

The whole world was saved, 0 Nanak, having ascended the true boat, Sir ! 

(12) . The whole creation serves (him) day and night, Sir! 
Give ear and hear my supplication, 1 Sir ! 

I have seeu and accurately examined all : he himself, being pleased, has released (saved) it (the 
creation), Sir! 

(13) . Now the order of the kind (Hari) has been given. 
No one is troubling the other. 

All (the world) has settled in happiness, this rule of mildness has set in, Sir ! 

(14) . Softly and lightly nectar is raining. 

I speak, what I am caused to speak by the Lord. 

I have put much trust in thee, thou thyself wilt accept me, 0 Lord ! 

(15) . The hunger of thy devotees is always thy own. 

0 Hari, (thou art) fulfilling my desires ! 

Give me a sight of thee, 0 giver of comfort, take and put me to thy neck, 0 Lord ! 

(16) . Like thee none other is found. 

Thou art in the earth, the heavens and in the nether regions. 

Thou art contained in every place ; Nanak (says) ; thou art the true support of (thy) devotees, 
0 Lord ! 

(17) . I am the brave combatant of the Lord. 

Having met with the Guru the back-part of my turban stands high up. 

All the (world) has been assembled for the wrestling; God himself, being seated, looks on, Sir! 

(18) . The mouths of the drums and kettledrums sound. 
The wrestlers have descended and take their rounds. 

Eive young men were killed (by me) ; the Guru, rejoicing, tapped me, Sir ! 

(19) . All have come together. 

They will go home, having changed the road. 2 

The disciples are gone, having got the advantage, the fleshly-minded are gone, having lost their 
capital, Sir! 

(20) . Thou art without colours and signs. 
Thou, 0 Hari, art seen present and manifest. 

Having heard, having heard, they are meditating on thee ; thy devotees are attached to thee, 0 ocean 
of qualities! 

(21) . I am constantly the servant of the Deity. 
The Guru has cut my rope. 

1 shall not again dance in wrestling. Nanak has sought and found the fit time, Sir ! 

1 i.e. my word. 

2 ^TZ I fk*Hl = ?JT£ ?c£Tf2f J fi na l o is an alliteration, for the sake of the rhyme. 



Ora ! By the favour of the true Guru ! 

Mahala I. 
Ghar I. 

(1) . In the first watch of the night, 0 friend merchant, he (= man) has fallen into the womb 2 
by order (of God). 

He performs within austerity, the face being turned upwards, 0 friend merchant, and supplication 
to the Lord. 

He makes supplication to the Lord, being given to meditation and devout absorption, the face 
being directed upwards. ' 

Without decency (= naked) he has come into the Kali-yug, and will go again naked. 

As the pen (of God) has flown (= written) on the forehead, such (a lot) the creatures will obtain. 

Nanak says : in the first watch man has fallen into the womb. 3 

(2) In the second watch of the night, 0 friend merchant, meditation has been forgotten. 

Prom hand to hand he is fondly passed, 4 0 friend merchant, as Kan (= Krishna) in the house 
of Jasuda. 5 

The child is fondly passed (danced) from hand to hand, the mother says : 
My son ! know, 0 my thoughtless foolish heart, at the end nothing will be thine. 
Thon doest not know him,-by whom creation was made; form (= conceive) in thy mind divine 
knowledge ! 

Nanak says : in the second watch meditation is forgotten by man. 

(3) . In the third watch of the night, 0 friend merchant, his mind is intent on wealth and youth. 
He does not remember the name of Hari, 0 friend merchant, by which the bound one is released. 
Man does not remember the name of Hari, he is confused and (engaged) with the Maya. 

He is enamoured of property, drunk by youth, uselessly his human birth is lost. 

He has not carried on traffic with religion, he has done no (good) works, 0 friend ! 

Kanak says : in the third watch the thought of man (is directed) towards wealth and youth. 

(4) . In the fourth watch , of the night, 0 friend merchant, the reaper has come (and reaped) 
the field. 

When he is seized and marched off by Yama, no one has undergone a change of mind. 6 
No one has undergone a change of mind, when he is seized and marched off by Tama. 
A false weeping is made round about him, in a moment he has become a stranger. 
That thing he has obtained, on which he had bestowed his affection. 
Nanak says : in the fourth watch the field of man is reaped by the reaper. 

1 The following pieces bear the superscription "panaris," watches, for reasons apparent from the con- 
tents. These verses are addressed to a vanjara mitr, which the Sikhs take for a proper name, but it is perhaps 
more simple to take it for an appellative. 

2 3TcT5Tf*T> Loc. of J|d3R = I^TS^T, uterus. 

3 The Hindus fancy that the foetus in the womb is meditating on Brahm. 

4 Literally: he is caused to dance. 

5 , the wife of Nanda, in whose house Krishna was brought up. 

6 §3" = a changed state, change of mind ; man dies as he lived. 



Sirt Rag ; mahald I. 

(1) . In the first watch of the night, 0 friend merchant, the child is of a thoughtless mind. 

It drinks milk, it is caused to play, 0 friend merchant, mother and father are in love with 
their son. 

Mother and father have great love to their son, all are under the infatuation of the Maya. 
By copulation 1 (of the parents) he came (into the world), he has earned his deeds, he does the work, 
which he has to do. 

Without the name of Earn final emancipation is not obtained, he is drowned in the love of duality. 
Nanak says : man will he released (==saved) in the first watch by keeping Hari in his mind. 

(2) . In the second watch of the night, 0 friend merchant, (his) mind is filled with full youth. 3 
Day and night he is given to lust, 0 friend merchant, the blind one has not the name in his mind. 
The name of Earn is not in his heart, he considers other (things) as sweet pleasures. 

(Who have) no divine knowledge, no meditation, virtue nor continence ; they are false and, being 
born, they will die (again). 

Not by a Tirtha, nor fasting, nor purity and abstinence, nor good works, religious practices and 
worship. 3 

0 TTanak, by love and devotion salvation (is obtained), by another (work) duality is diffused 
(in the mind). 4 

(3) . In the third watch of the night, 0 friend merchant, the geese have come and alighted on 
the pond. 5 

Youth decreases, old age gets the upper hand, 0 friend merchant, life diminishes, the days go. 
At the end thou wilt repent, 0 blind one, when thou art seized and carried off by Yama. 
Thou hast made all thy own, in a moment it has become the property of another. 
Wisdom is abandoned (by thee), cunning is gone, having practised vices thou wilt repent. 
Nanak says: 0 man, in the third watch remember the Lord, directing (thy) thoughts (on him)! 

(4) . In the fourth watch of the night, 0 friend merchant, he (man) has become old, (his) body 

Blind in his eyes he does not see, 0 friend merchant, with his ears he does not hear a word. 
He is blind in his eyes, his tongue has no taste, his power and strength have come to a stand-still. 
There are no virtues in him, how should he obtain comfort, the fleshly-minded one is coming and going. 
The straw has ripened, being emaciated it breaks and is destroyed ; having come he goes, what is 
his trust? 

Nanak says : 0 man, in the fourth watch become acquainted with the word proceeding from the 
month of the Guru ! 

(5) . The end of those breaths has come, 0 friend merchant, a burning fever is on the shoulder. 
Not a bit of virtue is contained (in them), having collected vices they will take them (with 


1 But *?r|fdT may also be translated by: "destiny," "fate." 

2 is here adjective (Sansk. replete, full of) ; his mind is filled (= intoxicated) with full youth. 

3 Supply: salvation i3 obtained. There is no verb nor subject in these verses, and the translation can 
only be made according to conjecture, as not even any case-relation is pointed out. 

4 The words ^ftpjT f<PHT^ ^RT might also be translated: the other (he who is given to the practices) 
duality permeates. 

5 The sense of this allusion is : the hairs of men have become white, the geese being white. JfJ, pond, 
lake = body. 



» He who goes having collected virtues will not be struck in the face, he will not be born (and) 
die (again). 

Yama with the net of death will qpt be able to overpower him; by love, devotion and fear (of God) 
he is saved. 

With honour he goes (to the threshold of Hari), he is easily absorbed, all pains he removes. 
iNanak says : a man (who has become) a disciple, will be emancipated, from the True one he will 
receive honour. • 

Sir! Rag ; mahala IV. 1 
I. III. 

(1) . In the first watch of the night, 0 friend merchant, he (man) is placed in the belly by Hari. 
He meditates on Hari, he utters Hari, 0 friend merchant, he remembers the name of Hari, Hari. 
He silently mutters the name of Hari, Hari, he adores (him), muttering in the fire (of the womb) 

Hari, he lives. 

He is born into the world, he is applied to the mouth {i.e. kissed), father and mother have become 

Think .of him, 0 man, whose property thou art, reflecting in thy heart on the word proceeding from 
the mouth of the Guru. 

Nahak says: in the first watch man silently mutters Hari, (who) bestows mercy (on him). 

(2) . In the second watch of the night, 0 friend merchant, (his) mind is bent on duality. 

Mother and father, pressing him to their cheek, nourish him, 0 friend merchant, saying: mine, 
mine (thou art). 

Mother and father always press him to their cheek, they think in their heart : 

Having got (from us food) he will (again) feed (us). 

Him, who gives, he does not know, the fool clings to the gift. 

Some one, who becomes a disciple, reflects, he reflects in his mind on Hari, directing his thoughts 
on him. 

Nanak says : in the second watch, 0 man, this one death will never devour. 

(3) . In the third watch of the night, 0 friend merchant, his mind is occupied with care and trouble. 
Of wealth he thinks, wealth he collects, 0 friend merchant, the name of Hari, Hari he does not 


The name of Hari, Hari, Hari he does never remember, who at the end becomes a companion. 
This wealth and prosperity is a false illusion, having given it up at the end and having gone, 
he repents. 

"Whom the Guru in mercy unites (with Hari), he remembers the name of Hari, Hari. 
Nanak says : in the third watch, 0 man, that one, having gone, is united with Hari. 

(4) . In the fourth watch of the night, 0 friend merchant, Hari has brought on the time of 

Serve with (thy) hand the perfect true Guru, 0 friend merchant, all the' night is gone and 

Serve Hari, — not a moment make any delay, — whereby thou wilt for ever become firm (not subject 
to transmigration). 

In union with Hari thou wilt ever enjoy pleasures, the pain of birth and death thou wilt remove. 

1 The following Gurus had apparently the writings of Nanak before them ; hence these imitations, which 
usually add very few ideas. 




Do not make in thy thought a difference between the Guru (and) the true Guru, the Lord, meeting 
with whom {i.e. the Guru) the worship of Hari becomes pleasant. 

Nanak says : 0 man, in the fourth watch the night of the devotees is fruitful. 

Sirl Rag ; mahala V. 
I. IY. 

(1) . In the first watch of the night, 0 friend merchant, he (Hari) puts (him) into the belly. 1 

In ten months he is made a man, 0 friend merchant, after some delay he earns (his former) works. 
The time is passed, the (former) works are earned, as it is originally written, so he has received. 
Mother, father, brother, son, wife — amongst them he is placed by the Lord. 

He himself (i.e. the Lord) causes him to do bad and good works, in the power of this creature is 

Nanak says : in the first watch man is put into the womb. 

(2) . In the second watch of the night, 0 friend merchant, he gives way to the freaks of full youth. 
Bad and good he does not know, 0 friend merchant, his mind is intoxicated with egotism. 

Bad and good thou doest not know, 0 man, the journey further on (to the other world) is difficult! 
The perfect true Guru was never served (by thee), on (thy) head the executioners of Tama are 

When Dharm-Eae (= Tama) will seize (thee), what answer wilt thou make, 0 fool? 
Nanak says : in the second watch man gives way to the freaks of full youth. 

(3) . In the third watch of the night, 0 friend merchant, he collects poison and blind ignorance. 
He clings to son and wife in infatuation, 0 friend merchant, within he is tossed about by emotions. 
Man is tossed about within by emotions (desires), that Lord does not come into his mind. 

With the assembly of the holy ones he has not associated, in many wombs he will (therefore) 
suffer pain. 

The creator is forgotten (by him), not a moment he has meditated on the Lord. 
Nanak says : in the third watch (of the night) poison and blind ignorance he collects. 

(4) . In the fourth watch of the night, 0 friend merchant, that day has come near. 

Remember thou, 0 friend merchant, the name communicated by the Guru, it will be thy companion 
to the court (of Hari) ! 

Remember the name given by the Guru, 0 man, at the end it will be thy companion ! 

This is an illusion, the Maya will not go with thee, she has made a false friendship (with thee). 

The whole night is passed ; serve the true Guru and the darkness will become light. 

Nanak says : 0 man, in the fourth watch that day has come near ! 

(5) . The decree of Govind has come, 0 friend merchant, they have risen and gone and their work 
with them. 

Not a bit of delay they (i.e. the messengers of Tama) give, 0 friend merchant, firm hands are laid 
upon them. 

The decree has come, they are marched off, the fleshly-minded are always distressed. 
Those, who have served the perfect, true Guru, are always happy at the threshold (of Hari). 
The body is the ground (soil) of works in (this present) world, what they sow, they are eating. 
Nanak says : the devotees obtain honour at the court (of Hari), the fleshly-minded are always 
wandering about (in transmigration). 2 

1 VTfST3T may be the participle present (from IJlGcM) or the past part. = Sansk. XTTf^cf. 
* ^^|fd , for the sake of the rhyme = (^0 : $). 



sir! rag. 

MahaU IV. ; Ghar II. 

(1) . How shall the ignorant girl see the sight of Hari in her father's house? 

If Hari, Hari bestow his own mercy (upon her), she learns from the mouth of the Guru the work 
of her father-in-law's house. 

Of her father-in-law's house she learns the work from the mouth of the Guru, meditating always on 
Hari, Hari. 

Amongst her friends she goes about happy, at the threshold of Hari she swings leisurely 
her arm. 

The account, as much as Dharm-Rae (Yama) has to ask (from her), she clears away by muttering 
the name of Hari, Hari. 

The ignorant girl, (having become) a disciple, sees the sight of Hari in her father's house. 3 

(2) . The wedding has taken place, 0 my father, from the mouth of the Guru Hari is obtained. 
Ignorance and darkness are cut off, by the Guru divine knowledge is kindled bright. 

By the Guru divine knowledge is kindled, darkness is extinguished, Hari, the choice jewel, is 

The disease of egotism is gone, pain has ceased, self is consumed by means of the instruction of 
the Guru. 

The timeless being is obtained as husband, the imperishable, who never dies nor goes. 
The wedding has taken place, 0 my father, from the mouth of the Guru Hari has been 
obtained. % 

(3) . Hari is true, true, 0 my father ! having met with the people of Hari the marriage-procession 
is beautiful. 

* Muttering Hari in her father's family she (the girl) is happy, in her father-in-law's family she is 
quite shining. 

In her father-in-law's family she is quite shining, who has remembered the name in her father's 

The human birth of those, whose mind is turned to the Guru, is bearing all fruits ; having won (the 
game) the dice is thrown down (by them). 3 

Having met with the holy people of Hari (their) work is adorned (excellent), the joyful man is 
obtained as husband. 

Hari is true, true, 0 my father ! having met with the people of Hari the marriage-procession is 

(4) . The Lord Hari, 0 my father, Hari gives me the dowry-gift. 

Hari gives clothes, Hari gives splendour, by which (my) work is adorned. 

By the worship of Hari, Hari (my) work is easy, he caused the Guru, the true Guru to give (me) 
the gift. 

1 W3 (= *?^)» a peculiar kind of verse, consisting of six hemistichs (occasionally also of less); five such 
verses form a whole. 

2 This (rather poor) simile is used very frequently in the Granth. The girl is the disciple, her father's 
house implies this present world, her father-in-law's house is the next world, to which she is transferred by 
marriage (i.e. death). 

3 "ITfflT ■4lTW*HT> the dice are thrown down, in token that the game is over. 



In the world and universe 1 the splendour of Hari is spread ; this gift, though coveted, 2 is not 

The other gifts, which the fleshly-minded have and exhibit, are falsehood, conceit, glass and plaiting. 
The Lord Hari, 0 my father, Hari gives me the dowry-gift. 

(5). Hari is lovely, lovely, 0 my father ! having met with her heloved the woman is an increasing 


Hari is from age of ages, from age of ages, the generation 3 of the Guru is always going on. 

From age to age the generation of the true Guru goes on, by which the name coming from the 
mouth of the Guru, is meditated upon, 

Hari, the Supreme Spirit, is never annihilated nor does he pass away, he gives continually and 
becomes (even) more abundant. 

0 Nanak, the saints, the saints (and Hari) are One ; muttering the name of Hari, Hari (the girl) 
is shining. 

Hari is lovely, lovely, 0 my father ; being united with her beloved the woman is an increasing vine. 

Stri Rag ; mahalu Y. 

Om ! by the favour of the true Guru ! 
I. II. 

(1) . 0 dear heart, 0 friend, remember the name of Govind ! 
0 dear heart, 0 friend, Hari goes through with thee. 

Hari is a companion ; no one, who meditates on (his) name, goes uselessly. 4 

The fruits he desires in his heart he obtains, having directed his mind on the lotus of the foot 
(of Hari). 

In water and earth he is fully diffused, the Banvari 5 sees in everybody. 

Kanak gives (this) instruction : 0 dear heart, burn (thy) error in the assembly of the holy ones ! 

(2) . 0 dear heart, 0 friend, without Hari the expansions ( = worlds) are a falsehood. 
0 dear heart, 0 friend, an ocean of poison are the worlds. 

Make the lotus of the foot of the creator the boat, and the pain of doubt will not enter (thee). 
(With whom) the perfect Guru meets, he is very fortunate, the eight watches the Lord is known 
(to him). 

In the beginning, in the beginning of the Yug is the Lord ; 0 worshipper, to (his) devotees (his) 
name is a support. 

Nanak gives (this) instruction : 0 dear heart, without Hari the expansions are a falsehood. 

(3) . 0 dear heart, 0 friend, lade the cheap cargo of Hari ! 9 

0 dear heart, 0 friend, knock 7 at the immovable door of Hari ! 

1 <Sd^3 is a corruption from (= ^Fg), the egg of Brahma or universe. 

a 7; TOTflPHT, it is not apportioned (or met with), though caused to be apportioned, i.e. though 
some one cause it to he apportioned to himself, try to get it. 

3 Vt^Y, or generation of the Guru, are his disciples. 

4 i.e. Without having accomplished his purpose. 

5 t4A<Sldli an epithet of Krishna, having a garland of wild flowers (Sansk. SRH Tf^ O. 
9 *fV to lade an assortment of goods and go about trafficking with them. 

7 lengthened for the sake of the rhyme = ^fe. 



He who serves the gate of Hari, the invisible and impenetrable, has obtained an immovable seat. 
He is not subject to birth and death, he is not coming and going, the pain of his doubt is effaced. 
The paper of Citragupt is torn in^pieces, the messengers of Yama cannot do anything against him. 
Nanak gives (this) instruction : 0 dear heart, lade the cheap cargo of Hari ! 

(4) . 0 dear heart, 0 friend, dwell in the company of the holy ones ! 

0 dear heart, 0 friend, muttering the name (thou wilt be) conspicuous. 
Kemembering the Lord (thou art) living in happiness, all (thy) wish is fulfilled. 
By former works the husband of Lakshmi (=Yishnu) is obtained ; Hari meets with the long-time 

Inside and outside, everywhere he is contained, faith springs (therefore) up in the mind. 
Nanak gives (this) instruction : 0 dear heart, dwell in the company of the holy ones ! 

(5) . 0 dear heart, 0 friend, by love and attachment to Hari the mind is absorbed. 
0 dear heart, 0 friend, the fish, having met with the water of Hari, lives. 

Having drunk Hari they are satiated, nectar is poured out, all comforts are showered down on 
the heart. 

The husband of Lakshmi is obtained, songs of congratulation are sung, (their) desire is fulfilled, 
the true Guru is pleased. 

They are absorbed in (his) skirt, the nine treasures are obtained, the name and all his property 
the Lord has given them. 

Nanak has given (this) instruction to the saints : by love and attachment to Hari the mind is 

Om ! By the favour of the true Guru ! 
I. III. 

Daffiiaqa. 1 

(1) . How shall I see in my heart the sight of my beloved ? 

0 Nanak, in the asylum of the saints the support of life is to be obtained. 


Love with the lotus of the foot (of Hari) is the custom of the saints, he comes into their heart, Sir ! 
Another love is perverse impropriety, it is not pleasing to the servants (of Hari), Sir ! 
It is not pleasing to (his) servants, without (his) sight how should they have patience one moment ? 
Void of the name body and soul are decayed, as a fish dies without water. 

Join me, 0 my beloved, 0 support of my life ! having joined the saints I will sing thy qualities ! 
0 Lord of Nanak, bestow a favour, that in heart and body I may be absorbed in (thy) bosom ! 

J)alchand f 

(2) . He is shining in every place, no other is seen. 

The shutters (of the tenth gate) are opened hy meeting with the true Guru, 0 Nanak ! 



Thy words are quite incomparable ; (thy) word, the support of the saints, should be reflected 
upon, Sir! 

1 3M^T is a peculiar kind of verse, consisting of two hemistichs. 
Dakhanas and Chants. 

The following piece is a mixture of 



Who remembers (thee) at every breath and morsel, his faith (thou art) making full, how shouldst 
thou be forgotten from ( =by) the mind ? 

How shouldst thou be forgotten from the mind, (who art) not removed a moment, 0 my life, the 
abode of qualities ! 

Thou givest the fruits the heart is desiring, 0 Lord, thou rememberest the request (desire) of the 

0 Lord of the helpless, (who art) with all ! who mutters (thy name), (by him) his birth is not lost 
in the play ! 

(This is) the prayer of Nanak to the Lord: in mercy make me cross the water of existence I 1 


(3) . (Who is) bathing 3 in the dust and ashes of the saints, (to him) the Lord becomes merciful. 
AU things are obtained (by him), 0 Nanak, the wealth and property of Hari. 



Beautiful is (thy) house, 0 Lord, the rest 3 of (thy) devotees, in hope (on thee) they live, Sir ! 

In heart and body they are immersed (in devotion), they are remembering the name of the Lord, 
the nectar of Hari they are drinking, Sir ! 

The nectar of Hari they are drinking, they are becoming firm for ever, the water of sensual 
pleasures is considered insipid (by them). 

(To whom) thou, 0 Gopal, my Lord, hast become merciful, they have appreciated the treasure (in) 
the society of the saints. 

In all ways they have much comfort and joy, the jewel of the beloved Hari they are sowing up 
within their heart. 

The support of life is not forgotten a moment, muttering, muttering (the name) they live, 0 
Nanak! 4 


(4) . Whom thou hast made thy own, with them thou art united. 

Thou thyself art in thyself, that praise, (says) Nanak, thou thyself hast heard. 


Thou, 0 Govind, applying the trick of love and gratifying me, hast enchanted my heart, Sir! 

Clinging to (thy) unfathomable neck I have become illustrious by the favour of the saints, Sir ! 

Clinging to the neck of Hari I have become illustrious, all vices are overcome, the characteristics 
of devotion have come into my power. 

On (my) heart all comforts are showered, Govind is pleased, all birth and death is done away. 

By (my) Mends a song of congratulation is sung, (my) wish is accomplished, there is not again 
a motion of the Maya. 5 

My hands are seized, (says) Nanak, by the beloved Lord, I am not influenced by the ocean of the 

1 Sldlfl^ literally: may he (i.e. Nanak) be caused to cross, brought over the waters of existence! 

2 ^-HA (*TWT) must here be taken as an adjective. 

3 Or : resting-place. 

4 O Nanak = says Nanak. 

vTvJT* a motion of the Maya (in my heart) = I am not any more 
affected by the Maya. But there is another reading, which better suits the context, viz. : £>ftRHT, I am not 
again deluded by the Maya. 




(5). The name of the Lord is priceless, its value no one knows. 

On whose forehead the lot is, thosft, (says) Nanak, enjoy the pleasure of Hari. 


Those, who utter (the name), are pure, all who hear it are happy, hy those, who write it, their 
family is saved, Sir ! 

Who have the society of the saints and love to the name of Hari, they meditate on Brahm, Sir ! 
Brahm is meditated upon (hy them), their human birth is adorned (and) by the Lord his mercy 
is made full. 

The hands (of those) are seized (hy Hari), who have praised Hari, they do not run into a womb 
nor do they die. 

Those, who meet with the true, merciful and kind Guru, are flourishing, lust, auger and covetous- 
ness is destroyed. 

The inexpressible Lord cannot be described ; Nanak sacrifices and devotes himself (to him). 


Om / The true name ! By the favour of the Guru ! 

(1) . Hari, Hari is the highest name, by whom every one has been created, Sir! 
Hari cherishes all creatures, in everybody he is contained. 

That Hari should always be meditated upon ! without him there is none other. 
Those, who direct their mind to the infatuation of the Maya, go off leaving her behind and will 
weep in pain. 

By humble iNanak the name is meditated upon : Hari will be a companion at the end. 


I have none other without Hari. 

The asylum of Hari, the Guru, should be obtained, 0 friend merchant ! by a great destiny it is 
laid hold of. 

(2) . Without the saints, no one, 0 brother! has obtained the name of Hari. 
Those who practise works in egotism are like the son of a whore without a name. 

The lineage of the father is then brought about, if the Guru, being pleased, bestow his favour. 
By (that) very fortunate one 2 the Guru is obtained, who has put his love day and night on Hari. 
Humble JNanak (says) : Brahm is known (by him, who) practises the work of praising Hari. 


In (my) heart a longing after Hari has sprung up. 

By the perfect Guru the name is made firm, the name of Hari, Hari the Lord, is obtained (by me). 

(3) . As long as there is a breath in youth, meditate on the name ! 

At the time of departure Hari will go with (thee), Hari will at the end release (thee). 

1 Vanjara is the name of a peculiar kind of verse, very likely taken from the circumstance that these 
verses are addressed to the friend merchant 

2 <jo$au ft> very fortunate; literally: he whose destiny is great, very auspicious. 



I am a sacrifice for those, into whose heart Hari has come and settled (there). 
Who have not kept the name of Hari, Hari in their mind, they are gone at the end with remorse. 
On whose forehead it was written in the beginning by Hari, the Lord, (says) humble Nanak, they 
meditate on the name. 


0 heart, bestow love on Hari, Hari ! 

By the very fortunate one the Guru is obtained, by the word of the Guru he will pass over. 

(4) . Hari himself is producing (everything), Hari himself gives and takes. 
Hari himself leads astray in error, Hari himself gives wisdom. 

Those disciples, in whose heart he is manifest, are some rare ones. 

1 am a sacrifice for those who have obtained Hari from the instruction of the Guru. 

Humble Nanak (says): the lotus (=heart) (of them) is opened, in whose heart Hari, Hari has 


Mutter in (thy) heart : Hari, Hari ! 

Flee and fall on the asylum of Hari, the Guru, 0 beloved ! he takes away all sins and pains. 

(5) . Who is contained (diffused) in everybody, how shall he dwell in the heart, in what manner 
is he obtained ? 

If the Guru, the perfect, true Guru be met with, Hari comes and dwells in the heart and mind. 
To me the name is refuge and support, from the name of Hari (comes) knowledge of salvation. 1 
My trust is in the name of Hari, Hari, in the name of Hari is my caste-fellowship. 3 
Humble Nanak has meditated on the name, he is steeped in love, in love and affection to Hari. 


Meditate on Hari, Hari the Lord is true. 

From the words of the Guru the Lord Hari is known, the whole creation is from Hari the Lord. 

(6) . To whom it has been written (=decreed) before, they have come and joined the Guru. 
In servantship, 3 0 friend merchant, the name of Hari, Hari the Guru, is shining forth. 
Blessed, blessed is the traffic of the traders, who have laden the goods and stock of Hari ! 

The faces of the disciples are bright at the gate (of Hari), having come they are placed at the side 
of Hari. 

Humble Nanak (says) : those have obtained the Guru, with whom he himself, the abode of 
qualities, has been pleased. 4 


Meditate on Hari at (every) breath and morsel ! 

Love is produced in the heart of those disciples, whose prayer is (for) the name of Hari. 

1 ^rf^T Hfe* 3Tf3" signifying here salvation (final emancipation). 

* y{f3 caste-fellowship. ^3"= TTTfe* cast(i > a "d Iffe^patti (from the Sansk. tjf^f, row, line, 

which is also frequently assimilated to Hlf^f panti, or, with elision of the nasal, to pat, fem.). The derivation 
which Molesworth assigns in his Maratlri Dictionary to *qjrT (see under 5(Tff TJTcT) is therefore a mistake; for 
TfTff , falling, is always masculine* 

8 *}<c<* 3lfk > i" servantship, i.e. in the state of being a servant or worshipper. 
4 37f*T = on account of the rhyme, 3T1j being masculine. 



Om ! By the favour of the true Guru ! 

With Sidles. 1 

Slok I. ; mahala III. 
Amongst the Bags is the Sri Rag; if (one) bestow love on the True one : 
Hari, the True one always dwells in his heart, whose wisdom is immovable and boundless. 2 
The priceless jewel is obtained (by him, who) reflects on the word (instruction) of the Guru. 
His tongue is true, his heart is true, true is his body and form. 
Nanak (says) : by serving the true Guru there is always true traffic (made). 

Slok II. ; mahala III. 
Other pangs of separation are all deception, 3 as long as there is no love to the Lord. 
This (human) mind is deluded by the Maya, there is no (proper) seeing nor hearing. 
Without the sight of the husband love is not produced, what will the blind do ? 

0 BTanak, by whom the eyes are taken, that True one gives (them again). 


v Hari alone is the creator, there is only, only the court of Hari (as refuge). 
The order of Hari alone is (executed), keep the One Hari in thy mind ! 
Without that Hari there is no one, who removes fear, error and dread. 
Praise that Hari, who keeps thee abroad and at home. 

To whom Hari becomes merciful, be, muttering : Hari ! crosses the difficult existence. 


Slok I. ; mahala I. 
They are the gifts of the Lord ; what will prevail with him ? 4 
Some, being awake, do not obtain them, some, having fallen asleep, he raises. 

Slok II. ; mahala I. 

Sincerity and contentment is the viaticum of the sincere ones, patience that of the angels. 

1 shall obtain a sight of the Perfect one, (but) there is no place for the foolish. 


Thou thyself, having created all creation, hast put it into its (several) work. 5 
Thou thyself, seeing thy own greatness, art happy. 

1 Var is in the Granth a peculiar kind of poetical composition, every piece consisting of two or three Sloks 
and one Pauri. In one Var are often Sloks and Pauri belonging to different authors, so that the whole is an 
eclectic, artificial collection. 

2 This refers to Hari. * 

8 VT5> s.f. deception, shortened from in^ll (= V^ffO? B ut it seems better to derive T\J3 (as s.m.) 
from \JTf^nf j running, worldly activity = JHf^f . In the same sense m<£3 is also used in the Granth. 

4 flWT f3T 75Tfe> literally: what goes with him? Who can say anything to him, or compel 
him to give anything ? 

5 The sense is : thou hast created every creature and assigned to them their several occupations. 




0 Hari, without thee there is nothing, thou art the true Lord. 
Thou thyself art existing in all places. 

Meditate on that Hari, 0 ye saints, who gives final emancipation. 


Slolc I. ; mahala I. 

Castes are (but) raillery and names are (but) raillery. 
Upon all living creatures is one shade (of ignorance). 
If one call himself good : 

0 Nanak, it will then be known afterwards, 1 when he obtains honour in the account. 

Sloh II. ; mahala II. 

After death it is gone to the presence of that beloved, with whom there was love (in this world). 
Life in (this) world is a misery, after that (comes the right) life. 


By thyself the earth is made, moon and sun are two lamps (in it). 
Fourteen shops * are made by thee, (in which) traffic is carried on. 3 
To some Hari gives profit, who have become disciples. 
Those death does not enter, who have drunk the true nectars. 

They are themselves emancipated (from existence) with their family, and after them the whole 
world is released, 


Slolc I. ; mahala I. 

Having exerted his power He has taken a form of appearance. 4 

He who reflects on (that) time, becomes (his) servant. 

(His) power is (visible), (his) value (man) does not obtain (find out). 

When he obtains (his) value, it cannot be told. 

(One) may reflect on the law. 6 

Without understanding (the truth) how shall he cross over? 

(Who) practises sincerity and bows down (to him), he accomplishes (his) heart's purpose. 
Wherever I see, there He is present. 

Slolc II. ; mahala III. 

By the Guru's natural disposition (or favour) the bridegroom is obtained, (who) is neither near 
nor far. 

0 Nanak, the true Guru is then met with, when the heart remains in his presence. 

1 \J7J = ^PT^TrX' a^r, afterwards. 

2 xJlfd vT?> fourteen shops = fourteen worlds, seven above and seven below. 

3 ^ft% = ^jWT> on account of the rhyme (^%) ; similarly ^^% = ^^gf. 

4 It is more suitable to the context to take ^fWfT for the Sansk. p. p. ^f|jcf, dressed in, having taken a 
form of appearance; the subject is the Supreme (not man). 

5 1t§ W&frHfS (genitive dependent on 41^ Id) = *TTT = cj-t and *rafoff? = C^jJ^, the Muham- 
madan law; in PanjabI is feminine, in Hindustani masc. 




In the seven insular continents, the seven oceans, the nine regions (of the earth), the four Vedss, 
the eighteen Puranas : # 

In all, thou, 0 Hari, art abiding, in all (thy) decree, 0 Hari, is (working). 
All creatures are meditating on thee, 0 Hari, holding the bow in hand ! 
I am a sacrifice for those disciples, who adore Hari. 
Thou thyself art abiding (everywhere), doing strange 1 wonders. 


Slok I. j mahala III. 
Why is pen and inkstand called for ? Write in (thy) heart ! 

If thou always remainest in the love of the Lord^ (thy) love will never break down. 
Pen and inkstand will pass away, and what is written will pass away with (them). 
0 Nanak, that love to the bridegroom will not pass away, which from the beginning the True one 
has instilled (into the heart). 

Slok II. ; mahala III. 

What is visible (comes into sight), does not go with, let one ascertain 2 and see it. 
By the true Guru the True one is made fast (established in him, who) directs his thoughts con- 
tinually to the True one. 

0 Mnak, from the word (of the Guru) the True one is (known), 3 by destiny he falls into the lap. 


Thou, 0 Hari, alone art inside and outside, thou knowest the secret (of the heart). 

What is done, that Hari is knowing, 0 my heart, keep Hari in mind ! 

He is afraid, who commits sin, the righteous one is happy. 

Thou art true, thou thyself art justice, why should the true one be afraid ?* 

0 Nanak, those, who have known the True one, are united with the True one. 


Slok I. ; mahala III. 

May the pen be burnt, the ink in the inkstands, may the paper also be burnt ! 

May the writer be consumed, by whom other love (or duality) is written. 

0 Nanak, what is originally written, must be earned, anything else cannot be done. 

Slok II. ; mahala III. 

Other reading is falsehood, other speaking is falsehood, 5 love to the Maya (is falsehood). 

0 Nanak, without the name no one becomes firm, reading and reading (anything else but the name) 
he becomes wretched. 

1 1%sJI<AI Adj. strange, wonderful (Sansk. f%^J^«T). 

2 f^0MTfST having measured it through, = having ascertained it,- from f<J G tfT Q cM = fW^mTTT 
(Sansk. feWR^). 

3 The words : JTEPT^ ^ could also be translated : in the word (of the Guru) is the True one. 
* = foTST what for ? why ? 

5 The sense is : reading and uttering anything but the name of Hari is falsehood=useless. 




Great is the greatness of Hari, the praising of Hari, Hari (is great). 1 

Great is the greatness of Hari, who judges on religious actions. 

Great is the greatness of Hari, whose is the fruit of the creatures. 3 

Great is the greatness of Hari, who does not hear the words of the slanderer. 

Great is the greatness of Hari, who is giving gifts without being asked. 3 


Slok I. ; maliala III. 

Practising egotism {i.e. saying I, I) the whole (creation or world) has died ; with no one (goes) 
his wealth. 

By second love (or duality) pain is received, the whole (world) is overpowered by death. 
0 Nanak, the disciples are saved by remembering the true name. 

Slok II. ; mahala I. 

In words we are good, in conduct bad. 

In the heart we are impure and black, outside we (are) white. 
Let us emulate those, 0 sisters, who, standing serve the gate (of Hari) ! 
(Who) are in love with (their) Lord, they enjoy pleasures in comfort. 
Whilst there is strength (in us) shall we remain powerless and wretched ? 
0 Nanak, (our) human birth is successful, if we join their company. 


Thou thyself art the water, thou thyself art the fish, thou thyself art the net. 
Thou thyself art moving about the net, thou thyself art therein the sebal. 4 
Thou thyself art the lotus uncontaminated in water a hundred cubits deep. 6 

Thou thyself art procuring final emancipation, having sported one moment (or) twenty-five minutes. 6 

0 Hari, without thee there is nothing ; having seen (this) from the word of the Guru (I am) happy. 


Slok I. ; mahala III. 

She who does not know the order (of Hari), weeps (= will weep) much. 
She who is alarmed in her heart, does not sleep. 
The woman, that walks after the will of her Lord : 

1 It might also be translated : Hari is praising Hari, of) A being taken as a verbal adjective. 

2 i.e. who is awarding retribution to the creatures, according to their works. 

3 Literally : unasked for is the gift of God (read : SFT). 

* +jfc||&> Sansk. ^^T^T, name of an aquatic plant, the root of which is esculent. It is used as a bait 
for fish, as it appears. 

5 The Sikh Granthis explain *)uqi by water and as an adjective signifying deep. But we cannot 
detect any etymology for either meaniug. Iju qi is apparently an adjective signifying : containing a hundred 
cubits (TTfcf); JR£T35 is very likely the Sansk. ^V^fT^T water. This explanation would suit very well the 

6 The form of existence, a creature goes through, before its absorption into the Supreme (*Tc?f3), is called 
the sport f frolics of Hari. Hari has his sport in or with the creature. 



Is called with honour to the court and palace. 

0 Nanak, hy destiny this wisdom is obtained. 

By the favour of the Guru she is absorbed in the True one. 


0 fleshly-minded one, destitute of the name, be not led astray, having seen the colour of the 
saffron-flower ! 

Its colour (lasts) only a few days, its value is nothing. 

The fools and blockheads, who cling to another (but Hari), are consumed and die. 
Having fallen like worms into ordure, they are again and again consumed. 

0 Nanak, those, who are attached to the name, are joyful by the natural good disposition of 
the Guru. 

From the devotees the colour does not go off, easily they remain absorbed. 


The whole creation ' is produced by thee, by thyself the daily bread is prepared. 
Some eat practising fraud and deceit, falsehood and lies are emitted from their mouth. 
What is pleasing to thee, that thou dost, by thyself they are applied to that work. 
Some he has instructed 1 in truth, to them he has given inexhaustible store-rooms. 
Who eat, thinking of Hari, to them it is profitable, the hand of the thoughtless ( = who do not 
think of him) is beaten. 


Slok I. ; mahala III. 

Beading and reading the Pandit explains the Veda, (but) the infatuation of the Maya lulls him 
to sleep. 

By reason of second love (duality) the name of Hari is forgotten, the foolish heart incurs punishment. 
He never thinks of him, who has given soul and body, who prepares and gives the daily bread. 
The noose of Yama is not cut off (his) neck, again and again he comes and goes. 
The blind fleshly-minded one does not see anything, he earns what is written before (for him). 
By a full (perfect) destiny the true Guru is found, the comfort- giving name comes and dwells in 
the heart. 

Comfort he (i.e. the disciple) enjoys, comfort he puts on (as clothes), in comfort, comfort he passes 
his time. 

May not that name be forgotten by Nanak 2 from his mind, by which he obtains lustre at the 
true gate ! 

Slok II. ; mahala III. 

By serving the true Guru comfort is obtained, the true name, the vessel of (all) qualities. 
(Who) has known his own self by the instruction of the Guru, (to him) the name of Eama is 

He is acquiring the perfectly True one, greatness is with the great. 

Soul and body, all is his ; offer praise and supplication (to him) ! 

Who is praising him by the true word (of the Guru), he dwells in full comfort. 

1 The subject is here changed at once ; he is = Hari. 

2 Nanak might also be taken as Vocative, and then the translation would be : may not (by the disciple) 
that name be forgotten, etc. ! 



(Though) in the heart be silent repetition (of the Vedas, etc.), austerity and continence, he has lived 
in misery without the name (of Hari). 

Prom the instruction of the Guru the name is obtained, the fleshly-minded one is ruined by spiritual 

As it pleases thee, so keep me ! Nanak is thy slave. 


Every one is thine, thou art every one's, thou art the capital stock of all. 
All are begging from thee, continually making supplication. 

To whom thou givest, he obtains everything; from some thou art far, to some (thou art) near. 
Without thee there is no place, from which (anything) might be asked ; may some one ascertain 
this in his mind ! 

All are praising thee, at (thy) gate thou makest manifest the disciples. 


Slok I. ; mahald III. 

The Pandit, reading and reading cries aloud, (but in him is) the infatuation of the Maya and love 
(to her). 

In his heart he does not know Brahm, in his mind he is foolish and ignorant. 

In duality (other love) he instructs the world, he does not understand the (right) consideration, 1 

Uselessly his human birth is wasted, having died he is born again and again. 

Sidle II. ; mahald III. 

By whom the true Guru is served, by them the name is obtained ; (who) reflects, he comprehends 

Tranquillity and comfort always dwell in the mind, crying and screaming ceases. 
(Whose) own self consumes itself, (his) heart becomes pure, (if) he reflect on the words of the Guru. 
0 Nanak, those are emancipated, who are attached to the word (of the Guru), on account of (their) 
love to Hari. 


The service of Hari is fruitful, the disciple he ( — Hari) receives. 

To whom Hari is pleasing, with him the Guru falls in, he meditates on the name of Hari. 
From the word of the Guru Hari is obtained, Hari brings him (= the disciple) across. 
By the obstinacy of his mind no one has obtained him, go and ask the Yedas ! 
0 INanak, he performs the service of Hari, whom Hari puts into (it). 2 


Slok I. ; mahald III. 

0 Nanak, he is a hero and great warrior, who has destroyed from within wicked egotism. 
The disciple, praising the name, has adorned his human birth. 

He himself has always become emancipated and all his family (too) is saved (by him). 
They obtain honour at the true gate, (to whom) the name is dear. 

1 The sense is : he does not know nor comprehend that there is (properly) no dutriity. 

2 f^PR UfcJ S5Tftr ; S*TfS be puts into it, i.e. the service ; W\f2 «s part. p. conj. of 3 nQ<a i. 



The fleshly-minded one dies in egotism, his death is spoiled. 1 
In all his (= Hari's) order is current, what will the helpless creature do ? 
Clinging to another the Lord is fojigotten (by him) from his own self (= mind). 
0 Nanak, without the name all is pain, comfort is forgotten ! 

Slofc II. ; mahala III. 

(In whom) by the perfect Guru the name is made firm, from their heart doubt is removed. 
The name of Kama, the praise of Hari is sung (by them), light is made and the road is shown 
(to them). 

Having destroyed egotism devout meditation on the One has sprung up, in (their) heart the name 
is fixed. 

The disciple of the Guru Yama cannot overpower, he is absorbed in the true name. 
In all the creator himself is abiding, who pleases (to him), he is put into (his) name. 
If humble Nanak takes the name, then he lives, without the name he dies in a moment. 2 


"Who is admitted' to the court of Hari, is admitted to all courts. 
"Where he goes, there he is honoured, by seeing his face every sinner is saved. 
Within him is the treasure of the name, by the name he is much exalted. 3 
The name should be worshipped, the name should be minded, by the name all sins are removed. 
By whom the name is meditated upon with one mind and one thought, they remain firm in 
the world. 


Slok I. ; mahala III. 
The self-deity * is worshipped by the innate good disposition of the Guru. 

"When the spirit becomes conscious of the Spirit (within), 5 then intimacy (intercourse) in the house 
(= body) takes place (between the two). 

The spirit becomes immovable and does naturally not shake by faith in the Guru. 

"Without the Guru composure does not come, 6 the filth of covetousness does not depart from within. 

In (whose) heart the name of Hari dwells one moment, he bathes at all the sixty-eight Tlrthas. 7 

Filth does not stick to the true one, dirt sticks (to man) by duality. 

(The dirt) though washed off, does not go off, if he bathe at the sixty-eight Tlrthas. 

The fleshly-minded one does (religious) works out of egotism and earns (from them) all sorts of 

0 Nanak, the dirty (= sinful) one becomes then bright, when he is absorbed in the true Guru. 

1 *T<J^ f^cJMfW*HT his dying or death is spoiled, damaged ; the sense is : by his death he is not absorbed 
into the Supreme, and his death is therefore not fruitful to him, but a damage. 

2 iTlfSW on account of the rhyme (3*TfgnfT)> instead of iffis yUf& or tTT§- 

3 "Md^fdW on account of the rhyme : IfdCcd or XTcFSUT (Sansk. T\WK) much exalted ; foremost. 

4 I KT5 r HT God, who is identical with >HT3^n, the spirit or soul of man. 

a The sense is: when the spirit gets * knowledge of the spirit ( = the Supreme Spirit), i.e. when man 
becomes conscious that he himself is the Supreme Spirit. 

6 JTTJtT> as explained on p. 94 note 1, composure, ease of mind, which is not acquired without the instruc- 
tion of the Guru. 

7 i.e. it is equal to bathing at all the sixty-eight Tlrthas. 



Slok II. ; mahala III. 
If the fleshly-minded men are admonished, will they ever take it to heart ? 

The fleshly-minded one though united is not united (with the Supreme), 1 he walks as his lot has fallen. 

Contemplative devotion and (worldly) activity are the two ways (of men), 2 according to the order 
(of Hari) they (i.e. men) do (their) work. 

The disciple destroys his own mind, applying the touchstone of the word (of the Guru) (to it). 

Eveu with (his) mind he has a quarrel, even with his mind he holds a Pancayat, even in his mind 
he is reconciled. 

What his heart desires, that he obtains by his love to the true word (of the Guru). 
The nectar of the name is always enjoyed (by him), the disciple does (good) works. 
He who fights with others but his (own) mind, will go, having wasted his human birth. 
The fleshly-minded one is defeated by the obstinacy of his mind, he works falsehood and lies. 
He who overcomes his mind by the favour of the Guru, applies devout meditation on Hari. 
0 Nanak, the follower of the Guru works truth, the fleshly-minded one comes and goes. 


Hear, 0 holy men of Hari, 0 brother, the word of Hari, the true Guru ! 

On whose face and forehead (this) destiny may be from the beginning, that man receives it and 
keeps it in his heart. 

The nectar-like word of Hari is the best and highest, from the word of the Guru it is easily tasted. 

By that light is made, the darkness is extinguished, as by the sun the night is dispersed. 3 

The unseen, the imperceptible, the invisible, the spotless (Supreme) is seen by the eyes of the disciple. 


Slok I. ; mahala III. 
Those who serve their own Guru, bring their head into account. 4 

Having removed from within their own self, they continually apply deep meditation on the 
True one. 

Who have not served the true Guru, they have uselessly wasted their human birth. 
0 Nanak, what is pleasing to him {i.e. Hari), that he does, nothing can be said. 

Slok II. ; mahala III. 
The (human) mind is encircled by passions and does the work of (its) passions. 
The ignorant, who worship in second love (or duality), are punished at the threshold (of Hari). 
Though the self-deity be worshipped, without the true Guru understanding is not obtained. 5 
Silent recitation, austerity, continence — (this) is the will of the true Guru, by destiny they fall 
into the lap. 

0 Nanak, (though) they perform service (to him and make) reflection — he who pleases Hari, is 

1 The sense is : though one attempt to unite him with the Supreme, he is not united, he does not 
blend with. 

2 fe><£ (=^RT) contemplation, meditation (without any regard to the prescribed works) and s.m. 
(=^nf^fT) busy, stirring or running, worldly, active life, corresponding to fM^flT and H jprl respectively. 

a Qdltft* on account of the rhyme (^Ttft) = fetPft- 

4 S^f tt'lQat to bring into account, i.e. before Hari, to make worthy,- acceptable. 

5 VTfe=tf£or V%. 




Mutter the name of Hari, Hari, 0 my heart, by which always, day and night, comfort is brought about. 
Mutter the name of Hari, Hari, Oiany heart, by the remembrance of which all sins and vices go off. 1 
Mutter the name of Hari, Hari, 0 my heart, by which poverty and all pain of hunger cease. 
Mutter the name of Hari, 0 my heart, the disciples show (bestow) their love with (their) mouth. 
On which mouth the lot is written from the beginning by the true Hari, by that mouth he (Hari) 
causes the name to be recited. 


Slok I. ; mahala III. 

Who have not served the true Guru nor reflected on the word (of the Guru). 
Into (their) heart divine knowledge has not come, they are corpses in the world. 
The round of the eighty-four lakhs (of forms of existence) is allotted to them, they die and are 
born (again) and become wretched. 

He does service to the true Guru, whom he (Hari) himself causes to do so. 

In the true Guru is the treasure of the name, by destiny it is obtained. 

Who are attached to the true word of the Guru, by them always true meditation is made. 

0 Nanak, whom he unites (with himself), he is not separated (again), he is easily absorbed (in him). 

Slok II.; mahala III. 

He is a worshipper of Bhagavan, who knows Bhagavan. 

(Who) by the favour of the Guru knows his own self. 

(Who) restrains (his) running (mind) and brings (it) into one house. 

(Who) whilst living dies and praises the name. 

Such a worshipper of Bhagavan will become very great. 

0 Nanak, he is (or will be) absorbed in the True one. 

Slok III. ; mahala III. 

He is called a BhagautI, (but) in his heart is hypocrisy. 
By hypocrisy he never obtains the Supreme Brahm. 
Who calumniates another, heaps up filth within (himself). 

Though he wash off the dirt on the outside, the defilement of the mind does not go off. 
He disputes with the society of the saints. 

Day by day he is afflicted and absorbed in second love (= duality). 
He does not remember the name of Hari, (but) does much work. 
What is written before, that cannot be effaced. 

0 Nanak, without the true Guru being served be does not obtain final emancipation. 


By whom the true Guru is meditated upon, they do not sleep in distress (fretting). 2 
By whom the true Guru is meditated upon, they are fully satiated. 

1 j\ similarly the following ^ftT rTf^^*^ TfTT^> w\ \ 3\ = *>*\ l3 > ^TVTTt = tTVT^ 
(honorific plural, referred to Hari). When the first rhyme (TT3^) is once put down, the following final 
nouns are often violently pressed into it, though they become thereby quite disfigured and unintelligible. 

2 The words 5? faA*l<£lJl must thus be divided : ^ srfW ^ H^TCft; <H<Slvft = J?^ftT (rhyming 
with the following nfUnxft)* the y do not slee P in distress or f rettin g; of?fAl, u.w. to be distressed, to fret, 
SindM ^FglJ or Sfi£X!r . I* would lead me too far, to refute all the false interpretations of the Sikh Granthis, 
which they put on this passage, 




By whom the true Guru is meditated upon, they are not afraid of Yam a. 
To whom Hari has become merciful, they fall down at the feet of the true Guru. 
> Their faces are bright here and there, dressed (in a dress of honour) they go to the court of Hari. 


Slok I. ; mahala II. 
The head, that does not bow down to the Lord, should be thrown down. 
The chest, in which there are no pangs of love (to Hari), burn that ! 

Slok II. ; mahala V. 

From the beginning, 0 Mnak, I have gone astray ; again and again I was born and died. 
Mistaking it for musk, I fell into a stinking puddle. 


The name of that Hari should be meditated upon, 0 my heart, who executes his order above all. 
The name of that Hari should be silently recited, 0 my heart, who at the end-time releases (from 
individual existence). 

The name of that Hari should be silently recited, 0 my heart, who removes the thirst of the heart 
and all hunger. 

Those disciples are very fortunate, by whom the name is silently repeated ; all their wicked slanderers 
fall down at their feet. 

0 Kanak, adore the name ! by the name all are brought before thee and caused to bow down (to thee) ! 


Slok I. ; mahala III. 

The ugly, ill-tempered (woman), of a false and lying heart, makes disguises. 

She does not walk after the will of her husband, the ignorant (woman) commands. 

She who walks after the will of the Guru, is putting a stop to all pains. 

What is written, cannot be effaced, what is written from the beginning by the creator. 

She entrusts soul and body to her husband, (who) puts her affection on the word (of the Guru). 

"Without the name he (Hari) is not obtained by any one, see and reflect in (thy) heart! 

Nanak (says): She is beautiful and endowed with graces, who is enjoyed by the creator. 

Slok II. ; mahala III. 

The infatuation of the Maya is darkness, neither this nor that side of it (== the world) is seen. 
The fleshly-minded are ignorant and fall into great pain, they are drowned, having forgotten the 
name of Hari. 

Having risen early they do much work, (but their) affection is in duality. 
Those who serve their own Guru, cross the water of existence. 

0 Nanak, the disciples are absorbed in the True one, by keeping the true name in their breast. 


Hari is omnipresent in water, earth and on the surface of the earth, there is none other. 
Hari himself being seated administers justice, all false ones he beats and casts out. 1 

1 for the sake of the rhyme (^fg), instead of 



To the true (righteous) he gives greatness (honour), by Hari equity is practised. 
All praise Hari, by whom the poor and helpless are protected. 
The righteous axe applauded by hi«a and the sinners punished. 


Slok I. ; mahala III. 

The self-willed, dirty woman has evil-boding qualities and is a bad woman. 

She has given up her own beloved (= husband) in her house and is in love with another man. 

Her thirst never ceases, she cries out for water. 

0 Nanak, without the name she is deformed and ugly and abandoned by (her) husband. 

SIoJc II. ; mahala III. 

She who is attached to the word (of the Guru), is a happy, married woman by (her) love and affec- 
tion to the Guru. 

Her own husband she always delights by true love and affection. 
She is a very beautiful, handsome and graceful woman. 

0 Nanak, by the name she is a happy married woman and united (with himself) by him, who is 


0 Hari, all praise thee, by whom the ensnared are loosened. 
0 Hari, all bow down to thee, by whom they are preserved from sin. 
0 Hari, thou art the hope of the lowly, thou, 0 Hari, art stronger than the strong ! 
The proud are beaten and caused to bow down by Hari, the foolish self-willed (men) are subjected 
(by him). 

Hari gives greatness to the devotees, to the poor and helpless. 

Slok I. 

Who walks after the will of the true Guru, his greatness will be great. 
In whose heart the high name of Hari dwells, him nobody can annihilate. 
On whom he bestows his own mercy, he obtains it (the name) by destiny. . 

Nanak (says) : the causality is in the power of the creator ; some disciple comprehends (the truth). 

Slok II. 

0 Mnak, by whom the name of Hari is adored, they are daily (engaged) in a continual meditation 
on Hari. 

The Maya is the servant of the Lord, (therefore) she does work before them. 2 
By the perfect (every thing) 3 is made perfect, by his order he is settling (it). 

Those who have comprehended (this) by the favour of the Guru, have obtained the gate of salvation. 
The fleshly-minded do not know his order, the executioners of Tama (therefore) kill (them). 
All disciples, who adore him (Hari), cross the water of existence, the world. 
All their vices are blotted out by virtues, the Guru himself is pardoning (them). 

1 cfV GfU'=?V&> f° r tne sa ^ e °f tne rhyme. 

3 f3T75 *H3t 3"HT% 3T<J» she (the Maya) does work (= is doing service) in the presence of the disciples 
or devotees ; the Maya must be their servant. 

3 There is no hint whatever to be gathered from the context to what If^T 3fcF i5>fe'WT is to be referred. 




Hari has a thorough, knowledge of his devotees, Hari knows everything. 
Like Hari none is knowing, Hari reflects on the religious merit (of men). 
Why should grief and anxiety he entertained, as he is not striking in injustice ? 
True is the Lord, true is his justice, the sinful man he is taking away. 

0 ye devotees, join your hands and praise him ! the devotees he is saving. 


Slok I.; mahala III. 

1 will continually join my own heloved, I will put him in my breast and keep (him) in my 

I will always, always praise that Lord, by love and affection to the Guru. 

Nanak (says) : On whom he bestows a favourable look, her he unites (with himself), that is a happy 
married woman. 

Slok II. ; mahala III. 

By the service of the Guru Hari is obtained (by them), on whom he bestows his favourable look. 
(By whom) the name of Hari is mediated upon, they have become Gods from men. 1 
Having destroyed their egotism (individuality) they are united by him (with himself), by the word 
of the Guru they are saved. 

0 Nanak, they are easily absorbed by him, (if) Hari bestow his own mercy (on them). 


Hari has shown his greatness, causing his own worship to be made. 

He himself makes apprehension (ascertainment) of himself, he himself has set up (his) service. 
To his worshippers he gives joy, he has seated them firm iu (his) house. 

He does not give a firm standing to the sinners, gathering them he marches them off to the 
horrible hell. 

Hari bestows love on his worshippers, sidiugwith them he saves them. 


Slok I. ; mahala III. 

Evil-mindedness is a DumnT, 2 cruelty a butcher's wife, she who is occupied with the censure of 
others is a sweeper's wife, she who is overcome by wrath is a CandaPs wife. 

What is effected by the drawing of lines, 3 when (these) four are sitting with (thee) ? 

Truth and abstinence is the (right) drawing of lines, bathing is, if one silently repeat the name. 

0 Nanak, in the other world he (will be) the highest, who does not give way 4 to sins. 

1 From being men they become Gods, deities. The meditation on the name of Hari turns men into Gods. 

2 |pj^t> the wife or female of the J)um caste (Muhammadan drummers or musicians), noted for their 
wickedness and depravity. 

3 STcft TOt f°pHT ^fr> literally: What is done by Lines being drawn? ^JH */. a line (a furrow, 
Sansk. cRM, Pasto j>) ; the Hindus draw lines round their cooking place, to keep off defilement. 

4 The Sikh Granthis explain by wish, desire, but this is only a guess. It is identical with iflft, 
which is also found in the Granth (Maru, Var II., Slok II.). 



Slok II. ; tfiahald I. 
What is the goose, what is the white heron, on which he looks in mercy? 
Who pleases him, 0 Nanak, him he transforms from a crow into a goose. 


The work, that one wishes to do, should be told to Hari. 

He settles the business by the true words of the true Guru. 

In the society of the saints is the treasure, nectar is tasted (there). 

By the fear-destroying and kind (Lord) (the honour) of his servant is preserved. 

0 Nanak, (who) sings the qualities of Hari, (by him) the invisible Lord is seen. 


Slok I. ; mahala III, 

Soul and body is his, to every one he gives support, 

Nanak (says) : by the disciple the liberal donor is always, always served. 

1 am a sacrifice for them, by whom the formless Hari is meditated upon. 
Their faces are always bright, the whole world pays them reverence, 

Slok II. ; mahala III. 

By meeting with the true Guru deflection (from one's former ways) is effected, all the nine treasures 
(that man now) enjoys. 

The eighteen prosperities 1 follow (him), he dwells in his own house, in his own place. 

The sounds not beaten (by human hands) are always sounding, 2 being absorbed in divine contem- 
plation 3 he deeply meditates on Hari. 

Nanak (says): attachment to Hari dwells in the heart of them, on whose forehead it is written from 
the beginning, 


I am a musician 4 of Hari, the Lord and master, I have come to the gate of Hari. 
Hari has heard within (the house) the cry, he has put the musician to his mouth. 5 
Hari, having called the musician has asked (him) : for what purpose hast thou come ? 
"Give continually a gift, 0 merciful Lord, the name of IJari is meditated upon (by me)." 
The liberal Hari has caused (me) to repeat silently tjie name of Hari, he caused Nanak to be dressed 
(with a dress of honour). 

1 Else eight Siddhis are enumerated, but in the Granth their number is swelled to eighteen. 

2 The or unbeaten sounds, are said to sound in the dasva duar as a sign, that the per- 
sonality is merged in the Supreme, by hearing continually these supernatural sounds (6m I 6m !). 

3 0A*rf?5j adj., having lost the consciousness of individual existence and being merged in the Supreme 
or in divine contemplation. The (s.f.) is the fifth of the modes of human existence, viz. : WT^f?f > 
WR* ^prf?T> cjO*i> ^pft* In Boehtlingk's and Roth's Sansk. Dictionary this signification of ^^•TC^ 
is quite overlooked. 

4 ^TCt » a class °f Musalmans, who are musicians and beggars in one person. 

5 Hftf SnGcM to apply to the mouth, to kiss, to caress. 



Om! By the favour of the true Guru! 


To he sung after the tune: "Ek sttIn." 2 

The mother thinks, that her son is getting big (growing). 

She does not know so much, that day hy day his life-time is getting less. 

Saying : "mine," "mine" (thou art), she fondles him excessively, Tarn Rau looking on laughs. 


Thus the world is misled by thee in error ! 

How shall it understand, when it is deluded by the Maya ? 


Kabir says : give up the pleasure of the world, in this society (thou) must certainly die ! 
Mutter him, who is omnipresent, 0 man, (it is) the word of another life, 3 in this wise wilt thou 
cross the ocean of the world. 


When it is pleasing to him, then faith springs up. 
Error and mistake depart from within. 

Understanding and knowledge (of the Supreme Being) are produoed, the mind is wakeful. « 
By the favour of the Guru deep meditation settles in the heart. 

Pause II. 

In this sooiety (thou wilt) not die. 

If thou knowest his order, thou wilt be united with the Lord. 


There is a very great infatuation of the Maya in (thy) mind, 0 man, old age and the fear of death 
are forgotten (by thee). 

Having seen (thy) family thou expandest, like a lotus, thou lookest on another's wife, 0 hypo- 
critical man ! 

3 Kabir (see p. 93, note 1), one of the most important reformers of mediaeval India, and at the same 
time one of the oldest Hindu! writers, is quoted at the end of nearly every Rag, as well as other famous 
Bhagats, as a witness for the truth of the teaching of the Sikh Gurus. By profession he was a weaver, to 
which he frequently alludes, He was a pantheist, who equally ridiculed the idolatry of the Pandit and the 
bigotry of the Mulla, There is still a sect in India, bearing his name (which is by no means fictitious), the 
so-called Kabir-panthis. — I have been so fortunate as to collect nearly all the works of Kabir, which are still 
current in India, though some of them appear to be spurious. 

2 cf. Sir! Rag, Sabd 29, 

3 *H?S3 -hWc^ might also be translated : life not sinking or declining (^ + w\ ff) ; otherwise * s 
the formative of *H7S> other. 

* Trilocan is said to have beeii a Brahman; who he was, and where he lived, is not known. He is not 
mentioned by Garcin de Tassy in his Histoire de la Literature Hindoui et Hindoustani. But as far as may 
be judged from the use of the word *H <iW, he was from the Dakhan, where this God was worshipped. 




A messenger has come from the side of Tama. 

Before him I cannot ahide. m 

Is there some, some friend, who will come and say : 

Join me, 0 my Bithal, 1 take (thy) arm and sling it round (me) ! 

Join me, 0 my dear, release me ! 


By many, many enjoyments and passions (lusts) he is forgotten (hy thee), 0 man, on the ocean of 
the world thou hast hecome immortal (in thy eyes). 

Carried away hy the Maya (illusion) thou dost not rememher (him), thy human hirth is lost (hy 
thee), 0 lazy man ! 


On a difficult, terrihle road thou must go, 0 man, whither sun and moon do not penetrate. 
The infatuation of the Maya is then forgotten (by thee), when thou hast left behind 2 the world. 


To-day he has become manifest in my mind, Dharm-Eau (Tama) has been seen. 
His strong arms break in pieces (men), before him I cannot abide. 


If one gives me instruction, then Narayan is contained (diffused) in tree and grass. 
0 Sir, thou thyself knowest every thing ! 
Trilocan says : he is contained (everywhere). 


One is wonderful, hear, 0 Pandit; now nothing can be said. 

By whom the Gods, Naras (centaurs), Ganas and Gandharvas are deluded, (by whom) a rope is 
applied to the three worlds. 3 


The Kingurt of Earn, the king, sounds without being struck. 

By his favourable look deep meditation springs up (in the heart) by (its) sound. 

1 fcfl<A<Si>, Sansk. f%^"^f, said to be an incarnation of Krishna and much worshipped in tfe^q^ (in the 
Dakhan), which city he is believed to have visited. Namdev was also a worshipper of "sft"^?. The Sikhs 
no longer know what is meant by the word "eJVj^j an d proffer all sorts of guesses about it. 

2 3tft*>{& is a Marathi form (cSrfW^i), another proof that Trilocan was from the Dakhan. 

8 ^yjft s.f., a rope, by which cattle are fastened together. God has bound the three worlds with a rope 
and leads them as he pleases. (Sansk. if^^f a girdle.) 




The furnace is the skull, 1 (under) the horns and funnels 2 a pot of gold is placed. 
Into this (pot) a very pure stream oozes, the juice is caused to drop on the organ of taste (= the 
tongue). 3 


The one incomparable thing, that is made, (is this, that) the breath is made the cup. 4 
In the three worlds is the Jogi alone ; say, who is (their) king ? 


By such divine knowledge the Supreme Spirit has become manifest. 
Kabir says : I am steeped in (his) colour (= identified with him). 

All the other world is led astray in error ; (my) mind is intoxicated by the elixir of Earn. 


To be sung after the tune: "PahabiI kai." 
Om ! By the favour of the true Guru ! 

0 man, when thou wast in the circle of the womb, thou wast given to meditation and contemplative 
absorption with the head upwards. 

In the mortal body (= womb) (is) no pride of rank, day and night (there is) one thorough absence 
of ignorance. 

Eemember those days, the trouble and great pain, now (thy) thought is excessively expanded. 
Having left the womb, thou hast come into the region of death, thou hast forgotten from thy mind 
Hari, the divine male. 

1 Sl<Tl> *■/• = W$\> a furnace, kiln. d|d|A, literally: the sky, the vaulted firmament; thence meta- 
phorically, the skull = the tenth gate (in the skull), where the nectar is distilled, according to the language of 
the Jogis. 

2 fflf^*HT> Hf5*HT> Gen. Plur. from fif^T and $^J. fif&T signifies in the language of the Jogis 
the fij# i (a.m.), one of the channels of the vital breath. The fg^j is said to be the passage on the right 
side, proceeding from the os coccygis (the lower back bone) and passing through the «!Tf?TO3l *> r umbilical 
region and through the right upper nostril to the head; the ^NiT (Hindi ^f^IT) or funnel is the channel of 
the vital breath on the left side (usually called ftfTR^T) ; the supposed channel between the two, leading to 
the middle part of the head, is called JftR^T s.f. (*p=RT7>), Sansk. *Hp^T. We shall often meet with these 
expressions in the Granth. 

3 <RT^ s - m - The organ of taste (Sansk. neuter) = tongue, on which the juice is dropped, to be 
thence put into the pot of gold, which is said to be the heart. 

4 The oreath is made the cup ; the sense is: by means of the breath the Supreme is enjoyed, the Jogi 
being united with him by shutting up the breath in the dasvl duar. The Jogi alone is thereby in the three 
worlds (penetrating them as united with the vital spirit) and their king in reality. 

6 Nothing is known about this Bhagat. 




Thou wilt again repent (of it), 0 fool ! into what folly and error hast thou fallen ? 
Eememher Earn and thou wilt rfot go to the city of Yama, do not 1 go about without having been 
accomplished ! 


The child is given to the thought of pastime and enjoyment, every moment it is replete with 
spiritual ignorance. 

Mistaking (it) for sugarcane-juice, thinking (it to be) nectar, poison is tasted (by the child), then 
the five passions 2 (have become) manifest. 

Having abandoned silent repetition, austerity, continence, virtue and wisdom, the name of Earn is 
not worshipped (by it). 

Lust has sprung up, its mind is bent on death, the Sakti (=Maya) has come and bound it round 
its neck. 3 


In the young man is heat, he looks at the face of another's wife, going and retreating (= right and 
wrong) he does not know. 

Intoxicated in lust, the great poison, he is led astray, sin and religious merit he does not know. 

Having seen a son and prosperity this (human) heart becomes proud, Earn is dropped from 
the mind. 

His mind weighs the property of another, who_ is dying, then being defeated, his human birth is 
ruined (spoiled). 


"White is the hair, whiter than a flower, the voice is (weak like) that of the seven nether regions. 
The eye becomes weary, intellect (and) strength flee, then lust falls into the churning-pot. 4 
By hot worldly pursuits (his) mind was confused, 8 in the rainy season" the lotus of the (= his) body 
became withered. 

Having given up in the region of death (= this present world) the word of the inherent 7 (Hari) (or 
sound of Hari), he repents there afterwards. 


Having seen (his) body dried up 8 a noise arises, he makes calculation (of the rest of his life), but 
does not understand (it). 

1 = not (ne) ; WfTSTTOT ^\Y$ (^ 4- TJ%)> 

2 The five $3V4 or passions are: ^T^> ^PT> *&B> *HT> WOoJId- 

3 3ffe Wft*HT; the sense is : the Maya has laid a rope round the child's or young man's neck. 

4 Vq=fiT HTWcJl 5 *rniTc^ on account of the rhyme = HTT^", s.f. churning-pot (Sansk. *T5£pft) ; 
lust falls into the churning-pot, an idiomatic expression for : to he utterly at a loss. 

5 ^£?t = *3^t, from cj<J^j (>^) to be confused. 

6 VT^t^Tj Locative of \J f ^4j (UT^J)> * n tne rainy season, when the lotus should flourish and be verdant. 
The sense is : he has lost his good opportunity. 

7 ^f^J|fd = ^ + f^RT> inherent (cEfTq^j) ; the word or sound of Hari, who is inherent (in man). 

8 1a<^ £\ f dried up (from fAoJdcM> v.n. to De dried up). The Sikhs merely start conjectures about 
these passages, but do not understand any of them. 




He covets to live a quarter 1 (of his life longer) (though) his eye does not see any thing. 
The strength 2 (of his body) is exhausted, the soul, the bird has flown off, it is (no longer) happy in 
the courtyard of the house (= body). 

Ben! says : hear, ye devotees, who has obtained final emancipation when dying? 


Thou art I, I am thou, of what kind is the difference ? 

Like gold (and) the bracelet (made of it), like water and a wave. 


But if I would not commit sins, 0 endless ! 

How would be thy name u purifier of the sinner" ? 


Thou, who art the Lord, art acquainted with the secrets of the heart. 
Prom the Lord the servant is known, from the servant the Lord. 


(My) body adores (thee), give me discernment ! 

May somebody instruct Ravidas,, who is of the same mass 4 (as the Supreme) ! 

1 1T^= : Sansk. TJ^T, a quarter, or a step, pace. 

2 %y{, the energy or strength of the body. 

3 Ravidas (in the Bhakta Mala called Raidas, see Price, Hindi and Hindustani collections, vol. i. p. 124) 
was a Camar (^ITRO or leather-dresser, and lived at Benares, not long after Kabir, whom he mentions. He 
was one of the twelve disciples of Ramanand (like Kablr, who is the second in the number), who himself 
was a disciple of Ramanuj. 

4 bein g of the same mass or lump, as the Supreme, or a fellow mortal ; the word may be 
applied either way. 





• Caupadas; Ghar I. 
Mahala IV. 

Om ! The true name is the creator, the Spirit without fear, without enmity, of timeless form, unproduced 

from the womb. 1 By the favour of the Guru ! 


(1) . The name of Hari, Hari, to my mind Hari is pleasing. 
By the very fortunate the name of Hari is meditated upon. 

Prom the perfect Guru the fruit 2 of the name of Hari is obtained, some rare one walks according to 
the instruction of the Guru, 0 dear ! 

(2) . As provisions (viaticum) I have taken Hari, Hari and bound it up in (my) lap. 
My dear friend 3 goes always with me. 

By the perfect Guru the name of Hari is made firm in me ; Hari is immovable, the wealth of (this) 
Hari is in (£is) lap, 0 dear ! 

(3) . Hari is (my) sweetheart, (my) beloved, (my) king. 

If some one bring and unite (him with me), my life is vivified (revived). 

I cannot exist without having seen my beloved, my water (= tears) flows and goes on flowing, 
0 dear ! 

(4) . The true Guru is my friend and companion from youth up. 
I cannot exist without having seen him, 0 my mother. 

0 Hari, bestow mercy (on me) ! join (to me) the Guru ! humble Nanak (says) : the wealth of Hari 
is in (his) lap, 0 dear ! 

Majh ; mahala IV. 

(1) . The destroyer of Madhu 4 is the life of my soul and body. 

1 do not know any other but Hari. 

"Would that some friend and pious man would meet (with me) by a lucky destiny, and show me my 
beloved Lord Hari, 0 dear ! 

(2) . I, soul and body, will seek (him), inquiring (myself) and causing (others) to inquire. 5 
How may the beloved sweetheart be met with, 0 my mother ? 

Having joined the society of the pious I will inquire after him, in their society the Lord Hari dwells, 
0 dear ! 

(3) . My dearly beloved is the true Guru, he is (my) preserver. 
I am a poor child, cherish thou me ! 

My mother and father is the Guru, the true Guru, the perfect Guru ; the lotus having fallen in with 
water opens, 0 dear ! 

1 *H*H*0*i^ as one word — ^TOtf^TCRTO> not being produced from the womb. 

2 fJTfaj the fruit, of the adoration or repetition of the name of Hari. 

3 VcJT^Ttrrc^'j a companion of one's life — dear friend. 

4 *TM*J«£A (TT^j^^if), destroyer of the Daitya Madhu, an epithet of Vishnu or Krishna. 

5 dMIifl = srT^Tfff > causal of 3T46cNT> to inquire. 



(4). I find no sleep without having seen the Guru. 

In my soul and hody is pain, the Guru causes me pangs of absence. 1 

0 Hari, Hari, bestow mercy on me, join to me the Guru ! humble iNanak (says) : having met with 
the Guru I am happy, 0 dear ! 

Majh; mahala IV. 

(1) . (If) the qualities (= excellences) of Hari be read, (if) the qualities of Hari be enumerated. 
(If) the recital of the name of Hari, Hari be continually heard. 

Joining the assembly of the pious (and) singing the qualities of Hari the water of the world, which 
is difficult to pass, is crossed, 0 dear ! 

(2) . Come, my friend, we will join Hari! 

(Who) gives me a message of love from my beloved. 

(Who) shows me Hari, the divine male Hari, he is my friend, my companion, my beloved brother, 
0 dear! 

(3) . My pain Hari, the perfect Guru, knows. 

1 cannot exist without praising (his) name. 

May a medicine and mantr be given me by the perfect Guru, that by the name of Hari, Hari I may 
be saved, 0 dear ! 

(4) . I, poor Catrik, am in the asylum of the true Guru. 
May I obtain a drop of the name of Hari, Hari in my mouth ! 

Hari is the ocean, we are the fish of the water; humble Kanak (says): without water I die, 
0 dear ! 

Majh; mahala IV. 

(1) . 0 ye holy people of Hari, 0 my brother, join me ! 
Show me my Lord Hari, I am hungry (after him). 

Make full my faith in the life of the world, the donor ! having met with Hari my heart becomes 
happy by his sight, Sir ! 

(2) . Having met with the assembly of the pious I will speak the word of Hari. 
The story (or recital) of Hari, Hari is pleasing to my mind. 

Hari, Hari is nectar, Hari is pleasing to ( = in my) mind; having met with the true Guru (this) 
nectar is drunk, Sir ! 

(3) . He, whose destiny is great, obtains the society of Hari. 
The luckless one wandering about is struck in the face. 

Without destiny the society of the pious is not obtained, without (their) society he is covered over 
with dirt, Sir ! 

(4) . Come and join me, 0 beloved world-soul ! 

Out of mercy put the name of Hari, Hari into my heart ! 

By the instruction of the Guru the name is sweet and heart-pleasing ; humble Mnak (says) : by the 
name my mind becomes happy, Sir ! 

Majh ; mahala IV. 

(1). The knowledge of Hari, the Guru, the taste of Hari, Hari is obtained (by me). 

(My) heart is stained in the colour of Hari, the juice of Hari was given it to drink (by him). 

1 r^dvJ j anguish or pangs caused by separation from the beloved. 



The name of Hari, Hari, the speech of Hari, Hari is in (my) mouth, by the juice of Hari (my) heart 
is dozing, Sir ! 

(2) . Gome, 0 saint, take me to thy neck. 1 
Let me hear the story of my beloved ! 

0 saint of Hari, join me ! I give my heart (to him) who is telling (me) the word of the Guru ( =God) 
with (from) his mouth. 

(3) . Th,e very fortunate saint of Hari is united (with Hari). 
From the perfect Guru the juice of Hari is obtained in the mouth. 

By the luckless the true Guru is not obtained, the fleshly-minded one is continually falling into the 
womb as embryo, Sir ! 

(4) . By the merciful Lord himself mercy is bestowed. 

All the filth of egotism and sensual pleasures is cleared away (by him). 

Nanak (says) : in the shop 3 of the body the disciples are carrying on the traffic of Hari, Sir ! 

Mdjh ; mahald IV. 

(1) . I will meditate on the excellences of Govind, on the name of Hari. 
Having joined the society (of the pious) I will fix the name in my heart. 

The Lord Hari is an incomprehensible, unattainable Lord, having joined the true Guru Hari is 
tasted, 8 Sir ! 

(2) . Blessed, blessed are the people of Hari, by whom the Lord Hari is known. 
Having gone I will inquire after the people of Hari. 

1 will rub their feet, having rubbed, rubbed (them) I will wash (them) ; having met with the people 
of Hari the juice of Hari is drunk, Sir ! 

(3) . By the true Guru, the donor, the name is fixed (in the heart). 
By the very fortunate the sight of the Guru is obtained. 

Nectar-juice, true nectar is (his) speech, from the perfect Guru (this) nectar is taken, Sir! 

(4) . By the society of the pious Hari, the true (Universal) Spirit is joined (with man). 
Having joined the society of the pious the name of Hari is meditated upon. 

Nanak (says) : (by whom) the story of Hari is heard and told with (his) mouth, he believes in the 
name by the instruction of the Guru, Sir ! 

Mdjh ; mahald IV. 

(1) . Come, 0 sister ! join me, 0 beloved ! 

Who shows me my beloved, to him I devote myself. 

Having joined the society of the pious, Hari, my sweetheart is obtained, to the gratuitous service of 
the true Guru I devote myself, 0 dear ! 

(2) . Wherever I see, there is the Lord. 

Thou art contained in every body, 0 thou near and dear one ! 

By the perfect Guru Hari is shown as being with (every one), I am always devoted to the gratuitous 
service of the Guru, 0 dear ! 

1 *t 3Tfo 5fe5Tg^ffi= ^ £ 3Tfe 5ft5TTZWh passive construction, literally: may it be joined me = 
may I be joined to, etc. 

* is to be taken as one word, shop (literally: a city-shop). 

8 generally a SindhI form of the Passive = 37jt^T ?h ** made. 



(3) . There is one breath, all the earth is one (and the same), all the light is one (and the same) 
in all. 

In all there is one (and the same) light, 1 (but) individually distinct, 2 it does not mingle, though one 
try to mingle it. 

By the favour of the Guru the one (light) is perceived, I am devoted to the gratuitous service of the 
true Guru, 0 dear ! 

(4) . Humble Nanak (says): he (i.e. the Guru) speaks words of nectar. 
They are dear and pleasing to the mind of the disciples of the Guru. 

The true Guru, the perfect Guru gives instruction, the true Guru is beneficent, 0 dear ! 

Mdjh ; maliala V. 
Caupadas ; Ghar I. 

(1) . My heart is longing for the sight of the Guru. 3 
It laments like a Catrik. 

The thirst does not leave it, it gets no rest without the sight of the beloved saint, 0 dear Sir ! 


I sacrifice myself, 0 dear, I sacrifice myself for the sight of the Guru, the beloved saint, 0 dear Sir! 

(2) . Thy face is beautiful, Sir, comfortable is the voice of thy speech ! 
A long time has passed, since I have seen the bow-holder. 4 

Blessed is the country, where thou dwellest, 0 my sweetheart, my friend, my Murari, Sir ! 


I sacrifice myself, I sacrifice myself for the Guru, my sweetheart, my friend, my Murari, 0 Sir ! 

(3) . If thou art not met with for twenty-four minutes, then it is to me the Kall-yug. 
"Now when shall I meet with thee, 0 beloved Lord? 

To me the night does not pass, I get no sleep without having seen the Gur-darbar, 5 Sir ! 


I sacrifice myself, Sir, I sacrifice myself, Sir, for this true Gur-darbar ! 

(4) . It has been (my good) lot, the pious one is united by the Guru (with himself). 
The immortal Lord I have obtained in (my) house. 

I will serve (thee), that I may not be separated (from thee) a single moment ; humble Nanak is thy 
slave, Sir ! 6 

1 *r}fd> light, the heavenly principle of life in the creatures. 

2 The individuality of the soul is thereby asserted. 

3 The following verses are said to be a letter of Arjun to his father, Ramdas, when living at Lahore, where 
he had been sent on account of family dissensions. He succeeded his father in the Guruship in 1581. 

4 The word JTrfcfrP-TT^l' is properly an epithet of Vishnu, like Murari (the enemy of the Daitya Mura), 
but applied here to his father ; rather a gross flattery. 

5 The Gur-darbar (the Guru's court) is the temple at Amritsar, which was built by Ramdas. Amritsar 
was formerly therefore called Ramdaspur, the city of Ramdas. 

6 This verse is said to have been uttered by Arjun after having been recalled by his father. If this tradi- 
tion of the Sikhs be true, it would appear that the sons of the Gurus also called themselves Nanak, even 
before their accession to the Guruship. 




I sacrifice myself, Sir, I sacrifice myself, humble Nanak is thy slave, Sir ! 

Ragu Mdjh ; maliala V. 

II. IX. 

(1) . That season is beautiful, in which I remember thee. 
That work is easy, which is thy setting on. 1 

That heart feels easy, in which heart thou art indwelling, 0 donor of all ! 

(2) . Thou, 0 Lord, art (our) companionship, our father. 
Thine are the nine treasures, inexhaustible is thy storeroom. 

To whom thou givest, he becomes satiated, he is thy worshipper, 0 Lord ! 

(3) . Every one puts his hope in thee. 
In every body thou art indwelling. 

All are (thy) associates, thou art always their support, thou art not seen outside of any one, Sir ! 2 

(4) . Thou thyself procurest final emancipation to the disciple. 

Thou thyself causest the self-willed to wander about in birth (transmigration). 
Thy slave Nanak is a sacrifice for thee, all is thy play, 0 Dasahar. 3 

III. X. 

(1) . (If) the unbeaten (sound) sounds, (I am) easily happy. 
By the sabd 4 1 am happy and always delighted. 

Easily I practise deep meditation (on thee) in the cavern, 6 0 Lord, (who) hast made (thy) 
seat high! 

(2) . Having wandered and turned about, (I) have come to my own house. 
(The fruit), that was desired (by me), I_ obtained. 

I am fully satiated ; by the saint, the Gruru, (thou) 0 Lord, the fearless Supreme Spirit, wast 
shown (to me). 

(3) . Thou thyself art the king, thou thyself the people. 

Thou thyself art free from all worldly concerns (and enjoyments), thou thyself art enjoying 

Thou thyself sittest on the throne as true judge, all cries and calls 6 (for justice) have ceased, 
0 Lord! 

(4) . As I have seen (him), so I have described (him). 

He has got a taste (of him), who has obtained (his) secret. 

Light is mingled with the fountain of light, 7 comfort is obtained (thereby) ; humble Nauak (says) : 
thou alone, 0 Lord, art spread out (in the creatures) ! 

1 Wrfl5> *•/• putting on ; setting a-going. The sense is : which thou settest a-going. 

2 The sense is : none is empty of thee, thou art not outside of any one, but in every one. 

3 ^TRTB is the Sansk. ^Tn|, an appellative of Krishna; the Sikh Granthis explain it by fa,4^1 (is 
appearing), but this is a mere guess. 

4 The WZFZ signifies here sound, i.e. the sound not produced by beating, but by coercion of the breath in 
the dasvl duar, where the sound 6m ! is said to be heard. 

5 The JT<ST or cavern is here = the body. 

6 WTfcWT = VRT3T- 

7 Literally : the luminous one, in whom the light (the principle of life) is contained. 



Majh; mahala V. 

IV. XI. 

(1) . In which house the wedding-ornament 1 is adjusted by the beloved (= husband). 
In that house, 0 friend, a song of congratulation is sung. 

Joy and amusement are in that house ; that woman is shining, who is adorned by her beloved, 0 dear! 

(2) . She is virtuous, she is very fortunate. 

Blessed with sons, and endowed with an amiable disposition, a happy married wife. 
That woman is beautiful, skilful and clever, who is attached to her husband, 0 dear ! 

(3) . She is of virtuous conduct, she is foremost. 3 
All ornaments suit well that intelligent one. 

She is of a (good) family, she has brothers, 3 who is adorned with the love of her husband, 0 dear ! 

(4) . The greatness of her cannot be told. 

Who is joined by her husband and taken to his bosom. 

Her married state is firm; humble Nanak (says) : by the love of her unattainable and inapprehen- 
sible husband she is united (with him), 4 0 dear ! 

Majh ; mahala V. 


(1) . Searching and searching I desire his sight. 

I enter every uneven ground 5 and every forest (searching for him). 

Had is without qualities and endowed with all qualities : is there any one, 0- dear, who will bring 
and join to me my Hari, 0 dear ? 

(2) . In going through the six Shastras, 6 in knowing them by heart. 
In worship, in (applying) the Tilak, in bathing at a Tirtha. 

In the practice of purity, 7 in the eighty-four ascetic postures 8 tranquillity is not obtained, 0 dear! 

(3) . Many years silent repetitions and austerities are practised (by the JogI). 
Innumerable 9 strolls are made on the earth. 

Not one moment comes tranquillity into (his) heart, again and again the J5gi rises and runs about, 
0 dear ! 

1 iftjFT (^h"HTO), a wedding-ornament, especially the string, with a bit of gold strung on it, which the 
bridegroom puts round the neck of the bride and which she wears till widowed. 

2 "MdMtA=VHTTfe, adj. fern. ; similarly fjTnfTT^ instead of fSpHTf^. 

3 T3TT^, adj. having brothers (*f + cJdlG), i.e. to defend her or take care of her. 

4 *TTWt from ^TmdAI (=*OMIdAl), the causal of TTTTCT (=ltTOT, the Anusvar being usually 
dropped in the Granth), to unite. It might also be the causal of ^TP^T, and could then be translated by: 
she is accomplished. 

0 ^Tfe is the Loc. sing, of 313, uneven, broken ground, where a man may hide himself. 

6 The six Shastras are : the Siinkhya, Nyaya, Mimansa, Yoga, Vedanta, Vaisesika. 

7 fo^cs! or foQe$| ^RT; fo<£<^=f^l^ (by transition of m to v\ s.f. purity. This is a peculiar 
practice of the Jogis prior to restraining the breath and falling then into a death-like sleep or torpidity. The 
Jogis are said to purify first their bodies by drinking milk ; they swallow then a piece of cotton cloth, drawing 
it out at the anus, thus cleansing the stomach and the bowels from all impurities.— Relata refero. 

8 This is another practice of the Jogis. 

9 3d«n3T> Sansk. n. a certain large number, corresponding to *H" f/>oJ , ETW- 



(4). Bestowing mercy (on me) he (Hari) has joined to me the saint (= Guru). 
My heart and body became refreshed, I obtained comfort. 

The eternal Lord has taken his dweH&ng in (my) body, Nanak sings (now) the happiness (imparted 
by) Hari, 0 dear ! 

Majh; mahald V. 


(1) . The Supreme Brahm, the infinite God : 

The unattainable, inapprehensible, invisible, impenetrable : 

The cherisher of the poor, Gopal, Govind, Hari, meditate upon him in (thy) body, 0 disciple! 

(2) . The disciple of the Guru the destroyer of (the Daitya) Madhu 1 saves. 
Exishna, the enemy of Mura, is the companion of the disciple. 

The merciful Damodar 2 is obtained by the disciple, not by any other votary, 3 0 dear! 

(3) . Kesav 4 does not eat and is without enmity. 
"Whose feet crores of men worship. 

In which disciple's heart that Hari, Hari is, he alone is (his) worshipper, 0 dear ! 

(4) . Efficacious is the sight of the endless and boundless otfe. 
He is very powerful, always a donor. 

The disciple, by whom (his) name is silently repeated, is saved ; Nanak (says) : salvation is known 
by few, 0 dear ! 

Majh ; m,ahald V. 


(1) , What thou sayest, must be done, what thou givest, must be taken. 
The poor and helpless trust in thee. 

Thou, thou art everything, 0 my beloved, I sacrifice myself to thy power, 0 Lord ! 

(2) . By (his) decree is the wayless wilderness, by (his) decree is the way. 
By (his) decree the disciple sings 5 the qualities of Hari. 

By (his) decree (man) wanders about in many wombs; all is in his pleasure, 0 dear! 

(3) . No one is foolish, no one is clever. 
In everything thy decree is current. 

0 unattainable, inapprehensible, endless, unfathomable one ! thy value cannot be told, 0 Lord ! 

(4) . Give me the dust of (thy) saints, 0 beloved ! 

1 have come and fallen down at thy gate, 0 Hari ! 

Seeing thy sight my heart is satiated ; I am longing to meet (with thee), 0 Lord ! 

Majh ; mahald V. 
, VIII. XV. 
(1). There is pain, when thou art forgotten. 
Hunger seizes (him), he runs about in many ways. 

1 An epithet of Vishnu or Krishna. 

2 ^fecFj Sansk. <^TJ?t<^ O^TT + having a rope round his belly (alluding to an event in 
Krishna's childhood) ; an epithet of Krishna. 

3 ^lJl = = Sansk. Vflfi, votary (otherwise ^J|fs), or way, manner. 

4 Sansk. having long hair, an epithet of Krishna. 

5 3TI<^M r» corrupted, on account of the rhyme, instead of d||^Rj ; ^TT^TvTT itself is meaningless, but 
that does not matter with Arjun, if only the rhyme be kept up. 



To whom thou, 0 cherisher of the poor, givest the remembrance of (thy) name, he is always happy. 

(2) . My true Guru is very powerful. 

If I remember him in my heart, all pain is gone. 

The disease of anxiety, the pain of egotism is departed, thou thyself cherishest me, 0 Lord ! 

(3) . Like a child 1 ask everything. 

Thou art giving, 0 Lord, and there is no deficiency of pleasures. 

Palling at thy feet I conciliate thee much, 0 Gopal, who art compassionate to the poor. 

(4) . I devote myself for the true, perfect Guru. 
By whom all my fetters are cut asunder. 

Into whose heart thou givest (thy) name, they are made pure; 1 Nanak is happy in (thy) love, 
0 Lord! 

Majh; mahala V. 


(1) . 0 dear Gopal, 0 merciful and mirthful one! 
0 deep and profound, 0 endless Govind ! 

0 high, unfathomable, endless Lord ! remembering, remembering thee, I live, 0 Lord ! 

(2) . 0 remover of pain, 0 inestimable treasure! 

0 thou fearless, free from enmity, unfathomable, unweighable one ! 

0 timeless form, not produced from a womb, remembering thee in my mind I become refreshed, 
0 Lord ! 

(3) . Thou art always my companion in every circumstance, 0 Gopal! 
Thou art cherishing the high and the low. 

The elixir of (thy) name is satiating my heart, I drink the nectar proceeding from the mouth of the 
Guru, 0 Lord ! 

(4) . In pain and in comfort I meditate on thee, 0 beloved! 
This good disposition of mind I have obtained from the Guru. 

Thou art the support of Nanak, 0 Lord, by all means I shall pass over (the ocean of the world), 
0 Lord ! 2 

Majh; mahala V. 


(1) . Blessed is that time, in which I have met with the true Guru! 
Fruitful is (thy) sight, seeing (thee) with my eyes I am saved. 

Blessed are the forty-eight minutes, the seconds and moments and the twenty-four minutes, blessed 
is that conjunction, 0 Lord! 

(2) . By exerting myself (my) mind has become pure. 
Walking in the way of Hari every error has been done away. 

The treasure of the name was proclaimed to me by the true Guru, all diseases were extinguished, 
0 Lord ! 

(3) . Inside and outside is thy word. 

Thou thyself hast told it, thou thyself hast explained it. 

The Guru has said : in all there is One (alone), One (alone), there will be no other, 0 Lord ! 

1 Arjun frequently gives no hint as to the subject and all must be found out by conjecture. 

2 The words "ITrfcTMlJ^T tHQ must thus be divided: lfTf<J V<ft tTV@; is an interjection, 
the same as ift. 



(4). Nectar-juice (I have) drunk from Hari, the Guru. 
Hari has become (my) clothing, the name (of Hari) my food. 

In the name is (my) pleasure, in thfcname (my) delight and sports, the name is made hy Hanak the 
object of his enjoyments, 0 Lord ! 

Majh; mahala V. 

(1) . From all saints I ask one thing. 

I make supplication, I give up conceit. 

I devote, I devote myself a hundred thousand times : give me the dust of the saints, 0 Lord ! 

(2) . Thou art the donor, thou art the Supreme Spirit, the disposer of the destiny. 
Thou art powerful, always bestowing comforts. 

Every one gets from thee his sustenance, 1 bring to an end our drought, 2 0 Lord ! 

(3) . By thy sight the house is purified. 

The difficult fort of the soul is thereby overcome (conquered). 

Thou art the donor, thou art the Supreme Spirit, the disposer of destiny, like thee there is no other 
hero, 0 Lord ! 

(4) . The dust of the saints is applied to my face. 

Evil-mindedness is extinguished, wickedness of thought has (no longer) a share (in me). 
I dwell continually in the house of truth, I sing the excellences (of Hari); Nanak (says) : falsehoods 
have been done away, 0 Lord ! 

Majh; mahala V. 


(1) . May not such a great donor (like thee) be forgotten (by me) ! 
Bestowing mercy (on them) thou art attached to (thy) devotees. 

That I may day and night meditate on thee, give me this gift, 0 Lord ! 

(2) . With the blind earth (= body) reflection is joined (by thee). 
All is given (by thee) : good places (abodes). 

Joy, pastime, shows, exhibitions ; what is pleasing to thee, that is done, 0 Lord ! 

(3) . Whose the gift is, (from him) all must be taken. 

The nectar (consisting of) thirty-six drugs, victuals and food. 

An easy couch, cool breath ; naturally thou art making sports and merriments, 0 Lord ! 

(4) . May that wisdom be given to me, by which thou wilt not be forgotten ! 
May that mind he given to me, by which I may meditate on thee ! 

That I may sing thy praises at every breath ; the shelter of Nanak are the feet of the Guru, 0 Lord ! 

Majh; mahala V. 


(1). To praise thy excellences is thy order and pleasure. 

That is (divine) knowledge and meditation, which pleases thee. 

That is silent repetition (of thy name), which is pleasing to thee, 0 Lord ; by thy decree (divine) 
knowledge (becomes) full, 0 Lord!" 

1 ^d*u6dW , v. caus. to get perquisites, allowances of food, formed from the Sansk. ^TTT, literally: to 
cause to be rained (gifts, etc.). 

2 jJftfiJf SindM ^ffaH, drought, Sansk. want of rain and thence scarcity of food. \fj[ oJdAI, 
to make full = to bring to an end. 



(2) . He sings thy nectar-name : 
Who is pleasing to thy mind, 0 Lord ! 

Thou art the saints' and the saints are thine, the heart of the saints is won over by thee, 0 Lord ! 

(3) . Thon art cherishing the saints. 
The saints play with thee, 0 Gopal ! 

Thy saints are very dear to thee, thou art the life of the saints, 0 Lord ! 

(4) . My heart is a sacrifice for those saints : 

By whom thon art known ; who are pleasing to thy mind : 

In their society comfort is always obtained ; by the juice of Hari Nanak is perfectly satiated, 0 Lord ! 

Ifdjh ; mahala Y. 


(1) . Thou art the ocean, we are thy fish. 

Thy name is the drop, we are the Catriks overcome by thirst. 

After thee we long, after thee we thirst, our mind is absorbed in thee, 0 Lord ! 

(2) . As a child is satiated having drunk milk. 
As a poor man is comforted having seen wealth. 

(As) a thirsty man drinking water is refreshed : so this (my) mind is happy with Hari, 0 Lord ! 

(3) . As a lamp is shining in darkness. 

As one, who is looking out for her husband, full of desire : 

Becomes joyful, when meeting with the beloved ; so my heart is mirthful in the love of Hari, 
0 Lord! 

(4) . The saints have put me into the way of Hari. 

By the merciful holy man (= Guru) I have been familiarized with Hari. 

Hari is ours, we are the slaves of Hari ; the true word (= the name) is given to Nanak by the Guru, 
0 Lord ! 

Ifdjh; mahala V. 


(1) . (Thy) nectar-name is always pure. 

(Thou art) the giver of comfort and the remover of pain, 0 Hari ! 

I have tasted and seen all other relishes, the juice of Hari is sweeter than all to my mind, 0 Lord ! 

(2) . Whoever drinks it, he becomes satiated. 

He becomes immortal, who obtains the juice of the name. 

The treasure of the name he obtains, in whose heart the word of the Guru is settled, 0 Lord ! 

(3) . Who has obtained the juice of Hari, he is fully satiated. 
Who has obtained the relish of Hari, he is (no longer) agitated. 

He obtains the name of Hari, Hari, on whose forehead the destiny 1 (is written), 0 Lord! 

(4) . Hari has come into the hand of one man (= the Guru), (from whom) many are benefited. 
Many, who cling to him, are emancipated. 

The treasure of the name is obtained by the disciple ; Nanak says : by some rare ones it is seen, 

Ifdjh ; mahala V. 

(1). Treasure, perfection and prosperity (art thou), 0 my Hari, Hari, Hari! 
The boon of life (art thou), 0 deep and profound one ! 

1 is a fanciful word (instead of ^RT), manufactured to rhyme with the following gft a T* 



Lakhs and crores of pleasures and merriments he enjoys, who has clung to the feet of the Guru, 

(2) . Seeing (thy) sight (we) haveJj>ecome purified. 
All (our) brothers and friends have been saved. 

Unattainable, inapprehensible is my Lord ; by the mercy of the Guru I meditate on the True one, 

(3) . For whom all created beings look out. 
(Thy) sight some rare lucky one obtains. 

High, boundless, imperceptible is (thy) place; that (thy) mansion the Guru shows, 0 Lord ! 

(4) . Deep and profound is thy nectar-name. 

In whose heart (thy) dwelling is, he has become emancipated. 

By the Guru all his fetters are cut asunder; humble Nanak (says) : easily he is absorbed (in thee), 

Majh ; wtahala Y. 


(1) . By the mercy of the Lord I meditate on Hari, Hari. 
By the mercy of the Lord I sing a song of joy. 

In rising, sitting, sleeping, waking, Hari should be meditated upon through the whole life, 0 dear ! 

(2) . The medicine of the name was given me by the saint (=* the Guru). 
My sins were cut off, I became pure. 

Joy sprang up, all pain went off, all troubles were effaced, 0 dear ! 

(3) . Whose side my beloved takes : 

He becomes emancipated from the ocean of the world. 

Who has known the Guru as true, why should he be afraid, 0 dear ! 

(4) . Since I obtain the society of the holy ones. 

The calamity of egotism 1 is gone by meeting with the Guru. 

At every breath Nanak sings (the praises) of Hari ; by the true Guru a screen is put over me, 
0 dear! 

Majh; mahala Y. 


(1) . He (the Lord) is thoroughly 2 in love with his servant. 
The Lord, the giver of comfort, cherishes his servant. 

(He brings) water, (swings) the fan, grinds (corn for him), even the Lord is in subserviency to his 
^servant, 3 0 dear ! 

(2) . By the Lord he (the servant) is put into his service, after his fetter is cut off. 
The order of the Lord has been pleasant to the mind of (his) servant. 

He does that, which pleases to the Lord ; within (in his heart) he is a servant, outwardly he is a 
Lord, 0 dear ! 

(3) . Thou art a wise Lord, thou knowest all rules. 
The servants of the Lord enjoy the pleasures of Hari. 

1 7S%9 egotism = individuality, considering oneself as distinct from the Supreme. 

2 "Ofej a d v ' literally : lengthwise and crosswise (like a texture), Sansk. ^gft?nfr?T- 

3 5feT <4NdUl o?T *HTvT? ; WTTOt s,m. (^TTf^) bringing on, fetching (things) on the part of the 
Lord ; ^ supply : ufq", into the hand of the servant. 



Whatever is the Lord's, that is his servant's, the servant is manifest hy connexion with his master, 
0 dear ! 

(4). Who has been dressed (with a dress of honour) by his own Lord : 
He is not called again to render account. 

Nanak is a sacrifice for that servant, he is a deep and profound jewel, 0 dear ! 

Majh ; mahala V. 


(1) . All is in the house (= body), not outside (of it). 
Who seeks outside, he is led astray by error. 

Who has found it inside by the favour of the Guru, he is inside and outside happy, 0 dear ! 

(2) . A stream of nectar is softly raining down. 

The heart drinks it, the word (of the Guru) is heard and reflected upon. 

Day and night he {i.e. the disciple) indulges in joy and sport, continually he amuses himself with 
Hari,"0 dear. 

(3) . He, who had been separated through his (various) births, is united (with Hari). 
By the mercy of the holy one ( = the Guru) the dried-up one has become green. 

He gets a good conscience, he meditates on the name, having become a disciple he is united (with 
the Supreme), 0 dear. 

(4) . As a wave of water is absorbed (again) in water. 

So light is united (blended) with the luminous (Supreme). 

Nanak says : the shutters of error 1 are cut down, there will not be (made) again a wandering about, 2 
0 dear ! 

Mdjh ; mahala Y. 


(1) . I am a sacrifice for that (ear), by which thou art heard. 
I am a sacrifice for that tongue, by whieh thou art uttered. 

I devote, I devote myself to the gratuitous service of him, who adores thee in soul and body, 
0 Lord ! 

(2) . I will wash the feet of him, who walks in thy way. 
With my eye I will see that merciful man. 

I give my heart to that friend of mine, who, having met with the -Guru, has obtained that Lord, 
0 dear! 

(3) . They are very fortunate, by whom thou art known. 

In the midst of all they are uncontaminated and free from worldly concerns. 

In the society of the holy ones the water of existence is crossed by them, all the intoxicated ones 
are subjected 3 by them, 0 dear ! 

(4) . My heart has fallen on their asylum, 

Having given up (every other) expectation, infatuation and darkness. 

May the gift of the name of that unattainable, infathomable Lord be given to Nanak, 0 dear ! 

1 fa<£ltf > the shutters of error (by which error was confined to the house) are cut down. 

2 n 6<X>T is vei 7 likely the Persian ^3^>- , wandering, straying about, which very well agrees with £^JH • 

3 ^5 = Sansk. ^p, p.p. of f^, drunk, intoxicated. The ^ are: ^T*f, ^nj, $£<J, ^J, 
*h J*ld- The Sikh Graothis explain ^3 by wicked, an enemy, which is a mere guess, as ^3" cannot be 
derived from ^3, however, may also be derived from causing pain (final d being "changed to t, 
which is frequently the case). 



Majh; mahala V. 

(1) . Thou art the tree, thy hranch has blossomed. 1 
From (being) large 2 thou hast become small (minute). 

Thou art the ocean, thou art the foam, the bubble, without thee none other is found, 0 Lord ! 

(2) . Thou art the thread, thou art also the beads (thereof). 

Thou art the knot, thou art the middle (connecting) gem on its head. 3 

In the beginning, middle and end (art thou) that Lord, none other is shown, 0 Lord! 

(3) . Thou art without qualities and endowed with all qualities, the giver of comfort. 
Thou art perfectly composed/ sensual and given to pleasure. 

Thou thyself knowest thy own actions, thou art taken care of by thyself, 0 Lord ! 

(4) . Thou art the master, thon thyself art also the servant. 
Thou art hidden, thou thyself, 0 Lord, art (also) manifest. 

Nanak, (thy) slave sings always thy praises ; look a little down on me in mercy, 0 Lord ! 

Majh; mahala V. 


(1) . Fruitful is that speech, by which the praises of the name (are uttered). 
Some rare one has known it by the favour of the Guru. 

Blessed is that time, in which there is the song of Hari (and its) hearing: 0 these are approved of, 
0 dear! 

(2) . Those eyes are a standard, by whom the sight (of Hari) is seen. 
Those hands are good, by whom the glory of Hari is written. 

Those feet are beautiful, which walk in the way of Hari ; I am a sacrifice for those, in whose society 
he (Hari) is known, 0 dear ! 

(3) . Hear, my sweetheart, my beloved friend ! 

In the society of the holy ones he (Hari) saves in a moment. 

He cuts off the sins, the mind becomes pure, coming and going is effaced, 0 dear ! 

(4) . Having joined both hands supplication should be made : 
"May in mercy the sinking stone be taken!" 6 

The Lord has become merciful to Fanak and the Lord has become pleasant to the mind of Nanak, 
0 dear ! 

Majh ; mahala V. 

(1). A word of nectar is thy word, 0 Hari, Hari! 

Having heard, having heard it, my final emancipation is effected (thereby). 

1 The sense is : Thou art the tree, the branch and flower. 

2 m' +Wrfl ' is tne Abl - Sin £- (Sansk. ^T). 

3 ifa, a.m. The large middle gem of a necklace, in which the two ends meet, "fafe, Loc, on its (the 
necklace's) head. 

4 fAdm ^ dead t0 a11 P assions and agitations. # 

5 H1^3, s.™- a song (Sansk. *TT*nT) 5 the singing and hearing of the praises of Hari are accepted or 
approved of, a standard, authority (l|c*<ilA = Sansk. ITOH!!)- 

6 The sense is : May I, who am sinking like a stone, be taken out of the water (of existence). 



The burning is extinguished, my mind becomes cool after having obtained the sight of the true 
Guru, 0 dear ! 

(2) . Comfort has set in, pain has fled far away. 

By the tongue of the saints the name of Hari is praised. 

Water and land is filled with water, the ponds are quite full, no one goes in vain, 0 dear ! 1 

(3) . That creator has bestowed his mercy. 
All the living creatures are cherished. 

He is kind, merciful and compassionate, all are fully satiated (by him), 0 dear ! 

(4) . Forest, grass, the three worlds are made green by him. 
In a moment this was done by the creator. 

Turning his face towards the Guru Nanak adores him, who fulfils the desire of the heart, 0 dear ! 

Mdjh ; wiahala V. 

(1) . Thou art my father, thou art my mother. 
Thou art my cousin, thou art my brother. 

Thou art my protector in all places, then what fear and grief (is to me), 0 Lord ! 

(2) . By thy mercy I have known thee. 
Thou art my support, thou art my trust. 

"Without thee there is none other ; all is thy play and (thy) arena, 0 Lord ! 

(3) . All the living creatures are made by thee. 

Where, where it pleased (thee), there, there they were placed. 
"Whatever is made, is thine, nothing is ours, 0 Lord ! 

(4) . Having meditated on the name I have obtained great comfort. 
Having sung the excellences of Hari my mind has become refreshed. 

The perfect Guru has congratulated me : thou, 0 !Nanak, hast overcome the world ! 2 

Majh ; mahala Y. 

(1) . Thou, 0 Lord, art the support of (my) soul, life and mind. 
(Thy) worshipper lives by singing (thy) boundless excellences. 

(Thou art) the repository of excellences, nectar is the name of Hari, having meditated, meditated 
on Hari I have obtained comfort, 0 Lord ! 

(2) . Thou espousest the desire (of him), who comes to thy house. 3 
In the society of the holy ones thou effacest birth and death. 

(His) wish and purpose become fulfilled ; by the Guru, falling in with (him), thou art shown 
0 Lord ! 

(3) . (Thou art) unattainable, inapprehensible, no measure (of thine) is known. 
The devotees, ascetics and wise meditate (on thee). 

Egotism (individuality) is effaced, error has ceased, by the Guru thou art manifested (as being) even 
in the heart. 

1 These verses apparently refer to a full rainy season. Water and land, i.e. rivers, lakes, etc., and the 
dry ground. No one goes in vain, i.e. every one obtains his object, is satisfied. 

2 ftrifTWL for the sake of the rhyme, corrupted from ftffbPH^x, subst. dim. of ftrfvpHT. 

3 It must be read : ^ Uffo ^ nn% ; 5 is here « thy," and not postposition. If simply urg- % be read 
(as most MSS. do), the verse becomes unintelligible. 



(4). (Thou art) the repository of joy, blessing and welfare. 
Comfort and easiness is the praising of the name of Hari. 

Be merciful, 0 Lord, thy own name^has come into the house of Nanak, 0 Lord ! 

Majh ; mahala V. 


(1) . Having heard, having heard the information about thee I live. 
Thou art (my) beloved Lord, very mighty. 

Thy works even thou knowest, I rely on thy support, 0 Gopal ! 

(2) . Singing thy praises (my) heart becomes green (= revived). 
Hearing (thy) story I drop all dirt (= sins). 

Falling in with the society of the pious and saints I always silently repeat (thy name), 0 merciful 

(3) . I remember my own Lord at every breath. 

This method I keep in my heart by the favour of the Guru. 

Ey thy mercy light is made (in my heart), out of kindness thou cherishest all, 0 Lord ! 

(4) . True, true, true is that Lord. 
Always, always, always thou thyself existest. 

Thy works are manifest, 0 beloved ! having seen them Nanak has become happy, 0 Lord ! 

Majh; mahala V. 


(1) . By (his) order rains have commenced to fall. 

0 dear friend, having joined the saints let us silently repeat the name ! 

Coolness, quietness, rest, comfort is obtained, the Lord himself has bestowed coolness, 0 dear ! 

(2) . Every thing is abundantly produced (by him). 
Out of mercy all are satiated by the Lord. 

Eestow a gift, 0 my donor, all living creatures are satiated 1 (by thee), 0 Lord! 

(3) . True is the Lord, of a true name. 

Ey the favour of the Guru I always meditate on him. 

He cuts off the fear of birth and death, spiritual ignorance, grief and troubles are extinct, 0 dear ! 

(4) . At every breath Nanak praises him. 

Ey the remembrance of (his) name all nooses are cut off. 

The hope (of him) is fulfilled in a moment, who mutters the praises of Hari, Hari, Hari, 0 dear ! 

Hajh; mahala V. 


(1) . Come, 0 pious sweetheart, 0 beloved friend ! 

Having met together we will sing the praises of the unattainable and boundless one ! 
Those, who sing and hear (them), are all emancipated ; he should be meditated upon, by whom we 
are made, 0 dear ! 

(2) . The sins of all the (various) births (forms of existence) go off. 
The fruits, which are desired by (thy) heart, thou wilt obtain : 

Having remembered the Lord, that true Lord, (by whom) to every one the daily bread is given, 0 dear! 

1 ^JTMcST* To be satiated, from the Sansk. H^(cfT^), "t" being changed to "d" and aspirated at 
the same time by the influence of r (Sindhi ST^nj* ^ having passed to the cerebral row at the same time) 




(3) . By Mm, who mutters the name, all comforts are ohtained. 
All fear is destroyed, if Hari, Hari he meditated upon. 

By whom he is served, he is passing over, all his works are done, 0 dear ! 

(4) . I have eome and fallen on thy asylum. 

As it is pleasing to thee, so unite (me with thee) ! 

Out of merey, 0 Lord, apply me to thy adoration, that Nanak may drink true neetar, 0 Lord! 

Majh; mahald V. 


(1) . Govind, the Lord, has become merciful. 
The cloud rains in all places. 

He is compassionate to the poor and always merciful, coolness is bestowed by the creator, 0 dear! 

(2) . He cherishes his own creatures : 
As a mother takes care of her child. 

He removes pain, the Lord is the ocean of comfort, he gives food to all, 0 dear ! 

(3) . In water and land is omnipresent the kind one. 

I make myself always a sacrifice and oblation (for him). 

Always, night and day, I meditate on him, who in a moment saves all, 0 dear ! 

(4) . All are protected by the Lord himself. 
All sorrows and troubles are gone off. 

Muttering the name (my) heart and body (become) fresh (revived), (if) the Lord look favourably 
on Nanak, 0 dear ! 

Majh; mahald V. 


(1) . "Where the name of (my) beloved Lord is muttered: 
Those places are golden upper-storied houses. 

"Where the name of my Govind is not muttered, those cities become desolate, 0 dear ! 

(2) . "Who eating dry bread remembers Hari : 
(On him) Hari looks in mercy inside and outside. 

Who, having eaten and eaten, commits wicked deeds, 1 him consider an offspring of poison, 0 dear ! 

(3) . Who shows no affection for the saints : 

"Who commits misdeeds with the Sakats (the worshippers of the Sakti) : 

By (that) ignorant man his (human) body, so difficult to be obtained, is thrown away, his own root 
is uprooted by himself, 0 dear ! 

(4) . 0 thou compassionate to the poor, (I flee) to thy asylum ! 
Thou art to me the ocean of comfort, 0 Guru GopaL ! 

Bestow mercy (on me), that Nanak may sing (thy) praises ; keep my honour, 0 Lord ! 

Majh; mahald Y. 


(1). The feet of the Lord are contained in my heart. 
All the troubles of the Kali-yug have fled afar. 

Tranquillity, ease, understanding, contemplation have sprung up, with the holy ones is (my) dwelling, 
0 Lord ! 

1 Tfe is not adjective, but the Format. Plur. (instead of "Sr^ %*&\ 



(2) , Love lias sprung up (in me) and does not break by any means. 
Hari is within and without (me) brimful. 

Remembering, remembering, remembering (thee) I sing (thy) praises, the noose of Yama is cut off 
(by thee), 0 Lord ! 

(3) . Nectar rains (by) the voice 1 not produced by beating. 
In heart and body tranquillity is diffused. 

Thy servants are perfectly satiated, the true Guru has comforted them, 0 Lord ! 

(4) . Whose it was, he has obtained the fruit (of his former works). 
By the Lord he is in mercy united with (himself). 

(His) coming and going is stopped; Nanak (says) : the desire of the very fortunate one (thou art) 
fulfilling, 0 Lord ! 

Majh; mahald Y. 

(1) . Rain has fallen, by the Lord it was poured down. 
All living creatures are allowed to dwell in comfort. 

The troubles are gone, comfort has set in, the true name of Hari, Hari, I will remember, 0 Lord ! 

(2) . "Whose they were, by him they were cherished. 
The Supreme Brahm has become (their) protector. 

By my Lord (their) supplication was heard, (their) calamity was brought to an end (by thee), 0 Lord ! 

(3) . To all creatures he is giving. 

By the favour of the G-uru he has looked down in mercy. 

In water, land and on the face of the earth all have been satiated ; I will wash the feet of the holy 
one (= the Guru), 0 Lord ! 

(4) . The desire of the heart he is bringing about. 
I always, always sacrifice myself (for him). 

By the destroyer of pain a gift was given to ]S"anak ; thou gratifiest 2 those, who are imbued with 
love (to thee), 0 Lord ! 

Majh; mahald Y. 

(1) . (My) heart and body are thine, my wealth also is thine. 
Thou art my master, owner and Lord. 

Life and body are all thy stock, thine is the strength, 0 Gopal ! 

(2) . Thou art always, always the giver of comfort. 
Bowing, bowing I fall down at thy feet. 

I do work (for thee), if I please thee (and) when thou givest it to me, 0 merciful Lord ! 

(3) . 0 Lord, thou art my credit, 3 thou art my deposit. 
What thou givest, that comfort I enjoy. 

Where thou puttest (me), there is paradise, thou art the cherisher of all, 0 Lord ! 

1 fcj |cA^ s f* voice or sound, not produced by beating (or playing) a musical instrument, but taking its 
rise in the dasva duar. 

2 'd m*£V (the causal of d*J<M )> 2nd pers. sing, pres., instead of ^JTnfe* which is more common in the 

3 *6dcM , s.m. Literally : what is to be taken or obtained from (%) somebody, one's dues, credit, divioi 
s,m, deposit, pledge (Sansk. which one is to receive back. 



(4). Remembering, remembering (thee) Nanak has obtained comfort. 
The eight watches he sang thy praises. 

All his desires were fulfilled, he will never be afflicted, 0 Lord ! 

Majh ; mahala V. 


(1) . By the Supreme Brahm, the Lord, a cloud (containing rain) was sent. 
On water, laud, on the face of the earth, on the ten regions he made it rain. 

Tranquillity (of mind) has sprung up, all thirst is quenched, in all places joy is spread, 0 dear ! 

(2) . The giver of comfort, the remover of pain (is he). 
He himself bestows gifts on all living creatures. 

He himself cherishes his own creatures ; falling at his feet I will conciliate (him), 0 dear ! 

(3) . By falling on whose asylum salvation is obtained : 

The name of (that) Hari should at every breath be meditated upon ! 
Without him there is no other Lord, all places are his, 0 dear ! 

(4) . Thou art my trust, 0 Lord, even thou. 
Thou art the true Lord, weighty with excellences. 

Nanak, (thy) slave, says (this) supplication : the eight watches I meditate on thee, 0 Lord ! 

Majh; mahala V. 


(1) . All comforts have sprung up, the Lord is pleased. 
The feet of the perfect Guru are dwelling in (my) heart. 

Understanding, deep meditation springs up ; (in whose) heart is absorbedness of mind, he knows 
that sentiment, 0 dear ! 

(2) . Unattainable, inapprehensible is my Lord. 
In every body he dwells near. 

The donor of the living beings is always distinct ; 1 some rare one knows his own self, 0 dear ! 

(3) . This is the sign of being united with tbe Lord : 

(If) in his heart he knows (only) one true order (command). 

He is easily content and always satisfied, his joy is in the will of the Lord, 0 dear ! 

(4) . By the Lord, the giver, (his) hand was given (to me). 
All the diseases of birth and death are done away. 

Nanak is made by the Lord his own slave, by the praise of Hari he enjoys pleasure, 0 dear ! 

Majh; mahala V. 

(1) . Gopal, the Lord, has bestowed mercy (on me). 
The feet of the Guru dwell in (my) heart. 

That creator has espoused (me) as his own, the tabernacle of pain is pulled down (by him), 0 dear! 

(2) . In (my) heart and body is settled that True one. 
Not any difficult place is seen. 

The messengers (of Yama), (my) enemies have become (my) friends, the one Lord is praised (by 
me), 0 dear ! * v J 

1 The sense is : the Supreme abides in every body, but distinct from it, not mixed up with it. Some rare 
one knows that the Supreme abides in his own self (or body) and yet is distinct from it. 



(3) . Whatever he does, that (he does) himself (alone). 
By (human) wisdom and cleverness nothing is produced. 1 

He himself assists his own saints, hy^the Lord (their) error and mistake are taken away, 0 dear! 

(4) . The lotus of the foot is the support of (his) people. 

(All) the eight watches (their) occupation is with the name of Ham. 

In comfort and joy they sing the praises of Govind, the Lord; all (his saints) are taken care of (by 
him), 0 dear ! 

Ifajh; mahala V. 


(1) . That is a true house, in which the True one is meditated upon. 
That heart is happy, in which the praises of Hari are sung. 

That country is beautiful, in which dwell the people of Hari, (who are) a sacrifice to the gratuitous 
service of the true name, 0 dear ! 

(2) . The greatness (and) value (of) the True one is not obtained 2 (by man). 
(His) power and works cannot be told. 

Thy people live, meditating, meditating (upon thee), the true word (of the Guru) is this heart's 
trust, 0 Lord ! 

(3) . The praising of the True one is obtained by a great destiny. 
By the favour of the Guru the praises of Hari are sung. 

Those who are imbued with love to thee, please thee, (whose) aim is the true name, 0 Lord ! 

(4) . Nobody knows the end of the True one, 
In every place is that True one. 

0 Nanak! the True one should always be meditated upon, (who is) acquainted with the heart and 
, knowing (all), 0 dear ! 

Majh; mahala V. 


(1) . (That) night is beautiful, (that) day is pleasant: 

(In which) there is a meeting with the saints in muttering the nectar-name. 

Where the ghari, the muhurta, the pal 3 pass in remembrance (of the name), there life is fruitful, 
0 dear ! 

(2) , By remembrance of the name all sins are taken off. 
Inside and outside is the Lord Hari with (them). 

Fear and error are removed by the perfect Guru, he (i.e. Hari) is seen in all places, 0 dear ! 

(3) , The Lord is powerful, great, high, boundless. 

His store-rooms are filled with the name (containing) the nine treasures. 

At the beginning, at the end, in the midst is that Lord ; do not compare (him) 4 with another, 0 dear ! 

(4) . 0 my compassionate to the poor, bestow mercy (on me) ! 
The beggar asks the dust of the pious. 

Give the gift, (which) Nanak thy servant asks, that I may always, always meditate (on thee), 0 Lord ! 

1 tFTT^N Sindhl ^STRICT, to be produced. Arjun uses many words which are preserved in Siudhl only. 

2 i.e. Found out or apprehended. 

3 The ghari is, as pointed out already, twenty-four minutes, the muhurta forty-eight minutes, and the pal 
the sixtieth part of a ghari (^rfz^fiT)- 

4 75% 7* 75T2^- 75% > "ear to, is originally the Formative (Locative) of \ = Sansk. 
dinging to, sticking to, contact with ; literally : do not bring (him) in contact with another, i.e. do not com- 
pare him with another. 



Majh; mahala Y. 

(1) . Here ( = in this world) thou art, onwards (=in the other world) thou thyself art. 
All living creatures are fashioned by thee. 

"Without thee there is none other; 0 creator, thou art my refuge and support, 0 Lord ! 

(2) , (My) tongue lives by muttering, muttering (the name of) the Lord, 
The Supreme Brahm, the Lord, who is acquainted with the heart. 

By whom he is served, he obtains comfort, he does not lose his human birth in the play, 1 0 dear! 

(3) . That servant of thine, who has obtained the medicine of the name, 
Has removed the sickness of his several births. 

Sing the praise of Hari day and night ! this is a fruitful work, 0 dear ! 

(4) . Looking down in mercy his servant is accomplished (by him). 
Within every body the Supreme Brahm is worshipped. 

Without the One there is none other; Baba Nanak (says) : this (contains) all wisdom, 0 dear! 

Majh; mahala Y. 

(1) . My heart and body are attached to (my) beloved Earn. 
All my property shall be devoted and given (to him). 

The eight watches the praises of Gcvind shall be sung, may he not be forgotten one breath, 0 
dear ! 

(2) . He is my sweetheart, my beloved friend. 

In the society of the pious the name of Ram is reflected upon (by me). 

In the society of the pious the ocean is crossed, the noose of Yama is cut off, 0 dear ! 

(3) . The four objects 2 (are to be obtained) by the service of Hari. 

The tree of paradise 3 (is obtained) by muttering the invisible and indivisible one. 
Lust, wrath, (all) sins are cut off by the Guru, the desire is fulfilled, 0 dear! 

(4) . Which man's destiny has become full : 4 

He falls in with the bow-holder (Vishnu) in the society of the pious. 

Nanak (says) : in whose heart the name dwells, his married state (or) retiredness from the world is 
approved, 0 dear ! 

Majh; mahala Y. 

(1) . By remembrance of the name comfort is obtained in the heart. 
Out of mercy it (i.e. the name) is manifested to (his) devotees. 

Having joined the saints Hari, Hari is silently repeated (by them), the diseases of sloth are extinct, 
0 dear ! 

(2) . In whose house the nine treasures of Hari are, 0 brother! 
(Know) : to him they accrue, whose gain (they are) from a former birth : 

1 The ^tPHT* s.m. dice-gambling, is the world, where life is won or lost. 

2 The four objects of human pursuit are : ^J4J, virtue ; cfiT*T, love ; ^pEf , wealth ; *ff^[, final emancipa- 
tion. They are usually called xjH«jl* 

3 'MTcTtTT3' OTrf^fTrT), one of the five trees of a paradise, from which every wish may be obtained. 

4 S\<*\ whose lots have become full, i.e. who has met with his full deserts, who has reaped 
the full fruit of his former works. 



(His) divine knowledge and meditation the Lord is making fall; the Lord is able to do all things, 
0 dear ! 

(3) . In a moment he establishes and^pemoves (again). 

He himself is for himself, he himself is the expansion (of the universe). 1 

He who gives life to the world is not contaminated, 3 by seeing his sight separations cease, 8 0 
dear ! 

(4) . Putting it into the hem of his garment he causes the whole creation to cross ( = he saves it). 
He himself causes his own name to be muttered. 

The Guru is the boat, by his mercy he obtains it, (says) Nanak, who from the beginning has union 
with him, 0 dear ! 

Mdjh ; mahala V. 

(1) . He is the cause (causality), who himself causes to be done (all things). 
That is a good place, where he puts down. 

He is clever, he is famous, to whom the command (of the Lord) is sweet, 0 dear ! 

(2) . The whole (creation) is strung (by him) in one thread. 4 ' 
Whom he (himself) applies (to them), he clings to his feet. 

Whose lotus (heart), being raised- upwards has opened, he sees him, who is free from all contamina- 
tion, 5 0 dear ! 

(3) . Thy greatness even thou knowest. 
Thou thyself knowest thy own self. 

I am a sacrifice for thy saints, by whom lust, wrath and covetousness are ground down, 0 Lord ! 
'(4). Thou art without enmity, thy saints are without spot. 
Seeing whom all sins" go off. 

Nanak lives meditating, meditating (on thee), (his) error is destroyed, his fear ground down, 0 Lord ! 

Majh; mahala V. 

(1) . If one asks a false petition : 

His death is not put off for twenty-four minutes. 

He, who always serves the Supreme Brahm, he, having met with the Guru, is to be called im- 

(2) . In whose heart love and attachment (to Hari) have sprung up : 
He sings day by day his praises, and is continually awake. 

The Lord, having seized his arm, unites him (with himself), on whose forehead the allotment (is 

1 fiW^ftj existing for himself or by himself, separate from the world and at the same time being the 
\J4II4I , the expansion of the world. Or in philosophic language: he is transcendental and immanent. 

2 i^V» contamination by contact with the world ; the Supreme is the gjJJ^fawT, the life of the world, 
but not mixed up with the world and thereby contaminated. 

3 The sense is : though the Supreme is not mixed up with the world so as to be identical with the world 
(gross Pantheism), yet those who have got a sight of him (have known him) know, that they are not separated 
from him. 

i The sense is : the Supreme is the thread, on which all is strung (as beads). 

5 M6^\ fAd"HA j f ree from all contamination (by contact with the world), or free from all darkness. 
fi Zf&V{& is the same as fawfetf (ftrf^W)> sin. 



(3) . The lotus of the foot (of Hari) dwells in the heart of (his) devotees. 
Without the Lord all are wretched. 

(Who) continually desire the dust of the saints, (to them) the name of the True one is a pledge. 

(4) . In rising and sitting down Hari, Hari should be sung (=praised). 
By whose remembrance an immovable boon is obtained. 

0 Lord, become merciful to Nanak ! what thou doest, (I) endure. 

Mahald I. ; Ghar I. 
Om I By the favour of the true Guru I 

(1) . By the word (of the Guru) he {i.e. Hari) imbues with love (to him), by his order he prepares 1 
(the disciples). 

He calls (them) to the true court and palace. 

0 my true Lord, compassionate to the poor, in (thee) the True one my heart is believing ! 


1 am a sacrifice, 0 Lord, I am a sacrifice, for the beautiful word (of the Guru) ! 2 

(Thy) nectar-name is always giving comfort, by the instruction of the Guru thou art establishing it 
in (my) heart ! 

(2) . Uo one is mine nor am I any one's. 
My true Lord is in the three worlds. 

Given to egotism many 3 people depart, having practised vices they regret it (afterwards). 

(3) . Who knows his order, he praises the excellences of Hari. 
By the work of the Guru he meditates on the name. 

At the gate (of Han) account (is taken) from all, he is let off, who is shining by the true name. 

(4) . The self-willed one goes astray and gets no place (with Sari). 
Being bound he is struck in his face at the gate of Tama. 

Without the name no one is a companion with (him) j the emancipated ones are meditating on the 

(5) . To the false Sakat the True one is not pleasing. 
Bound by duality he comes and goes. 

The written destiny no one effaces; the disciple he (i.e. Hari) causes to be emancipated. 

(6) . In her father's house her beloved was not known (by her). 
Separated (from him) by falsehood she weeps with sighs. 

Wretched (robbed) by vices she does not obtain the palace (of Hari) ; forgiveness for vices must be 
procured by virtues. 

(7) . By whom in her father's house the beloved is known : 

1 +1*Uii = THTT^» he prepares, be accomplishes the disciples by uniting them to himself, by final emanci- 

2 *TETfe +10 I^RvHT might also be translated : by the word I am shining, lustrous. 

3 *f7tft> supply fij+lfe. 



That (female) disciple understands (the truth), on the true Being (Deity) she reflects. 
Her coming and going are brought to a stop, she is absorbed in the true name. 
(8). The disciple comprehends (him,*who) is called inexpressible. 
To the true one the true Lord is pleasing. 

Nanak says a true word : who is united with the True one, he sings his praises. 

Majh; mahala III.; Ghar I. 
I. II. 

(1) . (Whose) destiny it is, (him) the true Guru unites (with Hari). 

He applies his mind to the service (of Hari), to the remembrance (of the name of Hari), and to the 
word (of the Guru). 

Haying continually destroyed his egotism, comfort jis obtained (by him), the infatuation of the Maya 
has ceased. 1 


I am devoted, Lord, I am devoted, I am a sacrifice (to them, who are) devoted to the true Guru. 
By the doctrine of the Guru light has been made (in their) heart, day by day (they are) singing the 
praises of Hari. 

(2) . If he search (his) body and heart, then he obtains the name. 
He keeps back busy stirring 2 and checks it. 

Day by day he sings the word of the Guru, easily he is making adoration (to Hari). 

(3) . Within this body is an incalculable thing. 

If from the mouth of the Guru the True one be obtained, then it is seen. 

There are nine gates (to the body), in the tenth 3 he is emancipated and causes the unbeaten sound 
to be sounded. 

(4) . True is the Lord, of a true name. 

Who by the favour of the Guru causes him to dwell in (his) heart : 

He remains day by day and continually imbued with his love, and obtains acuteness of mind at the 
true gate. 

(5) . Who has not got knowledge of sin and religious merit : 
She clings to duality and is led astray by error. 

Elind by ignorance she does not know the way, again and again she comes and goes. 

(6) . From the service of the Guru comfort is always obtained. 
"I," "I," "mine," is stopped. 

By the discourse of the Guru darkness is blotted out, the shutters, hard like adamant, he (the Guru) 
is opening. * 

(7) . Having destroyed egotism (individuality) he (Hari) is established in the mind. 
The mind is always directed on the feet of the Guru. 

By the mercy of the Guru heart and body are pure, (it is) meditating on the pure name. 

(8) . Life and death (rest) all with thee. 

On whom thou bestowest (thy favour), to him thou givest greatness. 

iNanak (says) : Meditate thou always on the name, thou art (thus) adjusting 4 (thy) birth and death. 

1 t*oj|<jfcM HT> tne last tnfee syllables, ^fe*HT> are a mere alliteration, without any meaning, as the 
whole cannot be taken here as verbal adjective. 

2 VJ^3 s.m., Sansk. T^TfarT, busy stirring, running after the things of this world (the same as Tf^f%). 

3 He who concentrates the vital air or breath in the tenth gate (from which the soul takes its flight from 
the body) is already emancipated and hears there the Om. 

4 The sense is : thou art putting a stop to. 




Mdjh; mahald III. 


(1) . 3tly Lord is spotless, unattainable, boundless. 
Without scales be weighs the world. 

"Who becomes a disciple, be comprehends (him), having recited (his) qualities he is absorbed in him, 
who is endowed with (all) qualities. 


I am devoted, I am devoted (to them), 0 Lord, who make the name of Hari dwell in (their) heart. 
Those who stick to the True one are daily awake, at the true gate they obtain lustre. 

(2) . He himself bears and he himself sees. 

On whom he bestows a favourable look, that man is of account. 

Whom he himself applies to (himself), he is applied, the disciple is acquiring the True one. 

(3) . Whom he himself leads astray, where will be obtain a (helping) hand ? 
What is written before, that cannot be effaced. 

With whom the true Guru has met, they are very fortunate, on account of (their) perfect destiny he 
is uniting (them with Hari). 

(4) . In her father's house the woman was daily asleep. 

She is forgotten by her beloved (husband), on account of her vice she is sent away. 
Daily and continually she goes about lamenting, without her beloved she gets no sleep. 

(5) . Who has known in her father's house the giver of comfort : 

She, having destroyed egotism, has recognized him from the word (of the Guru). 
(Her) bed is pleasant, her beloved she always enjoys, she is making true love (to him). 

(6) . Eighty-four lakhs of living beings have been produced. 

On whom he (Hari) bestows a glance of favour, him be makes fall in with the Guru. 

He cuts off his sins, his servant is always pure, at the true gate he is shining (lustrous) by the name. 

(7) . If he asks account, by whom is it given ? 
There is no happiness also the second and third (time). 

The true Lord himself pardons, he himself having pardoned is uniting (them with himself). 

(8) . He himself does (everything) and causes it to be done (by others). 

By the word of the perfect Guru he causes (people) to be united (with himself). 1 
Mnak (says) : (who) obtains the greatness of the name, (him) he himself is uniting to union (with 

Mdjh; mahalu III. 


(1). He himself, the only One, goes about concealed. 2 

When (by) the disciple he is seen, then this (human) mind is changed. 

Having abandoned (worldly) thirst he obtains ease and comfort, the One is established (by him) in 
his heart. 


I am devoted, I am devoted (to them), 0 Lord, (who are) applying (their) mind to the only One. 
By the doctrine of the Guru (their) mind has come to the house of the (only) One, 3 (who is) colouring 
(them) with true colour- 4 

1 The primary cause of union with Hari is he himself and the instrumental cause the Guru. 

2 The sense is : the Absolute Being is underlying everything, but not visibly. 

3 The sense of UffH nf|GcM» to come to the house of any one, is : to become intimately connected. 

4 Colouring with true colour = steeping or imbuing with true love. 



(2) . This world is gone astray, by thyself it is led astray. 
Having forgotten the One it has become attached to another. 

Daily and continually it goes aboutytbeing led astray by error, without the name it suffers pain. 

(3) . Who are in love with the disposer of the destiny : 

They are known in the four ages by the service of the Guru (= God). 
To whom he himself gives greatness, he is absorbed in the name of Hari. 

(4) . On account of the spiritual blindness caused by the Maya he 1 does not think of Hari. 
Being bound he (Hari) makes him suffer pain in the city of Tama. 

He is blind and deaf and sees nothing ; (this) self-willed (man) is consumed on account of his sin. 

(5) . Who, being imbued with one love, apply deep meditation on thyself: 
They are agreeable to thy mind by their love and devotion. 

Who always serve the true Guru, the giver of comfort, all their wishes thou thyself art fulfilling. 

(6) . 0 Hari, (I am) always in thy asylum ! 
Thou thyself pardonest and givest greatness. 

Death does not come near him, who is meditating on the name of Hari, Hari. 

(7) . Who are day by day steeped in the love 2 of Hari : 
They are united by my Lord, united to union (with himself). 

The true ones are continually in thy asylum, thou thyself art teaching them the truth (or : the True one). 

(8) . Ey whom the True one is known, they are absorbed in the True one. 
They sing the excellences of Hari, they praise the True one. 

Nanak (says) : (those who are) attached to the name, (are) Bairagls, in their own house they apply 
themselves to deep meditation. 

Majh; mahala III. 
IY. V. 

(1) . Who dies by the word (instruction of the Guru), he, being dead, is born (again, anew). 
Death does not press him down, pain does not torment him. 

Light, being blended with the Luminous (Supreme Being), is absorbed (in him), the mind, having 
heard (the word of the Guru), is absorbed in the True one. 


I am devoted, I am devoted, 0 Lord, (to them, who) from the name of Hari obtain lustre. 
Serving the true Guru (their) mind is applied to the True one, by the doctrine of the Guru they are 
easily absorbed. 

(2) . (Her) body is raw and wears raw clothing. 

Clinging to another (but God) she does not attain the palace (of Hari). 

Day by day, quickly, and day and night she goes about, without the beloved she incurs much pain. 

(3) . Body and caste do not go onward (to the other world). 

Where account is asked, there she is set free, who acquires the True one. 

Those, who serve the true Guru, are blessed here and there, they are absorbed in the name. 

(4) . Who with fear and faith shows love (to him) : 

She attains by the favour of the Guru the palace and house (of Hari). 

Daily and always, by day and night, he (Hari) dallies (with her), he is applying (to her) colour of majith. 3 

1 The subject is *?7WbT • 

2 3T§=^TfS 3T^, steeped in love. 

3 ifo> colour or dye made from majith (*/.)» a red d V e > that does not S° off ' The sense is: he 
steeps her in true love. 



(5) . The beloved is always abiding with all. 

By the favour of the Guru he casts some glance of favour. 

My Lord is far higher than high, bestowing mercy he himself is uniting (with himself). 

(6) . By the infatuation of the Maya the world has fallen asleep. 

From whom the sleep 1 (comes), he awakes (it), by the instruction of the Guru he is imparting 2 
sagacity of mind (to the world). 

(7) . Who drinks nectar, 3 he removes (his) error. 

By the favour of the Guru he obtains final emancipation. 

Who is given to devotion is always a BairagI ; who destroys his own self, (him) he (Hari) is uniting 
(with himself). 4 

(8) . He himself produces (the creatures) and puts (them) into their occupation. 
To the eighty-four lakhs of (living creatures) he himself gives their daily bread. 

Nanak (says) : those, who meditate on the name, are attached to the True one ; what is pleasing to 
him, that work he causes to be done, 

Majh; mahala III, 
Y. VI. 

(1) . Within (the body) a diamond and a ruby are made (by Hari). 

By the word of the Guru he (Hari) causes examination (of it) to be made. 

In (whose) lap the True one is (and who) praise the True one, (to them) the True one is applying 
the touchstone. 


I am devoted, 0 Lord, I am devoted (to them, who) fix the word of the Guru in (their) hearts, 
In the instruction 6 of the Guru he, who is void of all darkness, is obtained (by them) ; the Luminous 
one is blending light (with himself). 

(2) . Within the body is a large outlay (of things). 
The pure name is very unattainable and boundless. 

He, who becomes a disciple, obtains it ; he himself (Hari) bestows and procures it, 

(3) . My Lord makes fast the True one (in me). 

By the favour of the Guru he applies (my) mind to the True one. 

He who is truer than true, exists in all places, the true ones are absorbed in the True one, 

(4) . Fearless and true is my beloved (Lord). 
Sins and vices he is cutting off. 

(By whom) he is reflected upon in love and affection, him he is causing to be made firm in (his) 
fear, love and attachment. 

(5) . Thy worship is true, if it is pleasing to (thee), the True one, 

1 M is here subst m. sleep (^T^)- 

2 V 1 0'<A j (V7^fe»KT) implies the same subject as TTT3n§> it must therefore be causal of If^^rj 
(*JtH)) to fall > to De allotted. 

3 3Kftr@j s - m - nectar (from ^T*pT» »» being changed to v and thence to p, and t being elided). 

4 But it is perhaps better to retain the same subject for the whole sentence and to translate : he who 
destroys bis own self, is obtaining (f*R5T^fe*HT) it (i.e. the ^J|f5). As no subject is indicated, it is difficult 
to say which is meant. 

5 JfrhfT^, literally: collyrium for the eyes; fig., the instruction of the Guru, considered as a means to 
sharpen the (spiritual) eyes. There is a play of words between 1$y{7Z and f/> j"HA, which cannot be rendered 
in English. 



Thou thyself givest (it) and dost not repent (of it). 

(Thou art) the only donor of all living creatures ; having destroyed by the word (of the Guru) (thou 
art) vivifying (again). m 

(6) . 0 Hari, without thee I have not any one ! 

0 Hari, thee I serve and thee I praise ! 

Bo thyself unite (me with thyself), 0 true Lord! by a perfect destiny thou art obtained. 

(7) . I have none other like thee. 

By thy favourable look the body is prospering. 

"Who day by day remembers and keeps (thee) in mind, (him) thou protectest, 0 Hari ! the disciple 
is easily absorbed (in thee). 

(8) . Like thee I have none other. 

By thyself (creation) is made, by thyself destroyed, 

Thou thyself art forming and breaking (again) ; Nanak is shining (= becomes lustrous) by the name. 

Majh; mdhala III. 

(1) . Everybody he himself is enjoying. 

The unattainable, boundless one is present invisibly. 

(By whom) my Lord Hari is meditated upon by means of the word of the Guru, he is easily absorbed 
in the True one. 


1 am devoted, 0 Lord, I am devoted (to them, who are) fixing the word of the Guru in (their) heart. 
(When) the word is understood, then they fight with (their) mind, having destroyed (their worldly) 

desires they are absorbed (in the Supreme). 

(2) . The five drunken ones 1 rob the world. 

The blind self-willed man takes no notice nor care (of it). 

He who becomes a disciple, watches his own house, the five drunken ones he consumes (destroys) 
by means of the word (of the Guru). 

(3) . Some disciples are always steeped in true colour (love). 
Easily they serve the Lord, being daily intoxicated (in his love). 

Having met with their beloved they sing the praises of the True one and obtain lustre at the gate 
of Hari. 

(4) . Eirst by the One his own self was produced. 
Secondly duality, 2 (and thirdly) the threefold Maya. 

The fourth step is the high (step) of the disciple, 3 (in which) he is acquiring the perfectly True one. 

(5) . He is quite true, who is pleasing to the True one. 

By whom the True one is known, he is easily absorbed (in him). 

It is the work (business) of the disciple that he serve the True one, (and) in the True one he is 
(then) absorbed. 

1 ^3", see p. 142, note 3. 

2 ^fum , duality; by creation the subject (God) became object. First the subtle elements were pro- 
duced, and thence the Maya, the illusive world. Whatever is created, is pervaded by the three Gunas (Sato, 
Rajo, Tamo). In the first elementary creation the three Gunas were in equipoise, but in the grosser creation 
the Gunas are distributed unequally. 

3 tjQlj) \| Q;ft > the fourth step or state (Sansk. 7p(faf), that of complete abstraction from without and 
absorption in the Deity, so that the consciousness of individuality is lost. 



(6) . Without the True one there is none other. 

The world, clinging to another one, is wasted and dead. 

He, who becomes a disciple, knows the (only) One, serving the (only) One he obtains comfort. 

(7) . All living creatures are in thy asylum. 

Thou thyself, putting (them) down, seest all the rough and perfect chess-figures. 
Day by day thou thyself causest the work to be done (by them), thou thyself unitest to union (with 

(8) . Thou thyself joinest (them to thee) and seest (them) in (thy) presence. 
In all thou thyself art brimful. 

Nanak (says) : he himself abides (in them) ; the disciple gets brightness of intellect. 

Mdjh; mahala III. 

(1) . The nectar-speech of the Guru is sweet. 
Some rare disciple has tasted and seen it. 

In (his) heart there is light, he drinks fi the great juice (of Hari), at the true gate he lifts up (his) 
voice. 1 


I am devoted, 0 Lord, I am devoted (to them, who) apply (their) mind to the feet of the Guru. 
The true Guru is a pond of nectar ; (whose) mind is true, (his) filth he (i.e. the Guru) is removing 
by means of the name ! 

(2) . No one has obtained (found out) thy end, 0 True one ! 

By the favour of the Guru some rare one has applied his thoughts (to thee). 

He never can praise thee enough, to whom thou impartest a hunger after the true name. 

(3) . The One is seen (by him) and none other. 

By the favour of the Guru nectar is drunk (by him). 

By the word (instruction) of the Guru his thirst is quenched, naturally he is entering com- 

(4) . "Who gives up the jewel-thing (i.e. the name), like a straw : 

Is a blind fleshly-minded man, that clings to another love (duality). 
What he sows, that fruit he obtains, not (even) t in a dream he gets comfort. 

(5) . On whom he (i.e. Hari) bestows his own mercy, that man obtains it. 
(Who) fixes the word of the Guru in his mind : 

He remains day by day always in the fear (of Hari), and having destroyed (other) fear he is removing 
his error. 

(6) . (Whose) error is removed, he obtains always comfort. 

By the favour of the Guru the highest step (i.e. final emancipation) is attained. 
His heart is pure, his speech is pure, he is naturally singing the praises of Hari. 

(7) . He (i.e. the Pandit) explains the Smriti, Shastras and the Veda. 
(But) being led astray by error he does not know the truth (the Deity). 

Without serving the true Guru he does not obtain comfort, he is earning pain upon pain. 

(8) . He himself does (everything), to whom will one say anything? 
One should go tell, if a mistake be made (by him). 

Nanak (says) : he himself does and causes to be done (everything) ; who praises (the name), is 
absorbed in the name. 

1 Literally : he sounds his voice, i.e. he makes himself heard. 



Majh; mahala III. 
# VIII. IX. 

(1) . He himself colours with natural ease. 

By the word of the Guru Hari applies the colour. 

Mind, hody and tongue are steeped in deep red colour, by fear and faith the colour is applied. 


I am devoted, 0 Lord, I am devoted (to them, who) cause to dwell the Fearless one in (their) 

(By whom) hy the mercy of the Guru the fearless Hari is meditated upon, (them) he makes cross 
the water of existence, the haneful thing, hy means of the word (of the Guru). 

(2) . The stupid self-willed man practises cunning. 
(Though) bathed and washed he is not accepted. 1 

As he has come, so he will go, having committed vices he is regretting (it afterwards). 

(3) . To the blind self-willed man nothing is known. 

Hari, (by whom) death has been decreed, he does not comprehend. 

The self-willed one does (religious) work, hut does not obtain (him, i.e. Hari), without the name 
he throws away his life. 

(4) . To take the word (of the Guru) as true 2 is the chief thing. 
From the perfect Guru the gate of salvation is obtained. 

Day by day he lets hi3 voice be heard in the sabd, 8 those who are attached to the True one, he is 
colouring with dye.* 

(5) . The tongue is steeped in the juice of Hari and joyful. 
Mind and body are easily captivated. 

Easily the dearly beloved is obtained; easily, easily 5 he (Hari) is uniting (them with himself). 

(6) . In whose heart is love (to Hari), he sings (his) praises. 
By means of the word of the Guru he easily enters comfort. 

I am always a sacrifice to the gratuitous service of those who apply their mind to the service of 
the Guru. 

(7) . The true one believes in the perfectly True one. 

By the favour of the Guru his heart is filled with love (to him). 

Sitting in his own place he sings the praises of Hari ; he himself, having taken him as True, is 
winning him {i.e. Hari) over. 

(8) . On whom he (Hari) looks in favour, he obtains (him). 
By the favour of the Guru his egotism (individuality) ceases. 

Nanak (says) : in whose heart the name dwells, he obtains lustre at the true gate. 

1 VTC^j on account of the rhyme = \f% or 

2 JJtJoJdc^) s.f. verification, taking as true. 

3 "ETRS^ ^TdUi? » he, i.e. the Guru, lets his voice be heard in the sabd, i.e. instructing in the sabd. 
The sabd is the Gur-mantr, the secret word or verse communicated hy the Guru to a disciple, by means of 
which the disciple becomes initiated. The purport of the sabd is the name (of Hari). 

4 i.e. The Guru is imbuing them with love to Hari. 

fi The words THJ% TRlt^T fST^T^f^WfT ma y also be translated : he (or they) is easily united (f^*6|0 
verbal adjective) with the Innate or self-existing Supreme. ITvTtT as adjective signifies innate; in Tulsi Das' 
Ramayan it is also explained by ^T*TTf%°R> self-existing (as if *fuij had sprung from 



Majh; mahald III. 

IX. x/ 

(1) . By serving the true Guru great grandeur (is obtained). 
Hari comes and dwells in the heart unawares. 

Hari is a fruitful tree ; by whom the nectar (of Hari) is drunk, his thirst he (i.e. Hari) is quenching. 


I am devoted, 0 Lord, I am devoted (to them, who) unite (me) with the company of the society of 
the pious. 

Hari himself unites with the society of the pious (those, who) by the word of the Guru are singing 
the praises of Hari. 

(2) . That servant of the true Guru becomes lustrous by the word (of the Guru) : 
Who fixes the name of Hari in his heart. 

The filth (of whose) egotism the pure Hari clears away, he obtains lustre at the true gate. 

(3) . Without the Guru the name cannot be obtained. 
The Siddhs and Sadhiks continually lament. 

Without serving the Guru comfort docs not spring up ; by a full destiny the Guru is obtained. 

(4) . The mind is a looking-glass (of steel), (which) some (rare) disciple sees. 
Eust does not settle on it, when he dries up egotism. 

He sounds the sound not produced (by an instrument), the pure voice, by means of the word (of 
the Guru) he is absorbed (in the Supreme). 

(5) . Without the true Guru nothing can be seen. 

(To whom) by the Guru out of mercy his own self is shown : 

He himself remains united with himself, he is easily absorbed in the Innate (Supreme). 1 

(6) . He who hecomes a disciple, absorbs his mind in the One. 

The error of duality he consumes by the word (instruction) of the Guru. 

Who within (his) body makes traffic and trade, he obtains the treasure of the true name. 

(7) . The chief work of the disciple is the praise of Hari. 
The disciple obtains (thereby) the gate of salvation. 

(Who) sings day by day, steeped in love, the praises (of Hari), him he {i.e. Hari) is calling into (his) palace. 

(8) . The true Guru, the donor is met with, when caused to meet (by Hari). 

By dint of a perfect destiny the word (of the Guru) is caused to dwell in the heart. 

Nanak (says) : Who obtains the greatness of the name, he is singing the praises of the true Hari. 

JSiajk; mahald III. 

X. XI. 

(1). If he (i.e. the disciple) part with his own self, then he obtains all. 
By the word of the Guru he applies true absorption of mind. 
Truth he buys, truth he collects, a traffic of truth he is carrying on. 


I am devoted, 0 Lord, I am devoted (to them, who) are day by day singing the praises of Hari. 
I am thine, thou art my Lord, by means of the word (of the Guru) thou art giving greatness. 

1 The sense is : the Guru shows, that man's spirit is an emanation of the Supreme Spirit, and therefore in 
essence identical with it. He, who knows that the Supreme Spirit is innate in himself, remains united with 
himself, i.e. he does not seek the Supreme outside of himself, but considers himself as identical with him 
3, I am He). 



(2) . All the season and time is pleasant: 

In which the True one is approved by my heart. 

By serving the True one true greatnesses obtained), by the mercy of the Guru I obtain the True one. 

(3) . The food of faith he obtains from the gratified true Guru. 

Inclination to other things ceases, when he causes inclination to Hari to dwell in his heart. 
True contentment, understanding, comfort he obtains from the word of the perfect Guru. 

(4) . Who do not serve the true Guru, they are foolish, blind and ignorant men. 
Wandering about, whence will they obtain the gate of final emancipation? 

Having died and died they are born again, again they come and are struck in (their) face at the 
gate of Tama. 

(5) . If they know the flavour of the word (of the Guru), then they knew their own self. 
They praise the pure sound (= name) by the word (of the Guru). 

Serving the True one they always obtain comfort, the nine treasures of the name they are causing 
to dwell in (their) heart. 

(6) . That place is beautiful, which is pleasing to the mind of Hari. 
Sitting in the assembly of the pious the praises of Hari are sung (by them). 

Day by day they praise the true Hari, they emit the spotless sound ( = the name). 

(7) . The stock (in trade) of the fleshly-minded is false (not genuine), false are the things laid out 
(by them). 

Falsehood they earn and a burthen of pain oppresses them. 

Led astray by errer they wander about day and night, having died they are born (again), they lose 
their life. 

(8) . The true Lord is very dear to me. 

In the word of the perfect Guru is my support. 

Nanak (says) : by the name he obtains greatness, who is considering pain and pleasure as the same. 

Majh; mahalti III. 

(1) . Thine are the mines (= genera), (thine) the species. 1 
Without the name the whole (creation) is led astray in errer. 

From the service of the Guru the name of Hari is obtained, without the true Guru no one is ob- 
taining it. 


I am devoted, 0 Lord, I am devoted (to those, who) apply their mind to Hari. 
The true Hari is obtained by attachment to the Guru, (who) is easily causing him {i.e. Hari) to 
dwell in the heart. 

(2) . If he {i.e. the disciple) serve the true Guru, then he obtains everything. 
He obtains such a fruit as he is desiriug. 

The true Guru is the giver of all things, by a perfect destiny he is obtained. 2 

(3) . This (human) mind is dirty and does not meditate en the One. 

1 tfT^'r *•/• Plwr* the four mines ; y *./. species, kind (Sansk. ^1$, from which a substantive fem. 
^TWt is formed, which is now in Sindhi-Hindi commonly written ^J5f or TTCO- The sense is : by thee all 
living creatures are created. 

2 3Tf?T f^Tttl^fottfT may be translated either : by a perfect destiny he {i.e. the Guru) is obtained 
( fij*6l^fe *HT = fif*6|G > verb, adj., nia being then an alliteration), or fattM^fcVHT ma y be taken as 
gerundive and translated : he must be acquired. The sense is the same either way. 




Inside much filthiness is accumulated by dint of another love (duality). 

At the hank (of a river), at a Tirtha, in a foreign country the selfish man wanders about and accu- 
mulates other additional filth of egotism. 

(4) . If he serve the true Guru, then his filth goes off. 
He dies whilst living and applies his mind to Hari. 

Hari is spotless and true, no filth sticks to him; who clings to the True one, his filth he (Hari) is 
taking away. 

(5) . Without the Guru there is deep (blind) darkness. 
He who has no divine knowledge is blind, stark blind. 

The worms of ordure are working up ordure, and are again destroyed in ordure. 1 

(6) . Who serves the emancipated ones becomes (himself) emancipated. 
Egotism and selfishness he removes by means of the word (of the Guru). 
Who serves daily Hari in truth, obtains by a perfect (good) lot the Guru. 

(7) . He himself bestows the gift, that he unites to union (with himself). 
Prom the perfect Guru he (i.e. the disciple) gets the treasure of the name. 

By the true name the mind always (becomes) true, by serving the True one he is removing his pain. 

(8) . Consider him (i.e. Hari) as being always in (thy) presence, do not consider him as being far 
away ! 

Learn from the word of the Guru, that Hari (is present) within (thee) ! 

Nanak (says) : from the name greatness is obtained, from the perfect Guru (thou art) obtaining it 
(i.e. the name). 

ITdjh; mahalti III. 

(1) . Who are true here, they are true (also) in the other world. 
A true heart is absorbed in the true word (of the Guru). 

The True one it serves, the True one it acquires, from the True one it gets comfort 3 (with the 


I am devoted, 0 Lord, I am devoted (to them, who) cause the true name to dwell in their heart. 
The true ones serve (him) and are absorbed in the True one, they are singing the praises of the 
True one. 

(2) . The Pandit reads (but) does not obtain a relish (from it). 
By another love (duality) the Maya leads his mind astray. 

By the spiritual blindness caused by the Maya all his intellect is lost, having practised vices he is 
regretting (it afterwards). 

(3) . If the true Guru be met with, then he gets the truth (the Deity). 
The name of Hari he fixes in his mind. 

He dies by the word (of the Guru), he subdues his own mind and is (thus) obtaining the gate of 
final emancipation. 

1 Vt*l<sfcVHT> alliteration instead of V^rr©", s.m. destruction ; (their) destruction is in — . Or Vf^T- 
^IcMHT is alliteration instead of tp3T@, a verbal adjective formed from HtJcM » being consumed ; the latter 
is more suitable and borne out by othor similar forms (fiTWI^lcWfT)* 

2 s.m. comfort, joy, as used in TuJsi Das' Ramayana. The Sansk. ^f^f = ^fgf = , written also • 
flf^ (but always s.m.) 7 signifies: friendsliip, intimacy, and differs from TT^, the etymology of which is 



(4) . He cuts off sins, he removes his wrath. 
The word of the Guru he puts into his hreast. 

Those, who are attached to the True* one, are always Bairagls, having destroyed egotism (indi- 
viduality) they are in union (with the Supreme). 

(5) . Within (the body) the jewel {i.e. the Supreme) is found, if procured (hy the Guru). 
Threefold is the will (of man), threefold the Maya. 1 

Having read and read the Pandits and silent ascetics have hecome tired, they ohtain no knowledge 
of the fourth state (of the soul). 

(6) . He